Project Plan: t-Test
Name: Jahavanne Gordon
A. Type of statistical test you plan to conduct (check one, and give relevant details)
◻ 2-sample t-test
a) Target populations (2): Pro football players and NBA basketball players.
b) Research variable: The height of footballers and basketball players.
c) Research question: football and basketball players need to be tall since this is an added advantage in
both sports. However, logic has it that the basket players are taller than footballers since they need to use
their height most of the time. In this case am making an examination of whether these heights of the
basketball players is larger than footballers in the leagues. This makes the null hypothesis be that the
difference between the heights of these players is not large and the alternative is that the average height of
footballers is shorter than the basketball players’ average height.
d) Expected result: since both of these two sports need good height of the players, but for basketball it’s a
bit unique since the ball must be thrown over the opponents’ height for the players to make runs and score.
This makes the assumption that the basketball players are taller than footballers more realistic. This means
am expecting to reject the null hypothesis and make conclusion than the average height of footballers is less
than that of basketball players.
B. Data collection plan (check one, and give relevant details)
◻
I will use data from a file. Give name of file and details below.
http://college.cengage.com/mathematics/brase/understandable_statistics/7e/students/datasets/tvis/frames/fram
e.html
Dataset name is Height of Football Players vs. Basketball Players
◻ Other data collection plan: Give specific details below.
Project plan is:
Instructor Initials
NOT Accepted
Accepted Date
t-Test Project Instructions and Rubric
Project Overview
1. Choose a research question:
a) that can be addressed using a t-test
b) for which you can collect data to analyze
2. Devise a plan to collect your data
3. Submit a project plan form to the instructor and obtain approval
4. Once your research question and data collection plan are approved, carry out your research:
a) Collect data
b) Conduct t-test analysis, using guidelines below
c) Write your results in a report, using the outline given below
5. Turn in your written report using the link in Module 9 of the course Blackboard site.
Data Collection Options: The following are suggestions on where you can collect data.
1. Reliable/reputable websites (e.g., sponsored by the census bureau, professional sports leagues, universities, real estate
agencies, car manufacturers, consumer groups, financial institutions, well- known product manufacturers, restaurants/fast
food companies, weather tracking agencies, county/city/state/federal government organizations, etc.)
2. Visit to one or more locations where item(s) you are researching can be found (e.g., stores to write down prices, rivers
to count turtles, car dealers to write down data about cars, etc.)
3. Other resource by permission (if you have an idea, ask your instructor).
Important Note: ERAU and all other universities have strict policies and approval procedures for any research projects that involve
collecting data from human subjects. There is not time in this course for you to go through that approval process. Therefore, your
project in this course cannot involve directly collecting data from human subjects. This includes conducting surveys.
Project Design
There are 3 project design options for the t-test project, listed below. To see components and examples for each type of project
design, consult the t-test Project Examples Word document or the t-test Project Resources PowerPoint file.
A. The 1-sample t-test (Sample size must be at least n = 40.)
B. The matched pairs t-test (Sample size must be at least n = 40.)
C. The 2-sample t-test (independent samples) (Sample size must be at least n = 50. You may split this across your two
samples; for example, you may have two independent samples of size 25, or one of 27 and another of 23, etc. Although your
independent samples are not required to be identical in size, it is better if the sample sizes are similar.)
t-Test Project Instructions and Rubric
Page 2 of 7
Project Plan Form
Download a copy of the project plan Word document, t-Test Project Plan, save a copy for your records, and then complete the form.
Upload the completed form using the link provided in the module assignment item. If the form is not completed satisfactorily, it will be
returned to you for revision.
NOTE:
Your project plan must be approved by the instructor before you may begin your project!
Project Report Layout and Grading Rubric
Your final report should be written in paragraph form and should include the following 10 sections: Introduction, Population(s),
Variable(s), Data Collection, Study Design, Results – Descriptive Statistics, Results – Confidence interval(s), Results –
Hypothesis Test(s), Findings, and Discussion. An explanation of what should be addressed in each section is described
below. Read this entire paper prior to beginning your project and use it when writing your project.
All portions of the rubric that will be used to grade your paper are included in the discussion below. There are 20 items in the grading
rubric. Each is worth a maximum of 5 points for a total or 100 points. The layout of the rubric is as follows:
Item Name
Performance necessary to
achieve 5 points.
Performance necessary to
achieve 4 points.
Performance necessary to
achieve 0 to 3 points.
Introduction. State the topic of your study as a research question AND as a specific hypothesis that you tested; your specific hypothesis should
note a statistically significant result that you expected to find AND the practical reason that you expected this result (your rationale).
Overview of
Research
Stated clearly: (1) Research
question, (2) Expected findings,
(3) Rationale
Two of the three criteria at left
are satisfied.
Research question and
expected findings not stated
clearly. Rationale not explained.
Population(s). Define clearly the population(s) that you intend for your study to represent. (Examples: all NFL football players, all cars
manufactured this year, all biology majors at NGCSU, all small towns in the Southeastern U.S., all shoppers at the Daytona Beach Wal-Mart, all
houses for sale in Metro Atlanta, etc.)
Research
Population
Specified
Revised 6/10/13
Targeted population(s) welldefined and appropriate.
Reasonable target population(s)
defined, but not fully appropriate
Target population(s) of research
project not defined, poorly
defined, or incorrect.
t-Test Project Instructions and Rubric
Page 3 of 7
Variable(s). Define clearly the variable(s) that you will obtain during your data collection (e.g., gender, age, salary, price, miles per gallon, score
on a particular personality test, miles commuted one-way to school daily, major, etc.) This must be specific: “time spent watching TV” is too
vague; “number of hours spent watching TV in the last 3 days” would be specific enough. If your variable is a measurement (e.g., height) give
units (e.g., inches). If your variable is a score (e.g., on a personality quiz), give the range of possible scores (e.g., 0 to 15).
Definition of
Variables
Research variable named;
measurement and possible
values of variable are clearly
defined.
Research variable named, but
details are lacking on how
variable is measured or
quantified.
Research variable not
adequately defined.
Data Collection. Describe your data collection process and sampling strategy. If you located data on a website, provide the URL and tell how
you selected individuals from that website to include in your sample. If you obtained data from an agency, office, store, or other similar source,
explain where you went and how you selected items to include in your sample. If you collected measurements, describe the device you used
(e.g., tape measure, odometer, scale, stopwatch, etc.) No matter what data collection process you used, address: a) what steps you took to avoid
bias in your sample; and b) whether you believe the sample(s) you obtained were representative of the population. Tell why or why not. Include
a table with your raw sample (not summarized) data as an appendix at the end of the report.
Data Collection:
Data Sources,
Instruments,
Measurement
Data Collection:
Sampling
Data
Representation:
Raw Data
Revised 6/10/13
Data collection procedure
explained fully, including (1)
Source of data identified clearly
(website address, etc.), (2)
Sound measures taken to
ensure accuracy of data, (3)
Copy of survey, description of
measurement procedures, or
other specific data collection
details provided.
Two of the three criteria at left
are satisfied.
Ineffective data collection
procedures OR poor description
of data collection procedures.
(1) Sampling strategy explained
fully, (2) Sound measures taken
to avoid bias explained, (3)
Representative sample
addressed adequately.
Two of the three criteria at left
are satisfied.
Ineffective sampling procedures
OR poor description of sampling
strategy.
Raw sample data (not summary
data) are included in the study
in a complete and organized
manner.
Raw sample data (not summary
data) are given, but presentation
is incomplete or disorganized.
Raw sample data used in the
study are not provided.
t-Test Project Instructions and Rubric
Page 4 of 7
Study Design. Identify the statistical test you conducted to analyze your data. Also tell which type of design you used (one-sample, matched
pairs, etc.) Give other design details (e.g., was it1-sided or 2-sided? Left-tailed or right-tailed?) State your null and alternative hypotheses, both in
words and in appropriate mathematical symbols. If you used a matched pairs design, explain clearly how the pairs of values were matched and
how the difference was computed (e.g., by subtracting before – after, left – right, etc.)
Statistical Test and
Hypotheses
Statement
Correct statistical test and type
of design used. Null and
alternative hypotheses stated
correctly in words AND in
mathematical terms.
Some errors in statement of
statistical test and type design.
Null and alternative hypotheses
stated correctly in mathematical
terms but not in words or vice
versa.
Type of statistical test and/or
type design stated incorrectly.
Null and alternative hypotheses
not stated in mathematical
terms or stated incorrectly.
Results: Descriptive Statistics. Give descriptive statistics (sample size, mean, standard deviation, and 5-number summary) for each data set.
Note that t-tests for 2 independent samples will require statistics for 2 sets of data-- one for each of the two separate samples. Matched pairs ttests will require statistics for 3 sets of data-- one for each of the 2 related values (e.g., before and after) and another one for the difference
between each pair of numbers. Report each set of descriptive statistics using an appropriate table and chart. All tables and charts should be placed
directly in your report. Discuss the implications of the descriptive statistics in terms of your research problem. Discuss whether the conditions
necessary for the confidence intervals and hypothesis tests you used are satisfied and support your discussion with appropriate charts/graphs.
Descriptive
Statistics:
Research Variable
For each data set, research
variable is described fully, using
mean, standard deviation, 5number summary and
appropriate charts and/or
graphs.
A summary of the research
variable is given for each data
set, but at least one summary is
incomplete. Charts and/or
graphs are used but some are
inappropriate.
Descriptive statistics for
research variables omitted or
not given clearly for each data
set. Charts and graphs not
included.
Conclusion and
Discussion of
Descriptive
Statistics
Discussion of results of
descriptive statistics including
summary statistics and chart
and graphs is insightful; adds
meaning and significance to the
report; no unwarranted
conclusions.
Adequate discussion of results
of descriptive statistics including
summary statistics and chart
and graphs and their practical
implications; reasonable
explanation of findings offered;
no unwarranted conclusions.
Implications of results of
descriptive statistics including
summary statistics and chart
and graphs not discussed; no
attempt to explain findings.
Report draws unwarranted
conclusions or uses
inappropriately certain
language.
Revised 6/10/13
t-Test Project Instructions and Rubric
Data
Representation:
Charts/Graphs
Conditions necessary for the
inferential statistics used in the
report to be valid are discussed
and verified with appropriate
charts, graphs, or tables, or note
is made that the confidence
intervals or tests may not be
valid due to those conditions not
being satisfied.
Page 5 of 7
Conditions necessary for the
inferential statistics used in the
report to be valid are mentioned
with an inadequate attempt to
verify them or some but not all
are verified.
Conditions necessary for the
inferential statistics used in the
report to be valid are either not
mentioned or no attempt is
made to verify them.
Results: Confidence Interval. Report an appropriate confidence interval for your study; include the end points of the confidence interval, margin
of error, and description of the meaning.
Statistical Analysis
– Confidence
Intervals
Correct confidence interval(s)
used and (1) explanation of all
details is thorough, articulate,
and precise, (2) accurate end
points reported, (3) accurate
margin of error reported.
Correct confidence interval(s)
used AND two of the three
criteria at left are met.
Inappropriate confidence
intervals used OR no
confidence interval(s) used,
reported, or explained correctly.
Results: Hypothesis Test. Report the results of your hypothesis test; include the test statistic, degrees of freedom, and the p value of the
significance test.
Statistical Analysis
- Hypothesis Test
Interpretation of
Hypothesis Test
and p-Value
Results
Revised 6/10/13
Correct hypothesis test is
conducted and (1) explanation
of all details of test is thorough,
articulate, and precise, (2)
accurate t statistic reported, (3)
accurate p-value reported.
Correct hypothesis test is
conducted AND two of the three
criteria at left are met.
Inappropriate hypothesis test
conducted OR hypothesis test
not conducted, reported, or
explained correctly.
Includes correct interpretation of
the p-value in terms of the
specific problem being studied
and is correct and consistent
with respect to (1) Level of
Significance, (2) Rejection of the
Null Hypothesis, (3) Real-world
conclusion about subject being
studied.
Results are interpreted correctly
and consistently with respect to:
(1) significance, (2) rejection of
null hypothesis, (3) real world
conclusion about subject being
studied.
p-values not interpreted
correctly or consistently
t-Test Project Instructions and Rubric
Page 6 of 7
Findings. Interpret the results in the context of your original research question. Do your analyses support your expected findings? Explain.
Interpret p-values and discuss significance levels. Compare the results of your confidence intervals and hypothesis test.
Conclusion and
Discussion of
Inferential
Statistics
Discussion of results of
inferential statistics in terms of
the problem studied including
results of confidence interval(s)
and hypothesis test(s) is
insightful; adds meaning and
significance to the report; no
unwarranted conclusions.
Adequate discussion of results
of inferential statistics in terms
of the problem studied and their
practical implications;
reasonable explanation of
findings offered; no unwarranted
conclusions.
Implications of results of
inferential statistics not
discussed; no attempt to explain
findings. Report draws
unwarranted conclusions or
uses inappropriately certain
language (such as the
hypothesis test proves the
hypothesis).
Relationship
between
Hypothesis Tests
and Confidence
Intervals
Explanation of the relationship
between the hypothesis test and
confidence intervals is included
and correctly explains how
conclusions from both
techniques are the same.
Explanation of the relationship
between the hypothesis test and
confidence intervals is
attempted, but with some minor
errors.
No attempt is made to explain
the relationship between the
hypothesis test and confidence
intervals, or an attempt is made,
but is inaccurate.
Discussion. What conclusions, if any, do you believe you can draw as a result of your study? If the results were not what you expected, what
factors might explain your results? What did you learn from the project about the population(s) you studied? What did you learn about the
research variable? What did you learn about the specific statistical test you conducted?
Summary
Discussion of
Project
Revised 6/10/13
Good discussion of what the
student learned from the
project, the research variable,
the statistical test conducted,
and results that can be drawn
from the study. Discussion
shows insight and
thoughtfulness.
Adequate discussion of what
the student learned from the
project, the research variable,
the statistical test conducted,
and results that can be drawn
from the study. Shows that
some thought was given to the
implications of the study.
No discussion of what the
student learned from the
project, the research variable,
the statistical test conducted or
the discussion is superficial with
little thought or insight.
t-Test Project Instructions and Rubric
Page 7 of 7
The last four items from the grading rubric shown below apply to the report overall, not to a specific section.
Project Plan
Approved project plan form,
signed by instructor, is attached
to project report.
Approval obtained on project
plan, but approval sheet missing
from submitted report.
Incomplete or missing project
plan or approval not obtained.
Report Format
Project report is submitted as a
formal paper in paragraph form
with full sentences, and is typed
and well formatted.
Project report is submitted as a
formal paper, but with minor
issues (e.g., poor or inconsistent
formatting, not typed.
Project report is not submitted
as a formal paper OR Final
report is written in Excel or other
program with no paragraph
formatting.
Originality and
Initiative
An original research topic was
selected AND report
demonstrates initiative in
carrying the project out.
An original research topic was
selected for this project.
Topic selected is not original; it
has been studied frequently by
other students.
Writing and
Readability
Report is exceptionally well
organized and well written, with
all charts and tables embedded
in report.
Report is reasonably organized
and readable with few writing
errors; all charts and tables are
embedded in report.
Report is poorly organized and
hard to follow; charts and tables
not embedded in report; many
writing errors, awkward
sentences.
Revised 6/10/13
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