Self Directed Learning Theory Essay

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In this writing, show how different ideas of "fragmentation" play out in the various works we have been discussing.

Please choose three works from our Week 1 and Week 2 materials as contrasting examples. Try to define "fragmentation" in three different ways, as exemplified by the three works you choose to write about. At least two of your examples should be works of music. Try to be as specific as you can about the exact ways in which the artistic substance is fragmented, describing this process as best you can, in the vocabulary that is available to you.

Do not add filler information learned from the internet, and do not give value judgements or critiques of the works. Write as concretely as you can, and point to specific features of the artworks, however detailed or small, to buttress your statements.

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UNIT II STUDY GUIDE Major Training Theories Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Formulate different developmental approaches to training. 1.1 Create training activities based on a chosen theory. 2. Describe major training-related theories. 2.1 Discuss the primary tenets of a training theory. 2.2 Explain why a theory was chosen for a specific training situation. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes 1.1 2.1 2.2 Learning Activity Unit Lesson Article: “Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice” Article: “We Knew It All Along! Using Cognitive Science to Explain How Andragogy Works” Unit II PowerPoint Presentation Unit Lesson Article: “Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice” Article: “We Knew It All Along! Using Cognitive Science to Explain How Andragogy Works” Webpage: TEAL Center Fact Sheet No. 11: Adult Learning Theories Unit II PowerPoint Presentation Unit Lesson Article: “Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice” Article: “We Knew It All Along! Using Cognitive Science to Explain How Andragogy Works” Webpage: TEAL Center Fact Sheet No. 11: Adult Learning Theories Unit II PowerPoint Presentation Required Unit Resources In order to access the following resources, click the links below. Chen, J. C. (2014). Teaching nontraditional adult students: Adult learning theories in practice. Teaching in Higher Education, 19(4), 406–418. t=true&db=a9h&AN=94773613&site=ehost-live&scope=site Hagen, M., & Park, S. (2016). We knew it all along! Using cognitive science to explain how andragogy works. European Journal of Training and Development, 40(3), 171–190. Teaching Excellence in Adult Literacy Center. (n.d.). TEAL Center fact sheet no. 11: Adult learning theories. Literacy Information and Communication System. HRM 6303, Training and Development 1 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Unit Lesson Title Major Training Theories The manner in which adults and children learn is different. Therefore, before embarking upon the design and development of any training/development program, it is important to consider adult learning principles and how adults learn best. Andragogy is the study of how adults learn (Knowles, 1980). Conversely, pedagogy is the study of how children learn (Knowles, 1980). Andragogy rests upon six assumptions about the differences between how adults and children learn, which are listed below. 1. Self-concept: As people mature, their self-concept moves from being dependent on others toward being self-directed individuals. 2. Experience: As people mature, they accumulate a wealth of knowledge and experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning. 3. Readiness to learn: As people mature, their readiness to learn becomes more oriented toward the developmental tasks of their social roles (e.g., spouse, employee, parent, citizen). 4. Orientation to learning: As people mature, their perspective of time in regard to the approaches of learning shift from postponed application of knowledge to more immediate applicability. Also, there is a change from subject-focused learning to problem-focused learning. 5. Motivation to learn: As people mature, there is an increasing internal desire and motivation to learn. 6. Unlearn to learn: As people mature, the ways they have learned over time are often ingrained within their learning approach. Interventions in adult learning help them accept fresh perspectives and new ways of learning (Knowles, 1980). Given the various assumptions of andragogy, there are several learning theories that align with these assumptions. The theories we will explore are experiential learning, transformative learning theory, action theory, situated learning theory, and self-directed learning theory. Experiential Learning Theory The experiential learning theory involves the process whereby knowledge is created through experience. According to Cherry (n.d.), the theory was first proposed by psychologist David Kolb. Kolb (1984) believed that the creation of knowledge is accomplished through the reflective feedback of a given experience. The four steps that depict this model are listed below. • • • Concrete experience: Here, the learner is put into a situation where he or she can experience something and receive feedback from that experience. For example, a chef gathers all of the proper ingredients to bake lasagna. After going through the steps of putting the ingredients together, baking the lasagna, and serving it to the guests, the guests give feedback to the chef that the lasagna is too bland. Reflective observation: Here, the learner reflects upon any inconsistencies between experience and understanding. For example, the chef begins to reflect on why the guests believe the lasagna is bland. The chef may even taste the lasagna to try and pinpoint what else is needed to bring flavor to the bland lasagna. Abstract conceptualization: As the learner continues to reflect upon the experience, it gives rise to a new idea or modification to an existing concept. Essentially, the individual has learned from the experience. Back to our example with the chef and bland lasagna, after much reflection, the chef may realize that more salt is needed in addition to other spices and ingredients. HRM 6303, Training and Development 2 • Active experimentation: The learner now takes what he or she learned and begins to apply it. This can happen in the same experience or a different one. For example, the chef takes a second attempt to bake lasagna and applies what he or she learned by adding additional salt, spices, and ingredients to the lasagna. The process can be repeated until the desired results are achieved. UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Transformative Learning Theory Transformative learning theory is described as the way that learning changes how an individual thinks about the world and about himself or herself (Teaching Excellence in Adult Literacy Center [TEAL], n.d.). This type of learning requires a shift in consciousness. For example, an individual from another country comes and Figure 1: Cycle representing levels of the learning process lives in the United States and, after learning English and becoming confident and proficient in it, has a different view of U.S. culture and practices. In transformative learning, individuals engage in reflective discourse that challenges their deeply held beliefs and assumptions, which creates a shift in their frame of thinking. Action Theory Action learning is a reflective process whereby action is taken by a learner in a real-life learning scenario, and the learner is asked to reflect on the action taken. This type of learning is often engaged as a team. A group or team is formed and encouraged to meet on a regular basis to come up with solutions to problems. The team decides on the appropriate solution together. In this scenario, learning occurs collectively as a group as the team reflects on outcomes produced by the solution. Also, the problem-solving method is evaluated to see whether or not it was effective. Situated Learning Theory The situated learning theory involves the use of materials, such as cases, to situate the learner in his or her own operational context. In other words, learning happens in the context of a given activity or real-world situation. For example, an individual wanting to obtain a driver’s license will first learn the information via driving school in a classroom setting. Once the classroom information has been assimilated, the driver will then be asked to demonstrate this knowledge by driving a vehicle in a controlled setting (e.g., parking lot or some other open space). After skills have been mastered in the controlled setting, the student will now be asked to drive on the road with other drivers to test his or her driving ability. Self-Directed Learning Theory The self-directed learning theory (SDL) is a process in which adult learners take the initiative to learn without the help of others (TEAL, n.d.). Learners plan, execute, and evaluate their own learning experiences. SDL will typically happen outside of a classroom setting. The characteristics of SDL include that learners make choices about the methods, content, resources, and evaluation of the learning experience. The learners take responsibility on their own learning by determining their needs, setting their own goals, identifying resources on their own, implementing a plan to achieve their learning goals, and then evaluating their outcomes by measuring how close they have achieved their goals. HRM 6303, Training and Development 3 Adult Learning Styles UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title From the adult learning theories discussed above comes the concept of adult learning styles. As we noted earlier, the methods by which adults learn are different than the way children learn. This difference is not only in cognitive processes but also in direct learning styles. Learning styles could be referred to as the way that individuals process and take in new information (Barbe et al., 1979). According to Barbe et al. (1979), there are three major learning styles seen in adult learners. Those learning styles are visual, audible, and kinesthetic learning styles. We are exploring all three learning styles and discussing ways to tailor learning to each individual style. Visual learning: Visual learners are individuals who learn best through seeing or visualizing material. These learners have a need to see body language and facial expressions to fully understand the content. There is a preference to sit at the front within a classroom setting to avoid any obstruction to their visual senses. These learners think in pictures and learn best from visual displays. In order to cater to learning styles of the visual learner, one must take into consideration visuals to enhance the learning experience. Visual tools could include items such as diagrams, illustrated textbooks, PowerPoint slides, computer graphics, flip charts, or handouts. Audible learning: Audible learners are individuals who learn best through hearing. These individuals interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to speed, pitch, tone, and voice. Hence, discussions, talking through things, lectures, reading text aloud, and listening to recordings are the preferred learning methods of this group and the best way to cater to their learning style to enhance learning. Kinesthetic learning: Kinesthetic learners are individuals who learn best through a hands-on approach. This type of learning is also known as tactile learning. Kinesthetic learners prefer to be physically engaged in their learning by actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it difficult to sit through a lecture for long periods at a time and may become distracted by their need for exploration and activity. Visual • See It Audible • Hear It Kinesthetic • Do It Figure 2: Learning styles One thing to note when considering the learning styles above is that the entire concept of aligning training programs with learning styles is a Western-based concept and may not transfer well to all cultures. It is important to consult with local experts when designing training programs for a global audience. This will allow the trainer to tailor activities to the distinct cultural needs of the local audience. References Barbe, W. B., Swassing, R. H., & Milone, M. N. (1979). Teaching through modality strengths: Concepts and practices. Zaner-Bloser. Cherry, K. (n.d.). The David Kolb theory of how experience influences learning. VeryWell Mind. Knowles, M. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: Andragogy versus pedagogy (Rev. and updated ed.). Cambridge Adult Education. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (Vol. 1). Prentice Hall. HRM 6303, Training and Development 4 Teaching Excellence in Adult Literacy Center. (n.d.). TEAL Center fact sheet no. 11:xAdult learning theories. UNIT STUDY GUIDE Literacy Information and Communication System. initiatives/teal/guide/adultlearning HRM 6303, Training and Development 5
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Summary of learning theories
Different theories explain learning in adults and children; these include; self-directed
learning, experimental, and action theories. In self-directed learning theory, learning takes place
outside the classroom and is essentially an informal process. Teachers can use various techniques
to supplement traditional classroom instruction and promote SDL for small groups or individuals
of students. In experimental learning theory, knowledge is created through experience; in this
theory, adults learn best by doing. Action theory involves a group; the group chooses the best
answer as a whole. As the team considers the results of the solution, learning takes place as a
group in this situation. The effectiveness of the approach to problem-solving is also assessed.


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There is a greater difference between how adults and children learn; this has been
explained in different theories. Before starting any training or development program, different
adult learning principles are put into consideration. This essay will discuss various learning
theories that explain how adult learners learn. Theories of adult literacy offer information into
how adults learn, and they can assist teachers in perfecting their skills and being more aware of
the require...

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