MGT 321 SEU Saudi Aramco Company International Business Case Discussion

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Chapter 1 Globalization ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Learning Objectives LO 1-1 Understand what is meant by the term globalization. LO 1-2 Recognize the main drivers of globalization. LO 1-3 Describe the changing nature of the global economy. LO 1-4 Explain the main arguments in the debate over the impact of globalization. LO 1-5 Understand how the process of globalization is creating opportunities and challenges for management practice. ©McGraw-Hill Education. What Is Globalization? 1 of 3 ‫ﻋوﻟﻣﺔ اﻷﺳواق‬ ‫ھﺑوط اﻟﺣواﺟز أﻣﺎم‬ The Globalization of Markets ‫اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة واﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر ﻋﺑر‬ ‫اﻟﺣدود‬ * Falling barriers to cross-border trade and investment ‫اﻷذواق اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ * Global tastes ‫ﯾﺳﺗﻔﯾد اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﺻﻐﯾرة‬ ‫واﻟﻛﺑﯾرة‬ * Benefits small and large companies ‫اﺧﺗﻼﻓﺎت ﻛﺑﯾرة ﺑﯾن‬ ‫اﻷﺳواق اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ‬ * Significant differences between national markets ‫اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺧدم‬ ‫اﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت ﻋﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ * Products that serve universal needs are global ‫ﻗد ﻻ ﯾﺗﻐﯾر اﻟﻣﻧﺎﻓﺳون ﺑﯾن‬ * Competitors may not change among nations ‫اﻟدول‬ Learning Objective 1-1 Understand what is meant by the term globalization. ‫ﺗﺷﯾر اﻟﻌوﻟﻣﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺗﺣول ﻧﺣو‬ Globalization refers to the shift toward a more ‫اﻗﺗﺻﺎد ﻋﺎﻟﻣﻲ أﻛﺛر ﺗﻛﺎﻣﻼً وﺗراﺑطًﺎ‬ integrated and interdependent world economy ‫ﺗﺷﯾر ﻋوﻟﻣﺔ اﻷﺳواق إﻟﻰ دﻣﺞ‬ The globalization of markets refers to the merging of historically distinct and separate national markets into ‫اﻷﺳواق اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺗﻣﯾزة واﻟﻣؤرﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﯾﺧﯾﺎ ً ﻓﻲ ﺳوق ﻋﺎﻟﻣﻲ ﺿﺧم‬ one huge global marketplace. .‫واﺣد‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. What Is Globalization? 2 of 3 The Globalization of Production • Technology now used for outsourcing ‫ﻋوﻟﻣﺔ اﻹﻧﺗﺎج‬ ‫ﻣﺻﺎدر اﻟﺳﻠﻊ ﻟﻼﺳﺗﻔﺎدة ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻔروق ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ وﺟودة ﻋواﻣل‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺗﺎج‬ ‫اﻗﺗﺻر اﻟﺗﻌﮭﯾد اﻟﻣﺑﻛر ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺻﻧﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدﻣﺔ اﻵن‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺗﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﻣﺻﺎدر ﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ‬ The globalization of production refers to the sourcing of goods and services from locations around the globe to take advantage of national differences in the cost and quality of factors of production (such as labor, energy, land, and capital). ‫ﺗﺷﯾر ﻋوﻟﻣﺔ اﻹﻧﺗﺎج إﻟﻰ ﻣﺻﺎدر اﻟﺳﻠﻊ‬ ‫واﻟﺧدﻣﺎت ﻣن اﻟﻣواﻗﻊ ﺣول اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺗﻔﺎدة ﻣن اﻻﺧﺗﻼﻓﺎت اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ وﺟودة ﻋواﻣل اﻹﻧﺗﺎج )ﻣﺛل‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣﺎﻟﺔ واﻟطﺎﻗﺔ واﻷرض ورأس‬ .(‫اﻟﻣﺎل‬ • Sourcing goods to take advantage of differences in cost and quality of factors of production • Early outsourcing was confined to manufacturing ©McGraw-Hill Education. What Is Globalization? 3 of 3 The Globalization of Production continued • Robert Reich and “global products” • Impediments • Formal and informal barriers to trade • Transportation costs ‫اﺳﺗﻣر ﻋوﻟﻣﺔ اﻹﻧﺗﺎج‬ • Political and economic risk "‫روﺑرت راﯾش و " اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ • Coordination ‫اﻟﻌواﺋق‬ ‫اﻟﺣواﺟز اﻟرﺳﻣﯾﺔ وﻏﯾر اﻟرﺳﻣﯾﺔ أﻣﺎم اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة‬ ‫ﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﻧﻘل‬ ‫ﻣﺧﺎطر ﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ واﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻧﺳﯾق‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. The Emergence of Global Institutions 1 of 6 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) World Trade Organization International Monetary Fund The World Bank (‫اﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻌرﯾﻔﺎت واﻟﺗﺟﺎرة )اﻟﺟﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻧدوق اﻟﻧﻘد اﻟدوﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧك اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻣم اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ The United Nations General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) International treaty that committed signatories to lowering barriers to the free flow of goods across national borders and led to the WTO. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ) ‫اﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻌرﯾﻔﺎت واﻟﺗﺟﺎرة‬GATT ( ‫اﻟﻣﻌﺎھدة اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ارﺗﻛﺑت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣوﻗﻌﯾن ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﻔض اﻟﺣواﺟز أﻣﺎم اﻟﺗدﻓق اﻟﺣر ﻟﻠﺑﺿﺎﺋﻊ ﻋﺑر‬ ‫اﻟﺣدود اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ وأدت إﻟﻰ ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة‬ .‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ The Emergence of Global Institutions 2 of 6 The World Trade Organization ‫ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ * Polices the world trading system ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟﺗﺟﺎري اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺿﻣن اﻟﺗزام اﻟدول اﻟﻘوﻣﯾﺔ‬ * Ensures nation-states adhere to the rules ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘواﻋد‬ ‫ﯾﺳﮭل اﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺎت ﻣﺗﻌددة‬ * Facilitates multinational agreements among members ‫اﻟﺟﻧﺳﯾﺎت ﺑﯾن اﻷﻋﺿﺎء‬ * 164 nations account for 98 percent of world trade ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺋﺔ‬98 ‫ دوﻟﺔ ﺗﻣﺛل‬164 ‫ﻣن اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ World Trade Organization The organization that succeeded GATT as a result of the successful completion of the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺧﻠﻔت اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺟﺎت ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﻧﺟﺎح ﻓﻲ إﻛﻣﺎل ﺟوﻟﺔ أوروﻏواي‬ .‫ﻟﻣﻔﺎوﺿﺎت اﻟﻐﺎت‬ The Emergence of Global Institutions 3 of 6 The International Monetary Fund ‫ﺻﻧدوق اﻟﻧﻘد اﻟدوﻟﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﺷﺋت ﻟﻠﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻧظﺎم ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟﻧﻘدي اﻟدوﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻘرض اﻟﻣﻼذ اﻷﺧﯾر‬ • Lender of last resort ‫ﯾﺗطﻠب ﻣن اﻟدول اﻟﻘوﻣﯾﺔ اﻋﺗﻣﺎد‬ • Requires nation-states to adopt specific economic ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت اﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ ﻣﺣددة ﺗﮭدف‬ ‫إﻟﻰ إﻋﺎدة اﻗﺗﺻﺎداﺗﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ‬ policies aimed at returning their economies to stability ‫اﻻﺳﺗﻘرار واﻟﻧﻣو‬ and growth • Established to maintain order in the international monetary system The International Monetary Fund International institution set up to maintain order in the international monetary system. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫إﻧﺷﺎء ﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ ﺻﻧدوق اﻟﻧﻘد اﻟدوﻟﻲ اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﻔﺎظ‬ .‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻧظﺎم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟﻧﻘدي اﻟدوﻟﻲ‬ The Emergence of Global Institutions 4 of 6 The World Bank ‫اﻟﺑﻧك اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻌزز اﻟﺗﻧﻣﯾﺔ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗرﻛز ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘدﯾم ﻗروض‬ • Focused on making low-interest loans to ‫ﻣﻧﺧﻔﺿﺔ اﻟﻔﺎﺋدة ﻟﻠﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ‬ cash-strapped governments in poor ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﺿﺎﺋﻘﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟدول‬ nations that wish to undertake significant ‫اﻟﻔﻘﯾرة اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗرﻏب ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﯾﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎرات ﻛﺑﯾرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ‬ infrastructure investments ‫اﻟﺗﺣﺗﯾﺔ‬ • Promotes economic development World Bank International institution set up to promote general economic development in the world’s poorer nations. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫إﻧﺷﺎء ﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ دوﻟﯾﺔ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺑﻧك اﻟدوﻟﻲ ﻟﺗﻌزﯾز‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻧﻣﯾﺔ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟدول اﻟﻔﻘﯾرة ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ The Emergence of Global Institutions 5 of 6 The United Nations •Peace through international cooperation and collective security ‫اﻟﺳﻼم ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﺗﻌﺎون اﻟدوﻟﻲ واﻷﻣن اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ دوﻟﺔ‬193 •UN Charter – four basic purposes ‫ أرﺑﻌﺔ أﻏراض أﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬- ‫ﻣﯾﺛﺎق اﻷﻣم اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺳﻼم واﻷﻣن اﻟدوﻟﯾﯾن‬ • Maintain international peace and security ‫ﺗطوﯾر اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟودﯾﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻟدول‬ • Develop friendly relations among nations ‫اﻟﺗﻌﺎون ﻓﻲ ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﺎﻛل اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ وﻓﻲ ﺗﻌزﯾز‬ ‫اﺣﺗرام ﺣﻘوق اﻹﻧﺳﺎن‬ • Cooperate in solving international problems and in ً ‫ﻣرﻛزا ﻟﺗﻧﺳﯾق أﻋﻣﺎل اﻷﻣم‬ ‫ﻛن‬ promoting respect for human rights •193 countries • Be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations United Nations (UN) An international organization made up of 193 countries headquartered in New York City, formed in 1945 to promote peace, security, and cooperation. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ) ‫اﻷﻣم اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬UN ‫( ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ دوﻟﯾﺔ ﺗﺗﻛون‬ ، ‫ دوﻟﺔ ﻣﻘرھﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣدﯾﻧﺔ ﻧﯾوﯾورك‬193 ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ ﻟﺗﻌزﯾز اﻟﺳﻼم‬1945 ‫ﺗﺷﻛﻠت ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم‬ .‫واﻷﻣن واﻟﺗﻌﺎون‬ The Emergence of Global Institutions 6 of 6 Group of Twenty (G20) ‫ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ اﻟﻌﺷرﯾن‬ (‫)ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ اﻟﻌﺷرﯾن‬ • Finance ministers and central bank governors of ‫وزراء اﻟﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ وﻣﺣﺎﻓظو‬ the 19 largest economies in the world, plus 19 ‫اﻟﺑﻧوك اﻟﻣرﻛزﯾﺔ ﻷﻛﺑر‬ ، ‫اﻗﺗﺻﺎدا ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ representatives from the European Union and ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻣﺛﻠﯾن ﻣن‬ the European Central Bank ‫اﻻﺗﺣﺎد اﻷوروﺑﻲ واﻟﺑﻧك‬ ‫اﻟﻣرﻛزي اﻷوروﺑﻲ‬ • Represents 90 percent of global GDP and 80 ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻣن‬90 ‫ﯾﻣﺛل‬ percent of international global trade ‫اﻟﻧﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻣﺣﻠﻲ اﻹﺟﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺋﺔ‬80 ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ و‬ ‫ﻣن اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ‬ Group of Twenty (G20) (‫ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ اﻟﻌﺷرﯾن )ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ اﻟﻌﺷرﯾن‬ Established in 1999, the G20 comprises ‫ وﺗﺿم‬1999 ‫ﺗﺄﺳّﺳت ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ اﻟﻌﺷرﯾن ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم‬ the finance ministers and central bank ‫وزراء اﻟﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ وﻣﺣﺎﻓظﻲ اﻟﺑﻧوك اﻟﻣرﻛزﯾﺔ‬ governors of the 19 largest economies in ، ‫ﻟﻼﻗﺗﺻﺎدات اﻟﻛﺑرى اﻟﺗﺳﻊ ﻋﺷرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ the world, plus representatives from the ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻣﺛﻠﯾن ﻣن اﻻﺗﺣﺎد اﻷوروﺑﻲ واﻟﺑﻧك‬ European Union and the European Central .‫اﻟﻣرﻛزي اﻷوروﺑﻲ‬ Bank. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Drivers of Globalization 1 of 4 Learning Objective 1-2 Recognize the main drivers of globalization. Declining Trade and Investment Barriers • 1920s-30s: Barriers to international trade and foreign direct investment • High tariffs resulted in retaliatory trade policies • GATT lowered barriers • Uruguay Round • Established World Trade Organization (WTO) International trade occurs when a firm exports goods or services to consumers in another country. Foreign direct investment occurs when a firm invests resources in business activities outside its home country. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫ﺗراﺟﻊ اﻟﺣواﺟز اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎرﯾﺔ‬ 30 - 1920s ‫ اﻟﺣواﺟز أﻣﺎم‬: ‫اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ واﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر اﻷﺟﻧﺑﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺑﺎﺷر‬ ‫أدت اﻟﺗﻌرﯾﻔﺎت اﻟﻣرﺗﻔﻌﺔ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت ﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ اﻧﺗﻘﺎﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎت ﺧﻔﺿت اﻟﺣواﺟز‬ ‫ﺟوﻟﺔ أوروﻏواي‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺳﯾس ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ )WTO( ‫ﺗﺣدث اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﺗﻘوم اﻟﺷرﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺗﺻدﯾر ﺳﻠﻊ أو ﺧدﻣﺎت ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺗﮭﻠﻛﯾن ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠد‬ .‫آﺧر‬ ‫ﯾﺣدث اﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر اﻷﺟﻧﺑﻲ اﻟﻣﺑﺎﺷر ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺳﺗﺛﻣر اﻟﺷرﻛﺔ ﻣوارد ﻓﻲ أﻧﺷطﺔ اﻷﻋﻣﺎل‬ .‫ﺧﺎرج ﺑﻠدھﺎ اﻷﺻﻠﻲ‬ Drivers of Globalization 2 of 4 Knowledge Society and Trade Agreements ‫ﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ واﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬ • The value of world trade in merchandised ‫ﻧﻣت ﻗﯾﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة‬ goods has grown consistently faster than the ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳﻠﻊ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ ﺑﺷﻛل‬ growth rate in the world economy since 1950. ‫ﻣﺗﺳق أﺳرع ﻣن ﻣﻌدل‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻣو ﻓﻲ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ‬ • Trade across country borders is 2.6 times higher than .1950 ‫ﻣﻧذ ﻋﺎم‬ world production. ‫ﺗﺑﻠﻎ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة ﻋﺑر ﺣدود‬ ‫ ﻣرات أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣن‬2.6 ‫اﻟدول‬ • Knowledge society has produced more informed .‫اﻹﻧﺗﺎج اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ‬ consumers, driving demand. ‫ﻟﻘد أﻧﺗﺞ ﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗﮭﻠﻛﯾن اﻷﻛﺛر وﻋ ﯾًﺎ‬ • Removal of restrictions to FDI .‫ﻣﻣﺎ أدى إﻟﻰ زﯾﺎدة اﻟطﻠب‬ • More trade agreements ‫إزاﻟﺔ اﻟﻘﯾود ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر‬ ‫اﻷﺟﻧﺑﻲ اﻟﻣﺑﺎﺷر‬ ‫ﻣزﯾد ﻣن اﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﺎت اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 1.1 Value of world trade, world production, number of regional trade agreements in force, and world population from 1960 to 2020 (index 1960 = 100). Jump to long description in appendix ©McGraw-Hill Education. Sources: World Bank, 2017; World Trade Organization, 2017; United Nations, 2017. Figure 1.2 Comparisons of world trade and world population; world trade and number of regional trade agreements; world population and world production; and world population and world trade (index 1960 = 100). Jump to long description in appendix ©McGraw-Hill Education. Sources: World Bank, 2017; World Trade Organization, 2017; United Nations, 2017. Drivers of Globalization 3 of 4 Role of Technological Change • Communications ‫دور اﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر اﻟﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﺎل اﻻﺗﺻﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺗطوﯾر اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺎت اﻟدﻗﯾﻘﺔ‬ • Development of the microprocessor ‫ﻗﺎﻧون ﻣور‬ • Moore’s Law ‫اﻧﺗرﻧت اﻷﺷﯾﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم ﻧﺻف ﺳﻛﺎن اﻟﻌﺎﻟم اﻹﻧﺗرﻧت‬ • Internet of things 2 ‫ﻣﺑﯾﻌﺎت اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ أﻛﺛر ﻣن‬ ‫ﺗرﯾﻠﯾون دوﻻر‬ • Half the world’s population uses the Internet ‫اﻻﻧﺗرﻧت ھو اﻟﺗﻌﺎدل‬ • Global e-commerce sales over $2 trillion • The Internet is an equalizer Moore’s law predicts that the power of microprocessor technology doubles and its cost of production falls in half every 18 months). ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫وﯾﺗﻧﺑﺄ ﻗﺎﻧون ﻣور ﺑﺄن ﻗوة ﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺎت‬ ‫اﻟدﻗﯾﻘﺔ ﺗﺗﺿﺎﻋف وﺗﻘل ﻛﻠﻔﺔ إﻧﺗﺎﺟﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻧﺻف‬ .(ً ‫ ﺷﮭرا‬18 ‫ﻛل‬ Drivers of Globalization 4 of 4 Role of Technological Change continued ‫ﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ اﻟﻧﻘل‬ • Transportation technology ‫اﻟﺳﻔر ﺑﺎﻟطﺎﺋرات اﻟﻧﻔﺎﺛﺔ‬ ‫ و‬، ‫اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬ • Commercial jet travel, superfreighters, and superfreighters ‫ و‬، containerization containerization ‫اﻵﺛﺎر اﻟﻣﺗرﺗﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋوﻟﻣﺔ‬ • Implications for the globalization of production ‫اﻹﻧﺗﺎج‬ ‫أﺻﺑﺢ أﻛﺛر اﻗﺗﺻﺎدا‬ • Has become more economical ‫ﺷﺑﻛﺔ اﻻﺗﺻﺎﻻت اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻵﺛﺎر اﻟﻣﺗرﺗﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋوﻟﻣﺔ‬ • Worldwide communications network ‫اﻷﺳواق‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎرب أذواق اﻟﻣﺳﺗﮭﻠﻛﯾن‬ • Implications for the globalization of markets ‫وﺗﻔﺿﯾﻼﺗﮭم‬ • Convergence of consumer tastes and preferences ©McGraw-Hill Education. The Changing Demographics of the Global Economy 1 of 6 Learning Objective 1-3 Describe the changing nature of the global economy. The Changing World Output and World Trade Picture • ‫اﻟﻧﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ اﻟﻣﺗﻐﯾر واﻟﺗﺟﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﮭدت اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ ‫ﺿﺎ ﻧﺳﺑ ﯾًﺎ ﯾﻌﻛس اﻟﻧﻣو‬ ً ‫اﻧﺧﻔﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدي اﻷﺳرع ﻟﻌدة‬ • China and BRIC countries growing more rapidly ‫اﻗﺗﺻﺎدات أﺧرى‬ • Developing nations may account for more than 60 "‫ﺗﻧﻣو اﻟﺻﯾن وﺑﻠدان "ﺑرﯾك‬ ‫ﺑﺳرﻋﺔ أﻛﺑر‬ percent of world economic activity by 2025 ‫ﻗد ﺗﻣﺛل اﻟدول اﻟﻧﺎﻣﯾﺔ أﻛﺛر ﻣن‬ ‫ ﻣن اﻟﻧﺷﺎط اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدي‬٪ 60 2025 ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ ﺑﺣﻠول ﻋﺎم‬ U.S. has experienced a relative decline reflecting the faster economic growth of several other economies ©McGraw-Hill Education. The Changing Demographics of the Global Economy 2 of 6 The Changing Foreign Direct Investment Picture ‫ﺻورة اﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر اﻷﺟﻧﺑﻲ اﻟﻣﺑﺎﺷر اﻟﻣﺗﻐﯾر‬ • Non-U.S. firms are increasingly investing across national borders ‫ ﺗﺳﺗﺛﻣر اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت ﺑﺷﻛل ﻣﺗزاﯾد ﻋﺑر اﻟﺣدود‬.‫ﺧﺎرج اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ ‫اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ‬ • Desire to disperse production activities to optimal locations and to build a direct presence in major foreign markets ‫اﻟرﻏﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻔﺗﯾت أﻧﺷطﺔ اﻹﻧﺗﺎج إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣواﻗﻊ اﻟﻣﺛﻠﻰ وﺑﻧﺎء وﺟود ﻣﺑﺎﺷر ﻓﻲ اﻷﺳواق اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ اﻟرﺋﯾ ﺳﯾﺔ‬ stock of foreign direct investment (FDI) refers to the total cumulative value of foreign investments as a percentage of the country’s GDP. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ) ‫ﯾﺷﯾر اﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر اﻷﺟﻧﺑﻲ اﻟﻣﺑﺎﺷر‬FDI ‫( إﻟﻰ اﻟﻘﯾﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗراﻛﻣﯾﺔ اﻹﺟﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎرات اﻷﺟﻧﺑﯾﺔ ﻛﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬ .‫ﻣﺋوﯾﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻧﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻣﺣﻠﻲ اﻹﺟﻣﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺑﻠد‬ Figure 1.3 Share of FDI stock outward as a percentage of GDP. ‫ ﻛﯾف أن ﻣﺧزون‬1.3 ‫ﯾوﺿﺢ اﻟﺷﻛل‬ Figure 1.3 shows how the stock of foreign direct ‫اﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر اﻷﺟﻧﺑﻲ اﻟﻣﺑﺎﺷر ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت‬ investment by the United States, China, Japan, United ‫ اﻟﻣﻣﻠﻛﺔ اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬، ‫ اﻟﯾﺎﺑﺎن‬، ‫ اﻟﺻﯾن‬، ‫اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ Kingdom, European Union countries, Developed ‫ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدات‬، ‫ دول اﻻﺗﺣﺎد اﻷوروﺑﻲ‬، Economies, and the World changed between 1995 and .‫ و اﻟﯾوم‬1995 ‫ واﻟﻌﺎﻟم ﺗﻐﯾر ﺑﯾن‬، ‫اﻟﻣﺗﻘدﻣﺔ‬ today. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Sources: OECD data 2017, FDI stocks. Figure 1.4 FDI inflows (in millions of dollars) ©McGraw-Hill Education. Jump to long description in appendix Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, World Investment Report 2017. (Data for 2018–2020 are forecast.) The Changing Demographics of the Global Economy 3 of 6 The Changing Nature of the Multinational Enterprise ‫اﻟطﺑﯾﻌﺔ اﻟﻣﺗﻐﯾرة ﻟﻠﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ ﻣﺗﻌددة اﻟﺟﻧﺳﯾﺎت‬ ‫ اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت ﻣﺗﻌددة اﻟﺟﻧﺳﯾﺎت‬.‫ﺧﺎرج اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺋﺔ‬38.8 ‫ ﻛﺎﻧت‬، 2003 ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم‬ • In 2003, 38.8 percent of the world’s 2000 ‫ﻣن أﻛﺑر اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت ﻣﺗﻌددة اﻟﺟﻧﺳﯾﺎت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ • largest multinationals were U.S. firms ‫ ھﻲ ﺷرﻛﺎت أﻣرﯾﻛﯾﺔ‬2000 ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻣن‬27 ‫ أﺻﺑﺣت‬، 2017 ‫ﺑﺣﻠول ﻋﺎم‬ • By 2017, 27 percent of the top 2000 ‫ ﻣن‬2000 ‫اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻛﺑرى ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم‬ • global firms are now U.S. multinationals, ‫اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت ﻣﺗﻌددة اﻟﺟﻧﺳﯾﺎت ﻓﻲ اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ ‫ ﺷرﻛﺔ‬236 ‫ أي ﺑﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬، • Non-U.S. multinationals a drop of 236 firms A multinational enterprise (MNE) is any business that has productive activities in two or more countries. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ) ‫ﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ ﻣﺗﻌددة اﻟﺟﻧﺳﯾﺎت‬MNE ‫( ھﻲ أي‬ .‫أﻋﻣﺎل ﻟﮭﺎ أﻧﺷطﺔ إﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠدﯾن أو أﻛﺛر‬ The Changing Demographics of the Global Economy 4 of 6 The Changing Nature of the Multinational Enterprise continued • The rise of mini-multinationals • Medium- and small-sized businesses • Internet is lowering barriers ‫اﺳﺗﻣرت اﻟطﺑﯾﻌﺔ اﻟﻣﺗﻐﯾرة ﻟﻠﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ ﻣﺗﻌددة اﻟﺟﻧﺳﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻌود اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت ﻣﺗﻌددة اﻟﺟﻧﺳﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﻣﺗوﺳطﺔ واﻟﺻﻐﯾرة اﻟﺣﺟم‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺗرﻧت ھو ﺧﻔض اﻟﺣواﺟز‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. The Changing Demographics of the Global Economy 5 of 6 The Changing World Order ‫اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ اﻟﻣﺗﻐﯾر‬ ‫ﻓرﺻﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘدم اﻟدول اﻟﺷﯾوﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ً • Former communist countries present ‫ﻟﻠﺗﺻدﯾر واﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎت ﺗزاﯾد اﻻﺿطراب‬ export and investment opportunities ‫واﻟﺷﻣوﻟﯾﺔ‬ • Signs of growing unrest and totalitarianism ‫اﻟﺻﯾن ﺗﻧﺗﻘل إﻟﻰ ﻗوة ﺻﻧﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋظﻣﻰ‬ ‫اﻧﺧﻔﺿت دﯾون أﻣرﯾﻛﺎ اﻟﻼﺗﯾﻧﯾﺔ‬ • China moving to industrial superpower ‫ واﻟﻣزﯾد ﻣن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺛﻣرﯾن‬، ‫واﻟﺗﺿﺧم‬ ‫ وﺗوﺳﻊ‬، ‫ﻣن اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﺧﺎص‬ • Latin America debt and inflation are down, ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدات‬ more private investors, expanding economies ©McGraw-Hill Education. The Changing Demographics of the Global Economy 6 of 6 Global Economy of the Twenty-First Century • Barriers to the free flow of goods, services, and capital have been coming down • Strengthened by the widespread adoption of liberal economic policies by countries that had firmly opposed them • Globalization is not inevitable • Countries may pull back ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﻘرن اﻟﺣﺎدي‬ ‫واﻟﻌﺷرﯾن‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧت اﻟﻌواﺋق أﻣﺎم اﻟﺗدﻓق اﻟﺣر‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺳﻠﻊ واﻟﺧدﻣﺎت ورأس اﻟﻣﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﺗراﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺗم ﺗﻌزﯾزھﺎ ﻣن ﺧﻼل ﺗﺑﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت اﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ ﻟﯾﺑراﻟﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧطﺎق واﺳﻊ ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻟدول اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎرﺿﺗﮭﺎ ﺑﺷدة‬ ‫اﻟﻌوﻟﻣﺔ ﻟﯾﺳت ﺣﺗﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻗد ﺗﺗراﺟﻊ اﻟدول‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺧﺎطر ﻋﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬ • Risks are high A multinational enterprise (MNE) is any business that has productive activities in two or more countries. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ) ‫ﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ ﻣﺗﻌددة اﻟﺟﻧﺳﯾﺎت‬MNE ‫( ھﻲ‬ ‫أي أﻋﻣﺎل ﻟﮭﺎ أﻧﺷطﺔ إﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠدﯾن أو‬ ‫أﻛﺛر‬ The Globalization Debate 1 of 7 Learning Objective 1-4 Explain the main arguments in the debate over the impact of globalization. Antiglobalization Protests • 1999 protests at WTO meeting • Detrimental effects on living standards, wage rates, and the environment. ‫اﺣﺗﺟﺎﺟﺎت ﻣﻧﺎھﺿﺔ اﻟﻌوﻟﻣﺔ‬ ‫ ﻓﻲ اﺟﺗﻣﺎع ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬1999 ‫اﺣﺗﺟﺎﺟﺎت ﻋﺎم‬ .‫ واﻟﺑﯾﺋﺔ‬، ‫ وﻣﻌدﻻت اﻷﺟور‬، ‫آﺛﺎر ﺿﺎرة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗوﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﻌﯾﺷﺔ‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. The Globalization Debate 2 of 7 Globalization, Jobs, and Income • Critics of globalization argue: ‫ واﻟدﺧل‬، ‫ اﻟوظﺎﺋف‬، ‫اﻟﻌوﻟﻣﺔ‬ :‫ﯾﻘول ﻣﻧﺗﻘدو اﻟﻌوﻟﻣﺔ‬ • Falling trade barriers allow firms to move ‫وﯾﺳﻣﺢ اﻧﺧﻔﺎض اﻟﺣواﺟز اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬ manufacturing activities to countries ‫ﻟﻠﺷرﻛﺎت ﺑﻧﻘل أﻧﺷطﺔ اﻟﺗﺻﻧﯾﻊ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻠدان اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻛون ﻓﯾﮭﺎ ﻣﻌدﻻت اﻷﺟور‬ where wage rates are much lower ‫أﻗل ﺑﻛﺛﯾر‬ • Destroy manufacturing jobs in wealthy advanced ‫ﺗدﻣﯾر وظﺎﺋف اﻟﺗﺻﻧﯾﻊ ﻓﻲ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدات‬ economies ‫اﻟﻣﺗﻘدﻣﺔ اﻟﻐﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت أﯾﺿﺎ ﯾﺟري اﻻﺳﺗﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﻣﺻﺎدر‬ • Services also being outsourced ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺳﺎھﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ارﺗﻔﺎع ﻣﻌدﻻت اﻟﺑطﺎﻟﺔ‬ • Contributing to higher unemployment and lower ‫واﻧﺧﻔﺎض ﻣﺳﺗوﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﻌﯾﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ دوﻟﮭم‬ living standards in their home nations ‫اﻷم‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. The Globalization Debate 3 of 7 Globalization, Jobs, and Income continued • Supporters argue: • Benefits outweigh the costs • Free trade will result in countries specializing in the production of goods and services that they can produce most efficiently, while importing goods and services that they cannot produce as efficiently • As a result, the whole economy is better off • Companies can reduce their cost structure, and consumers benefit ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫ وظﺎﺋف‬، ‫اﺳﺗﻣرت اﻟﻌوﻟﻣﺔ‬ ‫ واﻟدﺧل‬، :‫ﯾﻘول اﻟﻣؤﯾدون‬ ‫اﻟﻔواﺋد ﺗﻔوق اﻟﺗﻛﺎﻟﯾف‬ ‫ﺳوف ﯾﻧﺗﺞ ﻋن اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﺣرة دول ﻣﺗﺧﺻﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫إﻧﺗﺎج اﻟﺳﻠﻊ واﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﻧﺗﺟﮭﺎ ﺑﻛﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ ﺑﯾﻧﻣﺎ ﺗﺳﺗورد اﻟﺳﻠﻊ‬، ‫أﻛﺑر‬ ‫واﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﻻ ﯾﻣﻛﻧﮭﺎ‬ .‫إﻧﺗﺎﺟﮭﺎ ﺑﻛﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ ﻓﺈن‬، ‫وﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ ﻟذﻟك‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد ﻛﻠﮫ أﻓﺿل ﺣﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻠﺷرﻛﺎت ﺧﻔض‬ ‫ھﯾﻛل اﻟﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﮭم‬ ‫ وﯾﺳﺗﻔﯾد اﻟﻣﺳﺗﮭﻠﻛون‬، The Globalization Debate 4 of 7 Globalization, Jobs, and Income continued ، ‫ وظﺎﺋف‬، ‫اﺳﺗﻣرت اﻟﻌوﻟﻣﺔ‬ ‫واﻟدﺧل‬ ‫ﺗﺷﯾر اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت إﻟﻰ اﻧﺧﻔﺎض‬ • Data suggests the share of labor in national ‫ﺣﺻﺔ اﻟﻌﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟدﺧل‬ income has declined ‫اﻟﻘوﻣﻲ‬ ‫زادت ﺣﺻﺔ اﻟدﺧل اﻟﻘوﻣﻲ ﻣن‬ • Share of national income by skilled labor has ‫اﻟﻌﻣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻣﺎھرة‬ increased ‫ﺷﮭدت اﻟﻌﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﻏﯾر اﻟﻣﺎھرة‬ • Unskilled labor experienced a fall in income, but not ‫ وﻟﻛن ﻟﯾس‬، ‫ھﺑوطًﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟدﺧل‬ necessarily standard of living due to economic growth ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺿرورة ﻣﺳﺗوى ﻣﻌﯾﺷ ًﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺳﺑب اﻟﻧﻣو اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدي‬ • The weak growth rate in real wage rates for ‫وﻣن اﻟﻣرﺟﺢ أن ﯾﻌزى ﻣﻌدل‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻣو اﻟﺿﻌﯾف ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌدﻻت‬ unskilled workers is likely due to a ‫اﻷﺟور اﻟﺣﻘﯾﻘﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻣﺎل ﻏﯾر‬ technology-induced shift within advanced ‫اﻟﻣﮭرة إﻟﻰ ﺣدوث ﺗﺣول ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ داﺧل اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدات‬ economies ‫اﻟﻣﺗﻘدﻣﺔ‬ • Technological change has a bigger impact than ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻐﯾر اﻟﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﻲ ﺗﺄﺛﯾر أﻛﺑر‬ ‫ﻣن اﻟﻌوﻟﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻧﺧﻔﺎض‬ globalization on declining share of national income ‫ﺣﺻﺔ اﻟدﺧل اﻟﻘوﻣﻲ اﻟذي‬ enjoyed by labor ‫ﺗﺗﻣﺗﻊ ﺑﮫ اﻟﻌﻣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. The Globalization Debate 5 of 7 Globalization, Labor Policies, and the Environment • Critics argue: • Labor and environmental regulations • Lack of regulation can lead to abuse • Adhering to regulations increases costs • As countries get richer, they enact tougher environmental and labor regulations • Supporters argue: • Tougher environmental regulations and stricter labor standards go hand in hand with economic progress ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟﻌوﻟﻣﺔ وﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﻌﻣل واﻟﺑﯾﺋﺔ‬ :‫اﻟﻧﻘﺎد ﯾﻘوﻟون‬ ‫اﻟﻠواﺋﺢ اﻟﻌﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ واﻟﺑﯾﺋﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﯾؤدي ﻋدم اﻟﺗﻧظﯾم إﻟﻰ‬ ‫إﺳﺎءة اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻘﯾد ﺑﺎﻟﻠواﺋﺢ ﯾزﯾد ﻣن اﻟﺗﻛﺎﻟﯾف‬ ‫ ﻓﺈﻧﮭﺎ‬، ‫وﻣﻊ ازدﯾﺎد ﺛراء اﻟﺑﻠدان‬ ‫ﺗﺳن ﻗواﻧﯾن أﻛﺛر ﺻراﻣﺔ ﺗﺗﻌﻠق‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺑﯾﺋﺔ واﻟﻌﻣل‬ :‫ﯾﻘول اﻟﻣؤﯾدون‬ ‫إن اﻷﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺑﯾﺋﯾﺔ اﻷﻛﺛر ﺻراﻣﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر اﻟﻌﻣل اﻷﻛﺛر ﺻراﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺳﯾر ﺟﻧﺑﺎ ً إﻟﻰ ﺟﻧب ﻣﻊ اﻟﺗﻘدم‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدي‬ Figure 1.6 Income levels and environmental pollution While the hump-shaped relationship depicted in Figure 1.6 seems to hold across a wide range of pollutants—from sulfur dioxide to lead concentrations and water quality—carbon dioxide emissions are an important exception, rising steadily with higher-income levels. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﯾن ﯾﺑدو أن اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻛل ﺳﻧﺎم اﻟﻣﺑﯾﻧﺔ‬ ‫ ﺗﺣﻣل ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ واﺳﻌﺔ ﻣن‬1.6 ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل‬ ‫ ﻣن ﺛﺎﻧﻲ أﻛﺳﯾد اﻟﻛﺑرﯾت إﻟﻰ ﺗرﻛﯾزات‬- ‫اﻟﻣﻠوﺛﺎت‬ ‫ ﺗﺷﻛل اﻧﺑﻌﺎﺛﺎت ﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬- ‫اﻟرﺻﺎص وﻧوﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﯾﺎه‬ ‫ ﺣﯾث ﺗرﺗﻔﻊ ﺑﺎطراد‬، ‫أﻛﺳﯾد اﻟﻛرﺑون اﺳﺗﺛﻧﺎ ًء ھﺎ ًﻣﺎ‬ .‫ﻣﻊ ﻣﺳﺗوﯾﺎت اﻟدﺧل اﻟﻣرﺗﻔﻊ‬ Source: C. W. L. Hill and G. T. M. Hult, Global Business Today (New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2018). The Globalization Debate 6 of 7 Globalization and National Sovereignty • Critics argue: • Shift of power from national governments toward supranational organizations • WTO, EU, United Nations • Supporters argue: • The power of supranational organizations is limited to what nation-states collectively agree to grant • These organizations exist to serve the collective interests of member states ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟﻌوﻟﻣﺔ واﻟﺳﯾﺎدة اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ‬ :‫اﻟﻧﻘﺎد ﯾﻘوﻟون‬ ‫ﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟﺳﻠطﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ ﻧﺣو اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺎت ﻓوق‬ ‫اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻻﺗﺣﺎد اﻷوروﺑﻲ واﻷﻣم‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ :‫ﯾﻘول اﻟﻣؤﯾدون‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺗﺻر ﺳﻠطﺔ اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺎت ﻓوق‬ ‫اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗواﻓق اﻟدول‬ ‫اﻟﻘوﻣﯾﺔ ﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻧﺣﮫ‬ ‫ھذه اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺎت ﻣوﺟودة ﻟﺧدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺻﺎﻟﺢ اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ ﻟﻠدول‬ ‫اﻷﻋﺿﺎء‬ The Globalization Debate 7 of 7 Globalization and the World’s Poor • Critics argue: • Gap between the rich and poor nations has gotten wider • Totalitarian governments • Poor economic policies • Corruption and lack of property rights • Expanding populations in developing countries • Debt burdens • Supporters argue: • The best way to change the situation is to lower barriers to trade and investment and promote free market policies ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟﻌوﻟﻣﺔ واﻟﻔﻘراء ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ :‫اﻟﻧﻘﺎد ﯾﻘوﻟون‬ ‫اﺗﺳﻌت اﻟﻔﺟوة ﺑﯾن اﻟدول‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻧﯾﺔ واﻟﻔﻘﯾرة‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻻﺳﺗﺑدادﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت اﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ ﺳﯾﺋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺳﺎد واﻧﻌدام ﺣﻘوق اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗوﺳﯾﻊ اﻟﺳﻛﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺑﻠدان‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺎﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫أﻋﺑﺎء اﻟدﯾون‬ :‫ﯾﻘول اﻟﻣؤﯾدون‬ ‫أﻓﺿل طرﯾﻘﺔ ﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر اﻟوﺿﻊ‬ ‫ھﻲ ﺗﻘﻠﯾل اﻟﺣواﺟز أﻣﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة واﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر وﺗﻌزﯾز‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﺳوق اﻟﺣرة‬ Managing in the Global Marketplace Learning Objective 1.5 Understand how the process of globalization is creating opportunities and challenges for business managers. Managers • Managing an international business differs from managing a purely domestic business • Need to vary practices from country to country • More complex decisions required • Need to understand the international trading and investment system, currency exchange An international business is any firm that engages in international trade or investment. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫ﻣدراء‬ ‫إدارة اﻷﻋﻣﺎل اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ ﺗﺧﺗﻠف ﻋن إدارة‬ ‫اﻷﻋﻣﺎل اﻟﻣﻧزﻟﯾﺔ ﺑﺣﺗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺣﺗﺎج إﻟﻰ ﺗﻐﯾﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎت ﻣن ﺑﻠد إﻟﻰ ﺑﻠد‬ ‫ﻗرارات أﻛﺛر ﺗﻌﻘﯾدا‬ ‫اﻟﻣطﻠوﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺣﺗﺎج إﻟﻰ ﻓﮭم ﻧظﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة واﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر اﻟدوﻟﻲ‬ ‫ وﺗﺑﺎدل اﻟﻌﻣﻼت‬، ‫اﻷﻋﻣﺎل اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ ھﻲ أي ﺷرﻛﺔ ﺗﻌﻣل ﻓﻲ‬ .‫اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ أو اﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎر‬ Appendix of Image Long Descriptions ‫ﻣﻠﺣق ﻟﻸوﺻﺎف اﻟطوﯾﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺻور‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix 1 Figure 1.1 Value of world trade, world production, number of regional trade agreements in force, and world population from 1960 to 2020 (index 1960 = 100). A line graph shows world trade, world population, world production, and regional trade agreements from 19602020. As regional trade agreements increase year-byyear, so does world trade across country borders at the same pace. Return to original slide ©McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix 2 Figure 1.2 Comparisons of world trade and world population; world trade and number of regional trade agreements; world population and world production; and world population and world trade (index 1960 = 100). World trade and world population are both rising, but world trade has risen much faster since about 1972. World trade and number of regional trade agreements have risen in tandem since about 1970. World population and world production have risen on a mostly parallel path. World population and world trade shows that as world population had steadily risen, world trade passed it in about 2004 and has since far exceeded it. Return to original slide ©McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix 3 Figure 1.4 FDI inflows (in millions of dollars) Figure 1.4 illustrates two important trends—the sustained growth in cross-border flows of foreign direct investment that has occurred since 1990 and the increasing importance of developing nations as the destination of foreign direct investment. FDI inflows in developing countries have exceeded those in developed countries in every year since 1990. Return to original slide ©McGraw-Hill Education. Chapter 2 National Differences in Political, Economic, and Legal Systems ‫اﻻﺧﺗﻼﻓﺎت اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻧظم اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ واﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﯾﺔ‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Learning Objectives LO 2-1 Understand how the political systems of countries differ. .‫ﻓﮭم ﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ اﺧﺗﻼف اﻟﻧظم اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺑﻠدان‬ LO 2-2 Understand how the economic systems of countries differ. .‫ﻓﮭم ﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ اﺧﺗﻼف اﻟﻧظم اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺑﻠدان‬ LO 2-3 Understand how the legal systems of countries differ. .‫ﻓﮭم ﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ اﺧﺗﻼف اﻟﻧظم اﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺑﻠدان‬ LO 2-4 Explain the implications for management practice of national differences in political economy. ‫اﺷرح اﻵﺛﺎر اﻟﻣﺗرﺗﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺔ اﻹدارة ﻟﻼﺧﺗﻼﻓﺎت اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ .‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. Introduction Political Economy • Political, economic, and legal systems of a country are interdependent • They influence each other Political economy refers to the political, economic, and legal systems of a country. ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫• اﻷﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ واﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ واﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﯾﺔ ﻟدوﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺗراﺑطﺔ‬ ‫• اﻧﮭم ﯾؤﺛرون ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺿﮭم اﻟﺑﻌض‬ ‫ﯾﺷﯾر اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ إﻟﻰ اﻷﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ .‫واﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ واﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺑﻠد‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. ©Philimon Bulawayo/Reuters Political Systems 1 of 6 Learning Objective 2-1 Understand how the political systems of countries differ. Political systems: refers to the ‫ ﯾﺷﯾر إﻟﻰ ﻧظﺎم اﻟﺣﻛم‬:‫اﻷﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ system of government in a nation. .‫ﻓﻲ اﻷﻣﺔ‬ 1. Collectivism vs. individualism 2. Democratic vs. totalitarian ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫ اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ ﺿد اﻟﻔرداﻧﯾﺔ‬.1 ‫ اﻟدﯾﻣﻘراطﯾﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺑل اﻟﺷﻣوﻟﯾﺔ‬.2 Political Systems 2 of 6 Collectivism and Individualism • Collectivism ‫اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ واﻟﻔردﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ • The needs of society as a whole are ‫ﯾﻧظر ﻋﻣوﻣﺎ إﻟﻰ اﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﻛﻛل‬ generally viewed as being more ‫ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧﮭﺎ أﻛﺛر أھﻣﯾﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺣرﯾﺎت اﻟﻔردﯾﺔ‬ important than individual freedoms • Socialism • Karl Marx: The few benefit at the expense of the many in a capitalist society where individual freedoms are not restricted • Communists vs. social democrats • Privatization • is the sale of state-owned enterprises to private investors. ©McGraw-Hill Education. • • ‫• اﺷﺗراﻛﯾﺔ‬ ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﺋدة اﻟﻘﻠﯾﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺳﺎب‬: ‫• ﻛﺎرل ﻣﺎرﻛس‬ ‫اﻟﻛﺛﯾرﯾن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ اﻟرأﺳﻣﺎﻟﻲ ﺣﯾث‬ ‫اﻟﺣرﯾﺎت اﻟﻔردﯾﺔ ﻟﯾﺳت ﻣﻘﯾدة‬ ‫• اﻟﺷﯾوﻋﯾون ﻣﻘﺎﺑل اﻟدﯾﻣوﻗراطﯾﯾن‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﯾن‬ ‫• اﻟﺧﺻﺧﺻﺔ‬ ‫ھو ﺑﯾﻊ اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﻣﻣﻠوﻛﺔ ﻟﻠدوﻟﺔ‬ • .‫ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺗﺛﻣرﯾن ﻣن اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﺧﺎص‬ Political Systems 2 of 6 Collectivism and Individualism Collectivism refers to a political system that stresses the primacy of collective goals over individual goals. ‫اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ واﻟﻔردﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ ﺗﺷﯾر إﻟﻰ ﻧظﺎم ﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ ﯾﺷدد ﻋﻠﻰ أوﻟوﯾﺔ‬ .‫اﻷھداف اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷھداف اﻟﻔردﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﺗراﻛﯾون ﯾؤﻣﻧون ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟوﺳﺎﺋل اﻹﻧﺗﺎج‬ .‫ﻣن أﺟل اﻟﺻﺎﻟﺢ اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟﻠﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ‬ Socialists believe in public ownership of the means of production for the common good of society. . ‫ اﻧﻘﺳﻣت‬، ‫ﻓﻲ أواﺋل اﻟﻘرن اﻟﻌﺷرﯾن‬ In the early twentieth century, the socialist ideology ‫اﻷﯾدﯾوﻟوﺟﯾﺔ اﻻﺷﺗراﻛﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﺳﻛرﯾن‬ split into two broad camps. The communists ‫ ﻟﻘد اﻋﺗﻘد اﻟﺷﯾوﻋﯾون أن اﻻﺷﺗراﻛﯾﺔ‬.‫واﺳﻌﯾن‬ believed that socialism could be achieved only ‫ﻻ ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﺗﺣﻘق إﻻ ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﺛورة‬ through violent revolution and totalitarian ‫ ﻓﻲ ﺣﯾن أن‬، ‫اﻟﻌﻧﯾﻔﺔ واﻟدﻛﺗﺎﺗورﯾﺔ اﻟﺷﻣوﻟﯾﺔ‬ dictatorship, whereas the social democrats ‫اﻟدﯾﻣﻘراطﯾﯾن اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﯾن اﻟﺗزﻣوا ﺑﺗ ﺣﻘﯾق‬ committed themselves to achieving socialism by ‫ وﺗوﺟﯾﮫ‬، ‫اﻻﺷﺗراﻛﯾﺔ ﺑﺎﻟوﺳﺎﺋل اﻟدﯾﻣﻘراطﯾﺔ‬ democratic means, turning their backs on violent . ‫ظﮭورھم إﻟﻰ اﻟﺛورة اﻟﻌﻧﯾﻔﺔ واﻟدﻛﺗﺎﺗورﯾﺔ‬ revolution and dictatorship. Both versions of ‫ﻛﻼ اﻟﻧﺳﺧﺗﯾن ﻣن اﻻﺷﺗراﻛﯾﺔ ﺗﺿﺎءﻟت‬ socialism waxed and waned during the twentieth ‫وﺗﺿﺎءﻟت ﺧﻼل اﻟﻘرن اﻟﻌﺷرﯾن‬ century. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Political Systems 3 of 6 Collectivism and Individualism continued • Individualism • An individual should have freedom in his or her economic and political pursuits • The interests of the individual should take precedence over the interests of the state • Two tenets • Guarantee of individual freedom and self-expression • Welfare of society best served by letting people pursue their own economic self-interest ©McGraw-Hill Education. Political Systems 4 of 6 Democracy and Totalitarianism • At different ends of a political dimension • Democracy and individualism go hand in hand, as do the communist version of collectivism and totalitarianism, with exceptions Democracy refers to a political system in which government is by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives. Totalitarianism is a form of government in which one person or political party exercises absolute control over all spheres of human life and prohibits opposing political parties. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟدﯾﻣﻘراطﯾﺔ واﻟﺗوﺗﺎﻟﯾﺗﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫• ﻓﻲ ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺎت ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺑﻌد اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫• ﻓﺎﻟدﯾﻣوﻗراطﯾﺔ واﻟﻔردﯾﺔ ﺗﺳﯾران ﺟﻧﺑﺎ ً إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ ﻛﻣﺎ ھو اﻟﺣﺎل ﻣﻊ اﻟﻧﺳﺧﺔ اﻟﺷﯾوﻋﯾﺔ‬، ‫ﺟﻧب‬ ‫ ﻣﻊ اﺳﺗﺛﻧﺎءات‬، ‫ﻣن اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ واﻟﺷﻣوﻟﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺷﯾر اﻟدﯾﻣﻘراطﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻧظﺎم ﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ ﺗﻛون‬ ‫ ﺗﻣﺎرس إﻣﺎ‬، ‫ﻓﯾﮫ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻟﺷﻌب‬ .‫ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة أو ﻣن ﺧﻼل ﻣﻣﺛﻠﯾن ﻣﻧﺗﺧﺑﯾن‬ ‫اﻟﺷﻣوﻟﯾﺔ ھﻲ ﺷﻛل ﻣن أﺷﻛﺎل اﻟﺣﻛم اﻟذي‬ ‫ﯾﻣﺎرس ﻓﯾﮫ ﺷﺧص واﺣد أو ﺣزب ﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﯾطرة ﻣطﻠﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﻣﺟﺎﻻت اﻟﺣﯾﺎة‬ ‫اﻟﺑﺷرﯾﺔ وﯾﺣظر اﻷﺣزاب اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ .‫اﻟﻣﻌﺎرﺿﺔ‬ Political Systems 5 of 6 Democracy and Totalitarianism continued ‫اﻟدﯾﻣوﻗراطﯾﺔ واﻟﺗوﺗﺎﻟﯾﺗﺎرﯾﺔ‬ • Democracy • Representative democracy • Totalitarianism • Communist totalitarianism • Theocratic totalitarianism • Tribal totalitarianism • Right-wing totalitarianism ‫• دﯾﻣﻘراطﯾﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟدﯾﻣوﻗراطﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻣﺛﻠﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﺷﻣوﻟﯾﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﺷﯾوﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﺷﯾوﻋﯾﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟدﯾﻛﺗﺎﺗورﯾﺔ اﻟﺛﯾوﻗراطﯾﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﻘﺑﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﺷﻣوﻟﯾﺔ‬ ‫• دﯾﻣﻘراطﯾﺔ اﻟﺟﻧﺎح اﻟﯾﻣﯾﻧﻲ‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. Political Systems 5 of 6 Representative democracy is a political system in which citizens periodically elect individuals to represent them in government. One person / government Communist totalitarianism is a version of collectivism advocating that socialism can be achieved only through a totalitarian dictatorship. Theocratic totalitarianism is a political system in which political power is monopolized by a party, group, or individual that governs according to religious principles. Tribal totalitarianism is a political system in which a party, group, or individual that represents the interests of a particular tribe (ethnic group) monopolizes political power. Right-wing totalitarianism is a political system in which political power is monopolized by a party, group or individual that generally permits individual economic freedom but restricts individual political freedom, including free speech, often on the ground that it would lead to the rise of communism. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫‪Political Systems 5 of 6‬‬ ‫اﻟدﯾﻣﻘراطﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻣﺛﯾﻠﯾﺔ ھﻲ ﻧظﺎم ﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ ﯾﻧﺗﺧب ﻓﯾﮫ اﻟﻣواطﻧون اﻷﻓراد ﺑﺷﻛل دوري ﻟﺗﻣﺛﯾﻠﮭم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺷﯾوﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﺷﯾوﻋﯾﺔ ھﻲ ﻧﺳﺧﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ ﺗداﻓﻊ ﻋن أﻧﮫ ﻻ ﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﺣﻘﯾق اﻻﺷﺗراﻛﯾﺔ إﻻ ﻣن‬ ‫ﺧﻼل دﯾﻛﺗﺎﺗورﯾﺔ دﻛﺗﺎﺗورﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟدﯾﻛﺗﺎﺗورﯾﺔ اﻟﺛﯾوﻗراطﯾﺔ ھﻲ ﻧظﺎم ﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ ﺗﺳﯾطر ﻋﻠﯾﮫ اﻟﺳﻠطﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻣن ﻗﺑل ﺣزب أو‬ ‫ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ أو ﻓرد ﯾﺣﻛم وﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻣﺑﺎدئ اﻟدﯾﻧﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺑﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻘﺑﻠﯾﺔ ھﻲ ﻧظﺎم ﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ ﯾﺳﯾطر ﻓﯾﮫ ﺣزب أو ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ أو ﻓرد ﯾﻣﺛل ﻣﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﻗﺑﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ ) ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻋرﻗﯾﺔ( ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺳﻠطﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺷﻣوﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﯾﻣﯾﻧﯾﺔ ھﻲ ﻧظﺎم ﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ ﺗﺳﯾطر ﻋﻠﯾﮫ اﻟﺳﻠطﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻣن ﻗﺑل ﺣزب أو ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬ ‫أو ﻓرد ﯾﺳﻣﺢ ﻋﻣوﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺣرﯾﺔ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ اﻟﻔردﯾﺔ ﻟﻛﻧﮫ ﯾﺣد ﻣن اﻟﺣرﯾﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ اﻟﻔردﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ذﻟك ﺣرﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻌﺑﯾر ‪ ،‬وﻏﺎﻟﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ أﺳﺎس أﻧﮭﺎ ﺳﺗؤدي إﻟﻰ ﺻﻌود اﻟﺷﯾوﻋﯾﺔ‪. .‬‬ ‫‪©McGraw-Hill Education.‬‬ Political Systems 6 of 6 Democracy and Totalitarianism continued • Pseudo-democracies ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟدﯾﻣوﻗراطﯾﺔ واﻟﺗوﺗﺎﻟﯾﺗﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟدﯾﻣﻘراطﯾﺎت اﻟزاﺋﻔﺔ‬ • Lie between pure democracies and complete totalitarianism systems. ‫• ﺗﻛﻣن ﺑﯾن اﻟدﯾﻣﻘراطﯾﺎت اﻟﺻرﻓﺔ‬ .‫واﻷﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﺷﻣوﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ • Authoritarian elements have captured some or much of the machinery of state and use this in an attempt to deny basic political and civil liberties. ‫• وﻗد اﺳﺗوﻟت اﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻر اﻟﺳﻠطوﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺟزء أو أﻛﺛر ﻣن آﻟﯾﺎت اﻟدوﻟﺔ‬ ‫واﺳﺗﺧدﻣت ذﻟك ﻓﻲ ﻣﺣﺎوﻟﺔ ﻹﻧﻛﺎر‬ .‫اﻟﺣرﯾﺎت اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ واﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ Economic Systems 1 of 3 Learning Objective 2-2 Understand how the economic systems of countries differ. Market Economy • All productive activities are privately owned • Production is determined by supply and demand • Government encourages vigorous free and fair competition ‫إﻗﺗﺻﺎد اﻟﺳوق‬ ‫• ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻷﻧﺷطﺔ اﻹﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺔ ﻣﻣﻠوﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻘط ﺎع‬ ‫اﻟﺧﺎص‬ ‫• ﯾﺗم ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻹﻧﺗﺎج ﻋن طرﯾق اﻟﻌرض‬ ‫واﻟطﻠب‬ ‫• ﺗﺷﺟﻊ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﻧﺎﻓﺳﺔ اﻟﻘوﯾﺔ واﻟﻧزﯾﮭﺔ‬ In the archetypal pure market economy, all productive activities are privately ‫ ﻛل اﻷﻧﺷطﺔ‬، ‫ﻓﻲ اﻗﺗﺻﺎد اﻟﺳوق اﻟﺧﺎﻟص‬ owned, as opposed to being owned by ‫ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑل‬، ‫اﻹﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺔ ﻣﻣﻠوﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻘطﺎع اﻟﺧﺎص‬ the state. Production is determined by ‫ ﯾﺗم ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻹﻧﺗﺎج ﻣن‬.‫ﻛوﻧﮭﺎ ﻣﻣﻠوﻛﺔ ﻟﻠدوﻟﺔ‬ the interaction of supply and demand ‫ﺧﻼل ﺗﻔﺎﻋل اﻟﻌرض واﻟطﻠب واﻹﺷﺎرة إﻟﻰ‬ and signaled to producers through the .‫اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﯾن ﻣن ﺧﻼل ﻧظﺎم اﻷﺳﻌﺎر‬ price system. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Economic Systems 2 of 3 Command Economy • Government plans the good and services, quantity and price, then allocates them for “the good of society” • All businesses are state owned ‫كل شيء مملوك لدولة‬ • Historically found in communist economies • No incentive for individuals to look for better ways to serve needs In a pure command economy, the government plans the goods and services that a country produces, the quantity in which they are produced, and the prices at which they are sold. Consistent with the collectivist ideology, the objective of a command economy is for government to allocate resources for “the good of society.” In addition, in a pure command economy, all businesses are state owned, the rationale being that the government can then direct them to make investments that are in the best interests of the nation as a whole rather than in the interests of private individuals. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫‪Economic Systems 2 of 3‬‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد اﻟﻣوﺟﮫ‬ ‫• ﺗﺧطط اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺧﯾر واﻟﺧدﻣﺎت واﻟﻛﻣﯾﺔ واﻟﺳﻌر ‪ ،‬ﺛم ﺗﺧﺻﺻﮭﺎ "ﻟﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ"‬ ‫• ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت ﻣﻣﻠوﻛﺔ ﻟﻠدوﻟﺔ‬ ‫• ﺗﺎرﯾﺧﯾﺎ وﺟدت ﻓﻲ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدات اﻟﺷﯾوﻋﯾﺔ‬ ‫• ﻻ ﯾوﺟد ﺣﺎﻓز ﻟﻸﻓراد ﻟﻠﺑﺣث ﻋن طرق أﻓﺿل ﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻻﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻗﺗﺻﺎد ﻣوﺟﮫ ﺗﻣﺎ ًﻣﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺧطط اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺳﻠﻊ واﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻧﺗﺟﮭﺎ ﺑﻠد ﻣﺎ ‪ ،‬واﻟﻛﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺗم إﻧﺗﺎﺟﮭﺎ ﺑﮭﺎ ‪ ،‬واﻷﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺑﺎع ﺑﮭﺎ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﺗواﻓق ﻣﻊ اﻹﯾدﯾوﻟوﺟﯾﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن ھدف‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد اﻟﻣوﺟﮫ ھو أن ﺗﺧﺻص اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ اﻟﻣوارد "ﻟﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ"‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ذﻟك ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻗﺗﺻﺎد ﻣوﺟﮫ ﺗﻣﺎ ًﻣﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻛون ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت ﻣﻣﻠوﻛﺔ ﻟﻠدوﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﯾث ﯾﻛون اﻷﺳﺎس اﻟﻣﻧطﻘﻲ‬ ‫ھو أن اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗوﺟﮫ ﻟﮭم ﻟﺟﻌل اﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎرات اﻟﺗﻲ ھﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ اﻷﻣﺔ ﻛﻛل وﻟﯾس‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ اﻷﻓراد‪.‬‬ ‫‪©McGraw-Hill Education.‬‬ ‫السعودية اقتصادها‬ ‫اقتصادها اقتصاد‬ ‫مختلط‬ ‫‪Economic Systems 3 of 3‬‬ ‫اﻗﺗﺻﺎد ﻣﺧﺗﻠط‬ ‫‪Mixed Economy‬‬ ‫‪• Some sectors are‬‬ ‫• ﺑﻌض اﻟﻘطﺎﻋﺎت ﻣﻣﻠوﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻘطﺎع اﻟﺧﺎص ‪privately owned, some ،‬‬ ‫وﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ ﻣﻣﻠوﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ‫‪are government owned‬‬ ‫• ﻣرة واﺣدة ﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم اﻟﻣﺗﻘدم ‪،‬‬ ‫أﻗل ﻣن ذﻟك اﻵن‬ ‫‪• Once common in‬‬ ‫‪developed world, less so‬‬ ‫‪now‬‬ ‫• اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﻗد ﺗﺳﺎﻋد اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﻣﺿطرﺑﺔ‬ ‫‪• Government may aid‬‬ ‫‪troubled firms‬‬ ‫• ﺳﺎﻋدت اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة ﺳﯾﺗﻲ ﺟروب ‪،‬‬ ‫‪• U.S. helped Citigroup,‬‬ ‫ﺟﻧرال ﻣوﺗورز‬ ‫‪General Motors‬‬ ‫‪©McGraw-Hill Education.‬‬ Legal Systems 1 of 9 Learning Objective 2-3 Understand how the legal systems of countries differ. Legal Systems • Rules or laws that regulate behavior • Process through which laws are enforced • Redress for grievances • Influenced by the prevailing political system The legal system of a country refers to the rules, or laws, that regulate behavior along with the processes by which the laws are enforced and through which redress for grievances is obtained. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟﻧظم اﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﻘواﻋد أو اﻟﻘواﻧﯾن اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧظم اﻟﺳﻠ وك‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ ﯾﺗم ﻣن ﺧﻼﻟﮭﺎ ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﻘواﻧﯾ ن‬ • ‫• اﻟﺗﻌوﯾض ﻋن اﻟﻣظﺎﻟم‬ ‫ﻣﺗﺄﺛرة ﺑﺎﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ اﻟﺳﺎﺋد‬ • ‫ﯾﺷﯾر اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﻲ ﻟﺑﻠد ﻣﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻘواﻋد أو‬ ‫اﻟﻘواﻧﯾن اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧظم اﻟﺳﻠوك إﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧب‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﺗم ﺑﻣوﺟﺑﮭﺎ إﻧﻔﺎذ اﻟﻘواﻧﯾن‬ ‫واﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﺗم ﻣن ﺧﻼﻟﮭﺎ اﻟﺣﺻول ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌوﯾض‬ .‫ﻋن اﻟﻣظﺎﻟم‬ Legal Systems 2 of 9 Legal Systems continued • Different Legal Systems • • Common Law: is based on tradition, precedent, and custom. • Tradition, precedent, custom • More flexible than other systems Civil Law: is based on a detailed set of laws organized into codes. • • ©McGraw-Hill Education. Laws organized into codes • Less adversarial Theocratic Law: is one in which the law is based on religious teachings. • Based on religious teachings • Most common is Islamic law ‫اﺳﺗﻣرت اﻟﻧظم اﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫• أﻧظﻣﺔ ﻗﺎﻧوﻧﯾﺔ ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ ﯾﺳﺗﻧد إﻟﻰ اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾد واﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬:‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧون اﻟﻌﺎم‬ .‫واﻟﻌرف‬ ‫• اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾد واﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ واﻟﻌرف‬ ‫• أﻛﺛر ﻣروﻧﺔ ﻣن ﻏﯾرھﺎ ﻣن اﻟﻧظم‬ ‫ ﯾﻘوم ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣﻔﺻﻠﺔ ﻣ ن‬:‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧون اﻟﻣدﻧﻲ‬ .‫اﻟﻘواﻧﯾن اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧظم ﻓﻲ رﻣوز‬ ‫• اﻟﻘواﻧﯾن اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ رﻣوز‬ ‫• أﻗل اﻟﺧﺻوﻣﮫ‬ ‫ ھو اﻟﻘﺎﻧون اﻟذي ﯾﺳﺗﻧد ﻓﯾﮫ‬:‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧون اﻟﺛﯾوﻗراطﻲ‬ .‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧون إﻟﻰ اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻟﯾم اﻟدﯾﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫• ﻋﻠﻰ أﺳﺎس اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻟﯾم اﻟدﯾﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫• اﻻﻛﺛر ﺷﯾوﻋﺎ ھو اﻟﺷرﯾﻌﺔ اﻻﺳﻼﻣﯾﺔ‬ Legal Systems 3 of 9 Differences in Contract Law • Governs the enforcement of contracts • Common law • ‫اﻻﺧﺗﻼﻓﺎت ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﻧون اﻟﻌﻘود‬ ‫• ﯾﺣﻛم إﻧﻔﺎذ اﻟﻌﻘود‬ ‫• اﻟﻘﺎﻧون اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫• اﻟﻌﻘود ﻣﻔﺻﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﯾﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﺣﺎﻻت‬ ‫اﻟطوارئ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗم ﺗوﺿﯾﺣﮭﺎ‬ .‫• أﻛﺛر ﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ وﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﻛون ﻋداﺋﯾﺔ‬ • Contracts are very detailed with all contingencies spelled out • More expensive and can be adversarial. ‫• اﻟﻘﺎﻧون اﻟﻣدﻧﻲ‬ ‫• ﺗﻣﯾل اﻟﻌﻘود إﻟﻰ أن ﺗﻛون أﻗﺻر وأﻗل‬ Contracts tend to be much shorter and ‫ﺧﺻوﺻﯾﺔ‬ Civil law • less specific A contract is a document that specifies the ‫اﻟﻌﻘد ھو ﻣﺳﺗﻧد ﯾﺣدد اﻟﺷروط اﻟﺗﻲ ﺑﻣوﺟﺑﮭﺎ ﯾﺗم‬ conditions under which an exchange is to occur ‫إﺟراء ﺗﺑﺎدل وﺗﻔﺎﺻﯾل ﺣﻘوق واﻟﺗزاﻣﺎت اﻷطراف‬ and details the rights and obligations of the ‫ ﯾﻧظّم ﺑﻌض أﺷﻛﺎل اﻟﻌﻘود اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن‬. ‫اﻟﻣﻌﻧﯾﺔ‬ parties involved. Some form of contract regulates many business transactions. Contract ‫ ﻗﺎﻧون اﻟﻌﻘود ھو ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬.‫اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬ .‫اﻟﻘواﻧﯾن اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣﻛم ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﻌﻘود‬ law is the body of law that governs contract enforcement. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Legal Systems 4 of 9 Differences in Contract Law continued • United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) • Establishes a uniform set of rules governing certain aspects of the making and performance of everyday commercial contracts between sellers and buyers who have their places of business in different nations • Applies automatically to all contracts for the sale of goods between different firms based in countries that have ratified the convention, unless the parties opt out United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) is a set of rules governing aspects of the making and performance of commercial contracts between sellers and buyers who have their places of business in different nations. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫‪Legal Systems 4 of 9‬‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻣر اﻻﺧﺗﻼف ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﻧون اﻟﻌﻘود‬ ‫اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ اﻷﻣم اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة ﺑﺷﺄن ﻋﻘود اﻟﺑﯾﻊ اﻟدوﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺑﺿﺎﺋﻊ )‪(CISG‬‬ ‫• ﯾﺿﻊ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣوﺣدة ﻣن اﻟﻘواﻋد اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣﻛم ﺟواﻧب ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ ﻣن ﺻﻧﻊ وأداء اﻟﻌﻘود‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ اﻟﯾوﻣﯾﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻟﺑﺎﺋﻌﯾن واﻟﻣﺷﺗرﯾن اﻟذﯾن ﻟدﯾﮭم أﻣﺎﻛن ﻋﻣﻠﮭم ﻓﻲ دول ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫• ﺗﻧطﺑق ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋ ًﯾﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﻋﻘود ﺑﯾﻊ اﻟﺑﺿﺎﺋﻊ ﺑﯾن اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟدول اﻟﺗﻲ ﺻدﻗت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻟم ﺗﺧﺗر اﻷطراف ذﻟك‬ ‫اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ اﻷﻣم اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة ﺑﺷﺄن ﻋﻘود اﻟﺑﯾﻊ اﻟدوﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺑﺿﺎﺋﻊ )‪(CISG‬ھﻲ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻘواﻋد اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧظم ﺟواﻧب ﺻﻧﻊ وأداء اﻟﻌﻘود اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻟﺑﺎﺋﻌﯾن واﻟﻣﺷﺗرﯾن اﻟذﯾن ﻟﮭم‬ ‫أﻣﺎﻛن ﻋﻣﻠﮭم ﻓﻲ ﻣﺧﺗﻠف اﻟدول‪.‬‬ ‫‪©McGraw-Hill Education.‬‬ Legal Systems 5 of 9 Property Rights and Corruption • Property is a resource that an individual or business owns • • Land, buildings, equipment, capital, mineral rights, businesses, intellectual property Most countries protect property rights Property rights refer to the legal rights over the use to which a resource is put and over the use made of any income that may be derived from that resource. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫ﺣﻘوق اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ واﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫• اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ ھﻲ ﻣورد ﯾﻣﻠﻛﮫ اﻟﻔرد أو‬ ‫اﻷﻋﻣﺎل اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ رأس‬، ‫ اﻟﻣﻌدات‬، ‫ اﻟﻣﺑﺎﻧﻲ‬، ‫• اﻷرض‬ ، ‫ اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت‬، ‫ ﺣﻘوق اﻟﻣﻌﺎدن‬، ‫اﻟﻣﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﻛرﯾﺔ‬ ‫• ﻣﻌظم اﻟدول ﺗﺣﻣﻲ ﺣﻘوق اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺷﯾر ﺣﻘوق اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺣﻘوق اﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟذي ﯾﺗم وﺿﻊ اﻟﻣورد ﻋﻠﯾﮫ‬ ‫وﻋن اﺳﺗﺧدام أي دﺧل ﻗد ﯾﻛون ﻣﺳﺗﻣدا ً ﻣ ن‬ .‫ھذا اﻟﻣورد‬ Legal Systems 6 of 9 Property Rights and Corruption continued • • Private action • Theft, piracy, blackmail Public action and corruption • Public officials extort income, resources, or property • Levying excessive taxation, requiring expensive licenses or permits from property holders, taking assets into state ownership without compensating the owners, redistributing assets without compensating the prior owners • Corruption, demanding bribes In terms of violating property rights, private action refers to theft, piracy, blackmail, and the like by private individuals or groups. Public action to violate property rights occurs when public officials, such as politicians and government bureaucrats, extort income, resources, or the property itself from property holders. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫‪Legal Systems 6 of 9‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘوق اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ واﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﺳﺗﻣرت‬ ‫ﻋﻣل ﺧﺎص‬ ‫• اﻟﺳرﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬اﻟﻘرﺻﻧﺔ ‪ ،‬اﻻﺑﺗزاز‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﻌﺎم واﻟﻔﺳﺎد‬ ‫• اﻟﻣوظﻔون اﻟﻌﻣوﻣﯾون ﯾﺑﺗزون اﻟدﺧل أو اﻟﻣوارد أو اﻟﻣﻣﺗﻠﻛﺎت‬ ‫• ﻓرض ﺿراﺋب ﻣﻔرطﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺗطﻠب ﺗراﺧﯾص أو ﺗراﺧﯾص ﺑﺎھظﺔ ﻣن أﺻﺣﺎب اﻷﻣﻼك ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ أﺧذ‬ ‫اﻷﺻول إﻟﻰ ﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻟدوﻟﺔ دون ﺗﻌوﯾض اﻟﻣﺎﻟﻛﯾن ‪ ،‬وإﻋﺎدة ﺗوزﯾﻊ اﻷﺻول دون ﺗﻌوﯾض اﻟﻣﺎﻟﻛﯾن‬ ‫اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﯾن‬ ‫• اﻟﻔﺳﺎد ‪ ،‬ﻣطﺎﻟﺑﺔ اﻟرﺷﺎوى‬ ‫ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻌﻠق ﺑﺎﻧﺗﮭﺎك ﺣﻘوق اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬ﯾﺷﯾر اﻹﺟراء اﻟﺧﺎص إﻟﻰ اﻟﺳرﻗﺔ واﻟﻘرﺻﻧﺔ واﻻﺑﺗزاز وﻣﺎ إﻟﻰ ذﻟك‬ ‫ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻷﻓراد أو اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﯾﺣدث اﻹﺟراء اﻟﻌﺎم ﻻﻧﺗﮭﺎك ﺣﻘوق اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﯾﻘوم اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟون اﻟﻌﻣوﻣﯾون ‪ ،‬ﻣﺛل اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﯾن‬ ‫واﻟﺑﯾروﻗراطﯾﯾن اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﯾن ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻻﺑﺗزاز ﺑﺎﻟدﺧل ‪ ،‬أو اﻟﻣوارد ‪ ،‬أو اﻟﻣﻣﺗﻠﻛﺎت ﻧﻔﺳﮭﺎ ﻣن ﻣﺎﻟﻛﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﺎرات ‪.‬‬ ‫‪©McGraw-Hill Education.‬‬ Figure 2.1 Rankings of corruption by country, 2016 Jump to long description in appendix ©McGraw-Hill Education. Constructed by the author from raw data from Transparency International, Corruption Perceptions Index 2016. Legal Systems 7 of 9 Property Rights and Corruption continued • Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) • • Illegal to bribe a foreign government official to obtain or maintain business over which that foreign official has authority Requires all publicly traded companies to keep detailed records that would reveal whether a violation of the act has occurred • Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (1997) • Allows for facilitating or expediting payments Foreign Corrupt Practices Act is U.S. law regulating behavior regarding the conduct of international business in the taking of bribes and other unethical actions. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫‪Legal Systems 7 of 9‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘوق اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ واﻟﻔﺳﺎد اﺳﺗﻣرت‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧون اﻟﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎت اﻷﺟﻧﺑﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﺎﺳدة )‪(FCPA‬‬ ‫• ﻏﯾر ﻣﺷروﻋﺔ ﻟرﺷوة ﻣﺳؤول ﺣﻛوﻣﻲ أﺟﻧﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﺣﺻول ﻋﻠﻰ أو اﻟﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻋﻣﺎل اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻛون ﻟﮭﺎ ھذا اﻟﻣﺳؤول اﻷﺟﻧﺑﻲ اﻟﺳﻠطﺔ‬ ‫• ﯾﺗطﻠب ﻣن ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﻣﺗداوﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻧﺎً اﻻﺣﺗﻔﺎظ ﺑﺳﺟﻼت ﺗﻔﺻﯾﻠﯾﺔ ﺗﻛﺷف ﻣﺎ إذا ﻛﺎن ﻗد‬ ‫ﺣدث اﻧﺗﮭﺎك ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧون‬ ‫• اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ رﺷوة اﻟﻣوظﻔﯾن اﻟﻌﻣوﻣﯾﯾن اﻷﺟﺎﻧب ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ‬ ‫)‪(1997‬‬ ‫• ﯾﺳﻣﺢ ﻟﺗﺳﮭﯾل أو ﺗﺳرﯾﻊ اﻟﻣدﻓوﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧون اﻟﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎت اﻷﺟﻧﺑﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﺎﺳدة ھو ﻗﺎﻧون اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة اﻟذي ﯾﻧظم اﻟﺳﻠوك ﻓﯾﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺗﻌﻠق ﺑﺳﻠوك اﻷﻋﻣﺎل اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ أﺧذ اﻟرﺷﺎوى وﻏﯾرھﺎ ﻣن اﻷﻋﻣﺎل ﻏﯾر اﻷ ﺧﻼﻗﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪©McGraw-Hill Education.‬‬ Legal Systems 8 of 9 The Protection of Intellectual Property • Patent ‫• ﺑراءة اﻹﺧﺗراع‬ • Copyrights ‫• ﺣﻘوق اﻟﺗﺄﻟﯾف واﻟﻧﺷر‬ • Trademarks ‫• اﻟﻌﻼﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬ • World Intellectual Property Organization • Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫ﺣﻣﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﻛرﯾﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﻔ ﻛرﯾﺔ‬ ‫• اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ ﺑﺎرﯾس ﻟﺣﻣﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺻﻧﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ Legal Systems 8 of 9 Intellectual property refers to property that is the product of intellectual activity, such as computer software, a screenplay, a music score, or the chemical formula for a new drug. A patent grants the inventor of a new product or process exclusive rights for a defined period to the manufacture, use, or sale of that invention. Copyrights are the exclusive legal rights of authors, composers, playwrights, artists, and publishers to publish and disperse their work as they see fit. Trademarks are designs and names, officially registered, by which merchants or manufacturers designate and differentiate their products. World Intellectual Property Organization is an international organization whose members sign treaties to agree to protect intellectual property. Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Policy is an international agreement to protect intellectual property. ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫‪Legal Systems 8 of 9‬‬ ‫ﺗﺷﯾر اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﻛرﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ھﻲ ﻧﺗﺎج ﻧﺷﺎط ﻓﻛري ‪ ،‬ﻣﺛل ﺑراﻣﺞ اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر ‪ ،‬أو‬ ‫ﺳﯾﻧﺎرﯾو ‪ ،‬أو درﺟﺔ ﻣوﺳﯾﻘﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬أو اﻟﺻﯾﻐﺔ اﻟﻛﯾﻣﯾﺎﺋﯾﺔ ﻟدواء ﺟدﯾد‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻣﻧﺢ ﺑراءة اﻻﺧﺗراع ﻟﻣﺧﺗرع ﻣﻧﺗﺞ ﺟدﯾد أو ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ ﺣﻘوق اﺳﺗﺋﺛﺎرﯾﺔ ﻟﻔﺗرة ﻣﺣددة ﻓﻲ ﺗﺻﻧﯾﻊ‬ ‫ھذا اﻻﺧﺗراع أو اﺳﺗﺧداﻣﮫ أو ﺑﯾﻌﮫ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘوق اﻟطﺑﻊ واﻟﻧﺷر ھﻲ اﻟﺣﻘوق اﻟﻘﺎﻧوﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺣﺻرﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻣؤﻟﻔﯾن واﻟﻣؤﻟﻔﯾن واﻟﻣؤﻟﻔﯾن اﻟﻣﺳرﺣﯾﯾن‬ ‫واﻟﻔﻧﺎﻧﯾن واﻟﻧﺎﺷرﯾن ﻟﻧﺷر أﻋﻣﺎﻟﮭم وﺗﺷﺗﯾﺗﮭﺎ ﺣﺳب ﻣﺎ ﯾروﻧﮫ ﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑًﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻋن ﺗﺻﺎﻣﯾم وأﺳﻣﺎء ‪ ،‬ﻣﺳﺟﻠﺔ رﺳﻣﯾﺎ ً ‪ ،‬ﯾﺣددھﺎ اﻟﺗﺟﺎر أو اﻟﻣﺻﻧﻌون‬ ‫ﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎﺗﮭم‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﻛرﯾﺔ ھﻲ ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ دوﻟﯾﺔ ﯾوﻗﻊ أﻋﺿﺎؤھﺎ ﻣﻌﺎھدات ﻟﻠﻣواﻓﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻣﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﻛرﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ ﺑﺎرﯾس ﻟﺣﻣﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ اﻟﺻﻧﺎﻋﯾﺔ ھﻲ اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯾﺔ دوﻟﯾﺔ ﻟﺣﻣﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﻛرﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪©McGraw-Hill Education.‬‬ Legal Systems 9 of 9 Product Safety and Product Liability ‫ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت واﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺔ ﻋن اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت‬ • Product safety: set certain safety standards to which a product must adhere. ‫ ﻋﯾ ّن ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر أﻣﺎن ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ‬:‫• أﻣﺎن اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ‬ .‫ﯾﺟب أن ﯾﻠﺗزم ﺑﮭﺎ اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ‬ ‫ ﯾﻧطوي ذﻟك ﻋﻠﻰ‬:‫• ﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﺣﻣل اﻟﺷرﻛﺔ وﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﮭﺎ ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﺳﺑب‬ • Product liability: involves holding a firm and its officers ‫اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺣدوث إﺻﺎﺑﺔ أو ﻣوت أو‬ .‫ﺗﻠف‬ responsible when a product causes injury, death, or ‫• أﻛﺑر إذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ ﻻ ﯾﺗواﻓق ﻣﻊ‬ damage. ‫ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر اﻟﺳﻼﻣﺔ‬ • Greater if a product does not conform to safety standards ‫• ﺗطﺑق اﻟﻘواﻧﯾن اﻟﺟﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ واﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ‬ • Criminal and civil laws apply ©McGraw-Hill Education. Focus on Managerial Implications Learning Objective 2-4 Explain the implications for management practice of national differences in political economy. Two broad implications • Political, economic, and legal systems of a country raise important ethical issues that have implications for international business. • Political, economic, and legal environments of a country clearly influence the attractiveness of that country as a market or investment site. • A country with democratic political institutions, market-based economic system, and strong legal system clearly more attractive to do business in. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix of Image Long Descriptions ©McGraw-Hill Education. Appendix 1 Figure 2.1 Rankings of corruption by country, 2016 Corruption Index 100=clean; 0 = totally corrupt Somalia 8 Venezuela 18 Vietnam 21 Nigeria 26 Russia 29 China 37 Columbia 37 India 48 Brazil 48 Turkey 42 Italy 44 South Africa 44 South Korea 56 Poland 62 France 70 United States 75 United Kingdom 81 Germany 81 Canada 83 Sweden 89 Denmark 91 Return to original slide ©McGraw-Hill Education. Chapter 4 Differences in Culture ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Learning Objectives LO 4-1 Explain what is meant by the culture of a society. LO 4-2 Identify the forces that lead to differences in social culture. LO 4-3 Identify the business and economic implications of differences in culture. LO 4-4 Recognize how differences in social culture influence values in business. LO 4-5 Demonstrate an appreciation for the economic and business implications of cultural change. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Introduction Understanding and adapting to the local cultural is important in international companies. • Cross-cultural literacy is important for business success A relationship may exist between culture and the costs of doing business in a country or region. • Culture ‫ﻓﮭم واﻟﺗﻛﯾف ﻣﻊ اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻣﺣﻠﯾﺔ أﻣر‬ .‫ﻣﮭم ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺣو اﻷﻣﯾﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎت ﻣﮭم ﻟﻧﺟﺎح‬ ‫اﻷﻋﻣﺎل‬ ‫ﻗد ﺗوﺟد ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ وﺗﻛﺎﻟﯾف‬ ‫ﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺔ اﻷﻋﻣﺎل اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠد أو‬ .‫ﻣﻧطﻘﺔ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺿﺎره‬ ‫ﻣﺗﺟذر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﯾم واﻟﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر‬ ‫ﯾﺗطور ﻣﻊ ﻣرور اﻟوﻗت‬ • Is rooted in values and norms • Evolves over time Cross-cultural literacy understanding how the culture of a country affects the way business is practiced ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫ﻣﺣو اﻻﻣﯾﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎت ﻓﮭم ﻛﯾف ﺗؤﺛر‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻠد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻣﺎرس ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﻋﻣﺎل‬ What Is Culture? 1 of 5 Learning Objective 4-1 Explain what is meant by the culture of a society. Culture ‫ﺣﺿﺎره‬ ‫ﺗﻌرﯾﻔﺎت ﻣﺗﻌددة‬ • Multiple definitions ‫اﻟﻘﯾم‬ ‫اﻓﺗراﺿﺎت ﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ ﺣول ﻛﯾف ﯾﺟب أن ﺗﻛون‬ Values ‫اﻷﻣور‬ • Shared assumptions about how things ‫أﻋراف‬ ‫ﻗواﻋد اﻟﺳﻠوك اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب‬ ought to be ‫اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻌض اﻟﺑﻠدان ﻟدﯾﮭﺎ ﻋدة ﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎت أو ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎت‬ Norms ‫ وﺑﻌض اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎت ﺗﺣﺗﺿن أﻛﺛر ﻣن‬، ‫ﻓرﻋﯾﺔ‬ • Rules for appropriate behavior ‫ﺑﻠد واﺣد‬ Society • Some countries have several societies or subcultures and some societies embrace more than one country ©McGraw-Hill Education. Culture A system of values and norms that are shared among a group of people and that when taken together constitute a design for living Values Abstract ideas about what a group believes to be good, right, and desirable Norms Social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior in particular situations Society A group of people sharing a common set of values and norms ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻧظﺎم ﻣن اﻟﻘﯾم واﻟﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ ﺑﯾن ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن‬ ‫ واﻟﺗﻲ ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﺗﺷﻛل‬، ‫اﻟﻧﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺔ ﺗﺷﻛل ﺗﺻﻣﯾ ًﻣ ﺎ ﻟﻠﺣﯾﺎة‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯾم أﻓﻛﺎر ﻣﺟردة ﺣول ﻣﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺗﻌﺗﻘد اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ أﻧﮫ ﺟﯾد‬ ‫ ﻣرﻏوب ﻓﯾﮫ‬، ‫ﺻﺣﯾﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻘواﻋد اﻟﻘواﻋد واﻟﻣﺑﺎدئ‬ ‫اﻟﺗوﺟﯾﮭﯾﺔ اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺻف اﻟﺳﻠوك اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻻت ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻧﺎس‬ ‫ﺗﺗﻘﺎﺳم ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯾم واﻟﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر‬ What is Culture? 2 of 5 Values • Provide the context within which a society’s norms are established and justified • Invested with emotional significance • Often reflected in the economic systems of a society ‫اﻟﻘﯾم‬ ‫ﺗوﻓﯾر اﻟﺳﯾﺎق اﻟذي ﯾﺗم ﻓﯾﮫ وﺿﻊ ﻗواﻋد اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ وﻣﺑرراﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺗﺛﻣر ﺑﺄھﻣﯾﺔ ﻋﺎطﻔﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺑﺎ ﻣﺎ ﯾﻧﻌﻛس ﻓﻲ اﻟﻧظم اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. What is Culture? 3 of 5 Norms • Social rules that govern people’s actions ‫أﻋراف‬ ‫اﻟﻘواﻋد اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣﻛم إﺟراءات اﻷﺷﺧﺎص‬ • Folkways ‫اﺳﺎﻟﯾب اﻟﺷﻌﺑﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺗﮭﺎﻛﺎت ﻟﯾﺳت ﻣﺳﺄﻟﺔ ﺧطﯾرة‬ • Violations not a serious matter ‫ﺗﺷﻣل اﻟطﻘوس واﻟﺳﻠوك اﻟرﻣزي‬ • Include rituals and symbolic behavior ‫ﻋﺎدات‬ ‫ﻻﺣظ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧطﺎق واﺳﻊ‬ • Mores ‫ﻟدﯾﮭم أھﻣﯾﺔ أﺧﻼﻗﯾﺔ أﻛﺑر ﻣن اﻟﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر اﻷﺧرى‬ • More widely observed • Have greater moral significance than other norms Folkways Routine conventions of everyday life Mores Norms seen as central to the functioning of a society and to its social life ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟطرق اﻟﺷﻌﺑﯾﺔ اﻟروﺗﯾﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﯾﺎة اﻟﯾوﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺗﺑر اﻟﻘواﻋد اﻟﻣرﺟﻌﯾﺔ ﻣوردا ً أﺳﺎﺳﯾﺎ ً ﻟﻌﻣل‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ وﺣﯾﺎﺗﮫ اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ What is Culture? 4 of 5 Culture, Society, and the Nation-State • The relationship between a society and a nation state is not strictly one-to-one • Nation-states are political creations • A nation can have several cultures, and a culture can embrace several nations • Different levels of culture ‫اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ واﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ واﻟدوﻟﺔ اﻟﻘوﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﯾن ﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ ودوﻟﺔ ﻗوﻣﯾﺔ ﻟﯾﺳت ﺻﺎرﻣﺔ ﺑﯾن ﺷﺧص‬ ‫وآﺧر‬ ‫اﻟدول اﻟﻘوﻣﯾﺔ ھﻲ إﺑداﻋﺎت ﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ وﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﺣﺗﺿن‬، ‫ﯾﻣﻛن ﻷﻣﺔ أن ﺗﻛون ﻟﮭﺎ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎت ﻣﺗﻌددة‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻋدة دول‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺗوﯾﺎت ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. What is Culture? 5 of 5 Determinants of Culture • The values and norms of a culture evolve over time • Religion • Political philosophy • Economic philosophy • Education • Language • Social structure ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫ﻣﺣددات اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺗطور ﻗﯾم وﻣﻌﺎﯾﯾر اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻣرور اﻟوﻗت‬ ‫دﯾن‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺳﻔﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺳﻔﺔ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾم‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯾﻛل اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬ Figure 4.1 Determinants of culture ©McGraw-Hill Education. Social Structure 1 of 5 Social structure • Two dimensions explain differences among cultures • The basic unit of social organization is the individual, as opposed to the group • A society is stratified into classes or castes Social structure The basic social organization of a society ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟﮭﯾﻛل اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺷرح اﻟﺑﻌدﯾن اﻻﺧﺗﻼﻓﺎت ﺑﯾن‬ ‫اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫اﻟوﺣدة اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻧظﯾم‬ ‫ ﻋﻠﻰ‬، ‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ھﻲ اﻟﻔرد‬ ‫ﻋﻛس اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﻣﻘﺳم إﻟﻰ طﺑﻘﺎت أو‬ ‫طﺑﻘﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯾﻛل اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ اﻟﺗﻧظﯾم اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ‬ Social Structure 2 of 5 Learning Objective 4-3 Identify the business and economic implications of differences in culture. Individuals and Groups ‫اﻷﻓراد واﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻔرد‬ • The individual ‫ اﻟﻔرد‬، ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎت اﻟﻐرﺑﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھو ﻟﺑﻧﺔ اﻟﺑﻧﺎء اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻧظﯾم‬ • In many Western societies, the individual is .‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬ the basic building block of social organization. ‫اﻟﺗرﻛﯾز ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﻧﺟﺎز اﻟﻔردي‬ • Emphasis on individual achievement ‫اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟوﺣدة اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻧظﯾم اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ • The group ‫اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎت ﻏﯾر اﻟﻐرﺑﯾﺔ‬ ‫ اﻟﮭوﯾﺔ‬/ ‫أھﻣﯾﺔ ﻋﺿوﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ‬ • The primary unit of social organization in many non-Western societies • Importance of group membership/identification Group An association of two or more individuals who have a shared sense of identity and who interact with each other in structured ways on the basis of a common set of expectations about each other’s behavior ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﺗﺗﺄﻟف ﻣن ﺷﺧﺻﯾن أو‬ ‫أﻛﺛر ﻟدﯾﮭم إﺣﺳﺎس ﻣﺷﺗرك ﺑﺎﻟﮭوﯾﺔ وﯾﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠون‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺿﮭم اﻟﺑﻌض ﺑطرق ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ أﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺗوﻗﻌﺎت ﺣول ﺳﻠوك‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺿﮭم اﻟﺑﻌض‬ Social Structure 3 of 5 Learning Objective 4-2 Identify the forces that lead to differences in social culture. Social Stratification ‫اﻟطﺑﻘﺎت اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺗم ﺗﻘﺳﯾم ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎت ﻋﻠ ﻰ‬ • All societies are stratified on a hierarchical ‫أﺳﺎس ﺗراﺗﺑﻲ إﻟﻰ ﻓﺋﺎت‬ basis into social categories, or social strata ‫ أو طﺑﻘﺎت اﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬، ‫اﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ ، ‫ﯾوﻟد اﻷﻓراد ﻓﻲ طﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ‬ • Individuals are born into a particular stratum, which ‫ﻣﻣﺎ ﯾؤﺛر ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓرص اﻟﺣﯾﺎة‬ affects life chances ‫أرﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺑﺎدئ أﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ‬ • Four basic principles ‫ﯾﻧﻘل إﻟﻰ اﻟﺟﯾل اﻟﻘﺎدم‬ ‫ﻋﻣوﻣﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ وﻟﻛن ﻣﺗﻐﯾر‬ • Trait of society ‫ﻻ ﯾﻧطوي ﻓﻘط ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋدم‬ • Carries over into next generation ‫اﻟﻣﺳﺎواة وﻟﻛن أﯾﺿﺎ اﻟﻣﻌﺗﻘدات‬ • Generally universal but variable • Involves not just inequality but also beliefs Social strata Hierarchical social categories often ‫اﻟطﺑﻘﺎت اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﺋﺎت اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﮭرﻣﯾﺔ ﻏﺎﻟ ﺑًﺎ‬ based on family background, occupation, and income ‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﺳﺗﻧد إﻟﻰ اﻟﺧﻠﻔﯾﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﯾﺔ واﻟﻣﮭﻧﺔ واﻟدﺧل‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. Social Structure 4 of 5 Social Stratification continued • Social mobility ‫ﺗواﺻل اﻟطﺑﻘﺎت اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺣراك اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬ • Varies among societies ‫ﯾﺗﻔﺎوت ﺑﯾن اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟطﺑﻘﻲ‬ • Caste system ‫اﻟﻣوﻗف اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ اﻟذي ﺗﺣدده اﻷﺳرة‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻧد ﻟدﯾﮭﺎ أرﺑﻊ طﺑﻘﺎت رﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ‬ • Social position determined by family ‫ﻧظﺎم اﻟﺻف‬ ‫ﺷﻛل ﻣن اﻟﺗﻘﺳﯾم اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ اﻟﻣﻔﺗوح‬ • India has four main castes ‫ﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﻐﯾﯾر اﻟوﺿﻊ ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻹﻧﺟﺎز أو اﻟﺣظ‬ • Class system • Form of open social stratification • Position can be changed through achievement or luck ©McGraw-Hill Education. Social mobility The extent to which individuals can move out of the strata into which they are born Caste system A system of social stratification in which social position is determined by the family into which a person is born, and change is usually not possible during an individual's lifetime Class system A system of social stratification in which social status is determined by the family into which a person is born and by subsequent socioeconomic achievements; mobility between classes is possible ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟﺣراك اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ اﻟﻣدى اﻟذي‬ ‫ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻸﻓراد أن ﯾﻧﺗﻘﻠوا ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟطﺑﻘﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ وﻟدوا ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻧظﺎم اﻟطواﺋف ﻧظﺎم اﻟطﺑﻘﺎت‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻟذي ﯾﺗم ﺗﺣدﯾد‬ ‫اﻟﻣوﻗﻊ اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻣن ﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﻷﺳرة اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾوﻟد ﻓﯾﮭﺎ اﻟﺷﺧص‬ ‫ واﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر ﻏﯾر ﻣﻣﻛن ﻋﺎدة‬، ‫ﺧﻼل ﺣﯾﺎة اﻟﻔرد‬ ‫اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟطﺑﻘﻲ ﻧظﺎم طﺑﻘﻲ‬ ‫اﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﺗﺣدد ﻓﯾﮫ اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻷﺳرة اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾوﻟد‬ ‫ﻓﯾﮭﺎ اﻟﺷﺧص وﻣن ﺧﻼل‬ -‫اﻹﻧﺟﺎزات اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ اﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ؛ اﻟﺗﻧﻘل ﺑﯾن‬ ‫اﻟطﺑﻘﺎت ﻣﻣﻛن‬ Social Structure 5 of 5 Learning Objective 4-3 Identify the business and economic implications of differences in culture. Social Stratification continued • Significance • Affects business operations • Class consciousness ‫ﺗواﺻل اﻟطﺑﻘﺎت اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟدﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﯾؤﺛر ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟوﻋﻲ اﻟطﺑﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺟﻌل ﻣن اﻟﺻﻌب إﻧﺷﺎء ﻣﯾزة ﺗﻧﺎﻓﺳﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ‬ • Makes it difficult to establish a competitive advantage in a global economy Class consciousness A tendency for individuals to perceive themselves in terms of their class background ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟوﻋﻲ اﻟطﺑﻘﻲ ﻣﯾل اﻷﻓراد إﻟﻰ ﺗﺻور أﻧﻔﺳﮭم ﻣن‬ ‫ﺣﯾث اﻟﺧﻠﻔﯾﺔ اﻟطﺑﻘﯾﺔ‬ Religious and Ethical Systems 1 of 6 Learning Objective 4-2 Identify the forces that lead to differences in social culture. Religion • Concerned with the realm of the sacred Ethical system • Most are the product of religions • Four dominant religions • Christianity • Islam ‫دﯾن‬ ‫ﺗﺷﻌر ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠق ﻣﻊ ﻋﺎﻟم اﻟﻣﻘدس‬ ‫اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻌظﻣﮭﺎ ﻧﺗﺎج اﻟدﯾﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫أرﺑﻌﺔ دﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻣﺳﯾطرة‬ ‫اﻟدﯾن اﻟﻣﺳﯾﺣﻲ‬ ‫دﯾن اﻻﺳﻼم‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻧدوﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺑوذﯾﺔ‬ • Hinduism • Buddhism Religion A system of shared beliefs and rituals concerned with the realm of the sacred Ethical system A set of moral principles, or values, that is used to guide and shape behavior ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟدﯾﺎﻧﺔ ﻧظﺎم ﻣﻌﺗﻘدات وطﻘوس ﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ ﺗﺗﻌﻠق‬ ‫ﺑﻣﺟﺎل اﻟﻣﻘدس‬ ‫اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣﺑﺎدئ اﻷﺧﻼﻗﯾﺔ‬ ‫ ﺗُﺳﺗﺧدم ﻟﺗوﺟﯾﮫ اﻟﺳﻠوك وﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﮫ‬، ‫ أو اﻟﻘﯾم‬، Map 4.1 World religions ©McGraw-Hill Education. Source: “Map 14,” Allen, John L., Student Atlas of World Politics, 10th ed. McGraw-Hill Education. Religious and Ethical Systems 2 of 6 Learning Objective 4-3 Identify business and economic implications of differences in culture. Christianity • The world’s largest religion • Found throughout Europe, the Americas, and other countries settled by Europeans • Economic implications of Christianity • Max Weber, Protestant ethics, and the spirit of capitalism ‫اﻟدﯾن اﻟﻣﺳﯾﺣﻲ‬ ‫أﻛﺑر دﯾن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ ‫ وﺑﻠدان أﺧرى‬، ‫ واﻷﻣرﯾﻛﺗﯾن‬، ‫وﺟدت ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ أﻧﺣﺎء أوروﺑﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻘرت ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻷوروﺑﯾﯾن‬ ‫اﻵﺛﺎر اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺳﯾﺣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ وروح اﻟرأﺳﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬، ‫ اﻷﺧﻼق اﻟﺑروﺗﺳﺗﺎﻧﺗﯾﺔ‬، ‫ﻣﺎﻛس وﯾﺑر‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. Religious and Ethical Systems 3 of 6 Learning Objective 4-2 Identify the forces that lead to differences in social culture. Islam ‫دﯾن اﻻﺳﻼم‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻲ أﻛﺑر دﯾﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم ﯾرﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﯾﺧﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ‬a.d. 610 • Monotheistic, one true omnipotent God (‫ واﺣد ﷲ اﻟﻘﺎھر اﻟﺣﻘﯾﻘﻲ )ﷲ‬، ‫اﻟﺗوﺣﯾد‬ ‫اﻷﺻوﻟﯾﺔ اﻹﺳﻼﻣﯾﺔ‬ (Allah) ‫ارﺗﺑطت وﺳﺎﺋل اﻹﻋﻼم اﻟﻐرﺑﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺗﺷددﯾن واﻹرھﺎﺑﯾﯾن واﻻﺿطراﺑﺎت‬ • Islamic fundamentalism ‫اﻟﻌﻧﯾﻔﺔ‬ • Associated in the Western media with ‫ﯾﻌﻠم اﻟﻣﺳﻠﻣون اﻟﺳﻼم واﻟﻌداﻟﺔ‬ militants, terrorists, and violent upheavals ‫واﻟﺗﺳﺎﻣﺢ‬ • Muslims teach peace, justice, and tolerance ‫اﻵﺛﺎر اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن اﻟﻣﺑﺎدئ اﻟﻣؤﯾدة ﻟﻠﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت‬ • Economic implications ، ‫ وﺣﻣﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬، ‫اﻟﺣرة‬ ‫واﻻھﺗﻣﺎم ﺑﺎﻟﻌداﻟﺔ اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ • Many pro-free enterprise principles, ‫ﯾﺣظر اﻟدﻓﻊ أو ﺗﻠﻘﻲ اﻟﻔﺎﺋدة‬ protection of private property, concern with • The world’s second largest religion dating to A.D. 610 social justice • Prohibits the payment or receipt of interest ©McGraw-Hill Education. Religious and Ethical Systems 4 of 6 Hinduism • Practiced primarily on the Indian subcontinent • Focus on achieving spiritual growth and development, which may require material and physical self-denial • Economic implications • Hindus are valued by their spiritual rather than material achievements • Promotion and adding new responsibilities may not be important, or may be infeasible due to the employee's caste ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟﮭﻧدوﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻣﺎرس ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻘﺎم اﻷول ﻓﻲ ﺷﺑﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎرة اﻟﮭﻧدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗرﻛﯾز ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺣﻘﯾق اﻟﻧﻣو‬ ‫ واﻟﺗﻲ ﻗد‬، ‫واﻟﺗﻧﻣﯾﺔ اﻟروﺣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺗطﻠب إﻧﻛﺎر اﻟذات اﻟﻣﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺎدي‬ ‫اﻵﺛﺎر اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺗم ﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﮭﻧدوس ﻣن ﺧﻼل‬ ‫إﻧﺟﺎزاﺗﮭم اﻟروﺣﯾﺔ وﻟﯾس‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻗد ﻻ ﯾﻛون اﻟﺗروﯾﺞ وإﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ أو ﻗد‬، ‫ﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺎت ﺟدﯾدة ﻣﮭﻣﯾن‬ ‫ﯾﻛوﻧﺎن ﻏﯾر ﻋﻣﻠﯾﯾن ﺑﺳﺑب‬ ‫اﻟطﺑﻘﺔ اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻣوظف‬ Religious and Ethical Systems 5 of 6 Buddhism • Has about 535 million followers • Stresses spiritual growth and the afterlife, rather than achievement while in this world • Economic implications • Does not emphasize wealth creation • Entrepreneurial behavior is not stressed culturally, but still acceptable • Does not support the caste system, individuals do have some mobility and can work with individuals from different classes ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟﺑوذﯾﺔ‬ ‫ ﻣﻠﯾون‬535 ‫ﻟدﯾﮫ ﺣواﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺗﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺷدد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻧﻣو اﻟروﺣﻲ‬ ‫ ﺑدﻻً ﻣن‬، ‫واﻟﺣﯾﺎة اﻵﺧرة‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺟﺎز ﻓﻲ ھذا اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ ‫اﻵﺛﺎر اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ ﯾﺷدد ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠق اﻟﺛروة‬ ‫ﻻ ﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﺄﻛﯾد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺳﻠوك‬ ، ‫اﻟرﯾﺎدي ﻣن اﻟﻧﺎﺣﯾﺔ اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﯾﺔ‬ ً‫وﻟﻛن ﻻ ﯾزال ﻣﻘﺑوﻻ‬ ، ‫ﻻ ﯾدﻋم اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟطﺑﻘﻲ‬ ‫واﻷﻓراد ﻟدﯾﮭم ﺑﻌض اﻟﺗﻧﻘل‬ ‫وﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﻌﻣل ﻣﻊ اﻷﻓراد‬ ‫ﻣن ﻣﺧﺗﻠف اﻟطﺑﻘﺎت‬ Religious and Ethical Systems 6 of 6 Confucianism • Practiced mainly in China • Teaches the importance of attaining personal salvation through right action • High morals, ethical conduct, and loyalty to others • Economic implications • Three key teachings of Confucianism loyalty, reciprocal obligations, and honesty may all lead to a lowering of the cost of doing business in Confucian societies • Guanxi ©McGraw-Hill Education. ‫اﻟﻛوﻧﻔوﺷﯾوﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻣﺎرس ﺑﺷﻛل رﺋﯾﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺻﯾن‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻠم أھﻣﯾﺔ ﺗﺣﻘﯾق اﻟﺧﻼص‬ ‫اﻟﺷﺧﺻﻲ ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﻌﻣل‬ ‫اﻟﺻﺣﯾﺢ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﻼق اﻟﻌﺎﻟﯾﺔ واﻟﺳﻠوك‬ ‫اﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ واﻟوﻻء ﻟﻶﺧرﯾن‬ ‫اﻵﺛﺎر اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻼث ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯾم رﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻛوﻧﻔوﺷﯾﺔ‬ ‫ واﻻﻟﺗزاﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﺑﺎدﻟﺔ‬، ‫ اﻟوﻻء‬‫ ﻗد ﺗؤدي ﺟﻣﯾﻌﮭﺎ‬- ‫ واﻟﺻدق‬، ‫إﻟﻰ ﺧﻔض ﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻋﻣﺎل اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎت اﻟﻛوﻧﻔوﺷﯾوﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺟواﻧﻛﺳﻲ‬ Language 1 of 2 Spoken Language • Language structures the way we see the world • Countries with more than one language often have more than one culture • Chinese is the mother tongue of the largest number of people • English is becoming the language of international business ‫اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻣﺗﺣدﺛﺔ‬ ‫ھﯾﺎﻛل اﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺑﺎﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﻧرى ﺑﮭﺎ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻠدان اﻟﺗﻲ ﻟدﯾﮭﺎ أﻛﺛر ﻣن ﻟﻐﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺑﺎ ﻣﺎ ﯾﻛون ﻟﮭﺎ أﻛﺛر ﻣن‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ واﺣدة‬ ‫اﻟﺻﯾﻧﯾﺔ ھﻲ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻷم ﻷﻛﺑر ﻋدد ﻣن اﻟﻧﺎس‬ ‫أﺻﺑﺣت اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻹﻧﺟﻠﯾزﯾﺔ ﻟﻐﺔ اﻷﻋﻣﺎل اﻟﺗﺟﺎرﯾﺔ اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ‬ ©McGraw-Hill Education. Language 2 of 2 Unspoken Language • Nonverbal communication • Often culturally bound ‫ﻟﻐﺔ ﻏﯾر ﻣﻌﻠﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺗواﺻل ﻏﯾر اﻟﻠﻔظﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻛﺛﯾر ﻣن اﻷﺣﯾﺎن ﻣرﺗﺑطﺔ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ‬ • Personal space ©McGraw-Hill Education. Learning Objective 4-2 Identify the forces that lead to differences in culture. Education Learning Objective 4-2 Identify the forces that lead to differences in social culture Formal Education • Medium through which individuals learn languages and other skills • Socializes the young into the values and norms of a society • Citizenship and culture • Provides a national competitive advantage ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾم اﻟﻧظﺎﻣﻲ‬ ‫اﻟوﺳﯾط اﻟذي ﯾﺗﻌﻠم اﻷﻓراد ﻣن ﺧﻼﻟﮫ اﻟﻠﻐﺎت واﻟﻣﮭﺎرات‬ ‫اﻷﺧرى‬ ‫إﺿﻔﺎء اﻟﺻﻔﺔ اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺷﺑﺎب ﻓﻲ ﻗﯾم وﻗواﻋد اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣواطﻧﺔ واﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﯾوﻓر ﻣﯾزة ﺗﻧﺎﻓﺳﯾﺔ وطﻧﯾﺔ‬ ©McGraw-Hill Educ...
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‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

‫وزارة التعليم‬

Ministry of Education

‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬

Saudi Electronic
University

College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 2
Introduction to International Business (MGT 321)
Due Date: 12/11/2022 @ 23:59

Course Name: Introduction to International
Student’s Name:
Business
Course Code: MGT-321

Student’s ID Number:

Semester: First

CRN:
Academic Year:2022-23-1st

For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name: Haifa Al-Harith
Students’ Grade:

Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low

Marks Obtained/Out of 15

General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY



The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via
allocated folder.



Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.



Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be
reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover
page.



Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.



Late submission will NOT be accepted.



Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students
or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No
exceptions.



All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced)
font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered
plagiarism).



Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.

Learning Outcomes:


Discuss the reasons and methods of governments' intervention in trade (CLO: 1.2)



Analyze the effects of culture, politics and economic systems in the context of
international business (CLO: 2.1)



Carry out effective self-evaluation through discussing economic systems in the
international business context (CLO: 3.6)

Report Writing

Select any publicly listed Saudi Company that operates in Europe and/or Africa, and
write a (minimum of 2000 word) report covering the following points:

1. Present the study report with clear Introduction and Conclusion including your
own views.

(minimum

words:

500,

marks: 3)

2. Using SWOT analysis, analyze the external and internal environment of your
selected company.

(minimum words: 900, marks: 7)

Strengths: Explain the strengths of the selected company;
Weaknesses: Describe the areas of weakness in the company's operations;
Opportunities: Examine factors that may improve the company's chances of
success;
Threats: Discuss the external threats to the business company's success.

3. Analyze the political, economic, cultural and legal challenges the company
currently faces in any of the country it operates (select one country in which the
company operates for this analysis).

(minimum words: 600, marks: 5)

Answers
1. AnswerIntroduction and conclusion
Saudi Aramco Company, initially known as Saudi Arabian Oil Company, refers
to multinational gas and oil organization with its headquarters in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
The company's operation comprises producing and exploring natural gas, oil, and other
downstream activities consisting of petrochemical and refining manufacturing. It is also
involved in other activities such as base oils, power generation, and lubricants. The Saudi
Aramco Company is the second largest organization, with almost 270 billion barrels
globally with crude oil reserves. The company has significantly contributed to Global
Carbon Emissions since 1965 through the process of producing oil. Its profitability in the
distribution of gases and oil eclipses technical organizations such as Alphabet's Google
and Apple Company. The mission statement of Saudi Aramco Company necessitates that
the organization is working to remain committed to providing the best energy in the
world by maximizing the value of the nation's petroleum, which benefits the citizens.
Therefore the company operates under the notion that its products meet the needs and
wants of the customers. So the Saudi Aramco Company helps provides its products to the
customers through trading and supply, retail, and distribution operations.
In the global environment, the Saudi Aramco Company is represented through
major global markets comprising North America, Asia, and Europe. In 2016, the
company established a strategy to attract more customers in its venture under the
leadership of Mohammed bin Salman which, the company started experie...


Anonymous
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