informal and off the record chat After The Meeting

timer Asked: Nov 7th, 2017
account_balance_wallet $10

Question description

1)In this chapter 8, when you have an informal and off the record chat with one of the performers after the meeting, what question will you use as the most important prompt to help you structure that conversation? Why?

Hint: Please reference the course content at page 127( don't use other reference )

2)In this chapter 9, the researchers say... "If great manager seem scare, it's because the talent required to be one is rare." Gallup finds that great managers have several talents listed at page 140. Can you choose one talent that you think it would be the most important trait for you to be a great manager? And explain why?

- r, au wrll cio as a solutron. - :lave this list of rortt causes r- .ertainly incompLete ancl -lcr people rvho are on the - 'n: \ic$ ,rl rihrt i>g,'rn.t,,[]r. not mentioninq soma :':mber. the prrrblem holdci r..-.r lo perlormance. This i. -.,1'l be vrsrble until #freffiffi&ffi#- ffi ,rr1'r.. '. Iiyou'solutloneer' at lhi: :. ..rrnance problem. yoLi ar. ,.:lr holc1er. Stage 3 - After the meeting -..1 tltent ,,n thr'tr ir:in'..,-:--.'rn in a \vay that lels [f ie r: .. hc lur:r'rriu',rking rr'i:- ' : rhe ir u,'ants lvith theLr IC.-. actua1l1r need so Lhe-v'--(rme rvhat the). rvanL an- -i.rt rvas. because ther, \\-i Most people learning too narrowly as ntere 'proble m-solving,, so they focus on identift,ing and correcting errors in the external enyirorunent Solving problems is importctnt. But if learning is to persist, mcntd.gers and employees nrust also looh inward. They need to reJ'l"ect critically on their ownbehayiour, identiJy the ways they often inadt,ertently contribute to the otganisation\ pr"oblems, and then change how they act. Chris Argvris 'T-ha Irimrrr , 'utr r'rrtc: ol this thircl stage are to c()mplete the clizrgntrsties, Lgr,'r. thc .',iuri,'n. ir to be usec1. and start takrng action. In eflect, thc pcrformance cor-Lsultancy llrocess r,vi11 morph inio it prolect manaqement Process. 1l all has gone r,r.ell cluring rhe first Lw-() stages, 1,ou will b1,nor,v, have a good foundation rn p1ace. The problerr-r holder will have realised rhat rhe ir initial requeslecl solr-rtitx rvoulcl not have soh.ed their problem. ahhough of course lt could encl up berng a part ol the eventual solulion. The1, lvill no longer be - 121 - {,,qF,q8{LIrY AE BWI}RK and someone They w111 see you as an a1ly in[eracting with you as an order taker' now have problem- You 1ls1 who can help them a",i"atf-t their perfoimance abour rhe probable barriers ;;;g" ;;"r'nt of inlormarlon about rhe slruarlon, effectively' and some initlal that are getting 1" th" ;;; tJ people performing icleas on how to deal wrth those barriers' [o [ake the process forward' This You need to lhink carefully about how a solutlon the future programme to implement w111 depend on the stal" of intermsofthe.o,.,-olfailureandrhebenefitsofsuccess.Itdependson to deal with the also need thc numher of people who are involvecl' You may i,,li.;;i8tt. who may sLili be lumping up and d'rwn wanlinP' point of work- Thhow they do thinq, and what theY nez Cther than the fac they can feed inti the problem, ther The perlormers br success of those s' way lo achreving t a o-0.l.. Be careful in been defined training course. Yot as been told bY the Sofarmostottheinformationthatyouhavehascomelromtheproblem holder,wholsthemanagerwhoisresponsiblefortheperformanceofthat is only one side of t'he story' It would particular part ol tt-t" ,,ginisution' That into choosing and implementing not be wise [o *ou" f,r"r-urd at thrs s[age oneormoresolutio"'*"t-to"gettingothersidestothestory'Therewillbe *ho* you shouid speak to get a balanced several groups of stakehold"" *]th viewoftheproblemanditseff.ects,andgarherfurtherinformalionthatcouid from their Point w111 get from thr be a significant c unlikely to have and a wlllingnes balance of view percetved as the prove relevant and useful: that is' the people 1. The workers who are at the heart of the problem; or another' are not who are.the performers who' for one reason 2. 3. 4. level capable of performing at an adequate The managers of the Performers The manager of the problem holder are allected by the curren[ Peopie ln other operational areas who problem be affected bY solving the ieople in other operational areas who will nroblem I with the solulions' O ieopl" who will probably need lo be involved r. The performers 1 times am continually surprlsecl by how many 1 see solutions to a performance wirh the performers' Perhaps ir is pr,:rfrL"* put in ptu.. ittlot'r any dialogue what is happening at the because management thinks it totally,ir-rd"rrtunds - 1,24 - You should, of c members of his t however, he ma the amount of i productivitY. BY ship between th may also indrcat they fear will cc with the team. If the grouP t''t tional unit, rhe: the problem the best oe -particular ind.'; problem ht--ir<: leam memb::= {*r.cq-r 3 ls :rn a1ly :r \bu and somear.. also now- har--: :he probable barrier: r e 1r', and some r--,cess * 4,r re*. irEr \!rrrF\{, - -,int of work. Thrs ls never the case. The perlormers have a unlque r.iew of - --u- they do things, wha[ m:rkes their job easy or dillicult. who they rely on, .rd what they need in order to be able to do their ]ob more easily. initi.t lorward Thi. :rpLement a sohrtirrr rress. it depencls or r-:e d ro deal .,i,ith rhc .rd dttwn rvanting : -'iher than the lact that they hal,e a huge amouni oI uselul information thar :-1.)r can feed rnto the process ol declding on the ac[lons needed to solrre -:e problem. the;r are the people u,ho will be taking many of thosc actions. -he performers buy-in to the chosen solutions wr11 usually be crucial ro the :.-iCCeSS ol those solutrons, and including them in the process wlll go a long '.', a)- to achieving that buy-in le :i irom the probiern :-.erlbrmance o1'tha: ,'i the sroryr It woulci : and implementtng I :tt)rv There will be <.rk to get a balance c1 i--rrnation that could :hat is, rhe people r.-iher, are not r\'[he current :d by solving rhe carelul in 1,es, approach to the organisational r,rnjt or team thrr has reen defined as underperformtng. AL1 you have so far is what you have :een told by the problem holder. and although I woulcl hope it rs accurate -rom their point of vieu,. it may weli be very differenL to the story you u-il1 get lrom the performers. The problem holder Lhemselr,es may well oe a signilicant contributor [o the poor performance, and olcourse this is un1lke1y [o have surlaced during your meeting with them. An open mrnd and a u,illingness to hear a1l sides ol the story rs essential. You need the balance of views between the probiern holder and rhe people who are perceirred as the problem. \bu should, of course, ask the probLem holde r for permission ro approaclr members ol his team. Thls is a reasonable request ancl can hardly be refusecl, however, he may attach some conditrons Io 1-our interaclitrn with them il the amounL ol time y(ru 3i-e requcsrlng u-ith them wouid interrupt [herr productlvit;,1 13y the response yolr get, you r,vi11 learn a lot about rhe relarionshrp betrveen the problem holcler and their [eam. Sometimes, their resp()nse may also rnchcate that the problem hoider could be hiding rnformation rhar they lear will come to the surlace when you cliscnss the pertbrmance issuc with the team. the solutions ol people who are underperlorming covers a rvhole (rrganisational unit, there may welL be one or more layers of management betr,veen the problem hoicle r ancl the performers. Ask the problem holcler r,vho r,vor,rld be the best peopie to speak with, ancl alsLr ask why he rec(.)mmends those particular indivlduals as a good source o1 information. 1r can be helplul il the problem holder sends an email rtr message asking ftrr cooperatron lrom the [eam members when you approach them 1l the group ri i0 a perfr:rmance :rrers. Perhaps it is s happening ar rhe -125- ilapaptl-rrc .qr &V*x.Ei lnformal chats Yourfirststepistohaveabrieflnformaldiscussionwiththerecommended in order tthers who were not recommended' plus members, team ""'pi" "f d"scribe the problem il t1:":u*: wav as the ro get a sense of -h";;;i;;f Now that vieu is signi ficantly cfillerent problem h.rlder' '.lr wherher'thrir decicle can offer, you extra informatioi they can you have some iclea "i*r-r^, You- can also decide spencl getting their input how much time you '-''t"d to *r'"'i"t u should b":11::i1::i::y]or how to go about intervlew process' or questionnalres chars. for example, o'ou tt"ttttred *"d;;;[*"1'' lacil itated grouP 5essions' b1 aiv.are However you decide lo proceed" that they may be reluctant lo reveal thekindofinformation{ratisneededinordertomakeanacculatediagnosis. When You have an :ii: ers, lhere are a [e* ;-: thal conversation: . . What a\r'?rclil:: What is their "--s this bring uP indifference' c': . What do thel : haPPening? ' l: their in any human sysrem_,.,n..1::::t:.* It should also be borne in mrnd rhat Your inreractron of unknown consequence diagnosis is ircelf ';';;;'ion withtheteamwillprobablygenela|esomeb"huviouralchangeswithinthe area' [eam in relation to the problem ne5d the background of effecrively, you In order ro talk wlrh the per{ormers fi"r' *'thot'tt the background' just gt"o the preceding process' lf you 't'"* as much iI you go discussion' but nothing like you will get value [tot'-t titt descrlbed fhe performance consultancy process'as prepared, having clone the because the issues is another plus' h"t;il;;iLy y"' that fact "'"u"tltd know quite a 1ot tlo tut"' and that you c1o already they will realise ;;;"; to a '; ;6;11 also t'eei that they are contributlng about whar i. goirfi politically it is being mked simply because than investlgat'i-o'n rather correct to do so' *t26- "1 holders vT errl good looks lik' itispossibl"th't'y'ttlaticdlstortionswrlloccurwithintheinformation theygive.Thedirectj.onolthesedistor[ionswillclepenclontheclimateofthe respondents will is one of distrust and insecurity, .tir.^," the If organisation. ol fear of blame' inlormation from you because most likely h,d" u'y d'-aging whistle it-' th" misarlventures of This is something, "" #?;:;"''"p*"ary blowers.Alltheteammembersmayviewthein[erview'surveyorteslasan invasionofrheirprivacyandprovide.,i,'i',*tanSweISglfli5llrrtionsbased the climate be ih" t*p"t'"cl or sa{e tttp".ltlt--lf on what they conslder to y-"-l-1:'i: 1ikely to vlew contact with is one of hlgh ^tt exaggerarlon an to ""J;;;;at""g"p"t of{ their chesLs' leading opportuni.ty ," g"' 'ii'r''ln exrst' oi whatever Problems may vieu' . D()es the Prt'bi to them? Cr d' . What needs tc things to be P' What currentl What theY tol What barriers to the require uP with in rhr Who else is tt Are there oth Lan theY adc . ' . . ' ' . Can thrngs ir' can the Proc' in addition, . ' ' You ctr: Find out $'i didn'l u ":' Mentitrn t -: with the ::-' Ask ab"-:: and the:: --: 5l.qfip 3 ] ihe recommended 'mmended, in order he same way as the iillerent. Now that irer, you can decide reluctant to reveal when you have an informal that conversation: . accurate dragnosis. tr. respondents will use olfear olblame. \-entures ol whistle sunrey or les[ as an based t.m, the process of ce . Ycrur interaction .nanges within the :ne backgrouncl ol the background. :-rt .rs much if you ..s as What awareness of the performance problem clo they have? what is their view of rhe perlormance problem? wtrar emotion does this bring up within them: frustration, anger, resignation, surprise or indilhrence, or something else? What clo they think should be happenlng insteacl o[ what is a things to be possible? What currently lrustrates them? What they tolerating now rhar usecl ro frustrate them? what barriers are there that get in the way olthem cloing thelr jobs to the required standard? (Discuss rhe list or barriers that you came up with in the meeting with the problem holder.) Who else is involved wlth this, outside the rlirect team? Are there others involved who are in other silos in the business? Can they add Lo the srakeholder diagram? Can thrngs be slmplified wirhout adding unclue risk? For example, can the process be simplified? ln additlon, you can... grr described. The r:her plus, because ir know quite a 1oi e contributing L0 ause ancl olI the record chat wrth one of the perf.rmyou can use as prompts to help you slructure happening? ls their view olwhar 'good'looks like rhe same as rhe problem holders view? 1f not, why not? (Explain your unclerstanding ol what good looks like, and discuss the difl'erence.) Does the problem holders ,iew ol what good iooks like make sense to them? Or do rhey eunsider ir sil1y or impossible? what needs to happen/change rn order ror the desired way of clorng ,n ihe climate of rhe ri dlstortions :{E i1{EF,.i.'rr{G e,rs, there are a f'er'v quesrions r:n the iniormation nses. 1l the climate -aci with you as an i ro 3o exaggeration ArrEca r Informal chats tru can aLso decide ). through inibrmal r questionnaires or ,e * a it ls pollticalh Fincl out whar changes have been tried befbre. ancl ask whv rhe' drdnt work Mention a lew ol rhe proposecl solutions thar came rrom the meetlng with the problem holder, and ask il those sorutions seem reasonabre Ask about the management they experience from their team leader. and their line managers. - 127 Ceraart-lrv ar W*ei< is that but it is well worthwhile' Something Thls is cluite a lisr to go through' to the current Sther issues,that seem unrelated sure to happen r ,f"t *'"y are working you mentioned' Remember that performance problem;li;"; will that affects the team and its members a system h"'u, u"i with affect their ProductivitY' '"ytf""g Group sessions a discussion q talk to the a $oup and facilitate An advanrlge of ,hi. o the potential around the points -"rriio".a utorr". 1t is also posslble always be und Thls must be problem with except at ther oblivrous to d thelr team and suggesting tha for the freeflowofideas;italsoglvesahighlevelofvisibihtytothediagnosticsploCeSS, whichmakeseventhosewhowerenotinvolvedwiththediscusslonsfeelthat process' their colleagues were part ol the their voice is being r-r"ura, u".u"se ln many of the co get acti've the fishbone dragram as ^^way to a group session, you can use of the ownership They will have"a sense of f"'fo'"lers' involvement from that' they 'f'" the root causes. Following on from decision as to whal actually are that is put in place to tackle will gain a sense "r "*""irrrip of the solution the root causes. ls that fishbone diagram 9n 1wh-riteboard Another advanuge of using the a from it at looklng to one side and then you are pushing the problem oYt lo solution when the problem' or the distance. Thls is u'"ryuseful technlque iht"u' the people y?"'1" ulking with' the problem, i, ,"""-1'-u significant 'o then stand back and look at it together' Take the problem, pin rt on the-wall' ltismuchlessthreateningtotalkabout.tharproblemoverthere,thantoface someone and say'you have a problem'' and [o running a facilitatel gt":O session There is, however, a disadvantage pu1led the siion being hijacked and rhrs is the danger is that the group "?;;;;;th*k'o'.of ti"o vttd puople' Another disadvantage off course by one best "' they insist is the absolute' only and may come ,p t'ltt' a solution thai solu[ion,whicht'"g't"ttt"toillfeelingi[someothersolutionisihenchosen instead of theirs' When discuss same list of bt is i.ntroduced musl rest witl who manage I to provide an As with the P managers tog help them pr through the I is the same sc the original P As you enter implement ea within thr are crearing the wili depend 1 r they go into to their role I When you al it is betier if their boss or open or hon them to do r The managers one of the root performance consultancy fishbone causes that is on almost every are responsible for so Managers diagram t have ever seen is poor management -l)B- out of the ft group of mr information $gacp 3 ''rthwhile. Somc::-, . :.:m unrelated t,,. : ,. i:nber that you a:. !: te am and lts rrii:- -: ,t) . JlrJ la( ilitatc a - ,.]h - 'ni u - responsibility lor the poor performance rhem. Havrng said that, lhere Ls every chance that the people abrliLl' ,,:,-.{e lhem, and so or-t up th. hierarchl', are also failins rn their the people they lnanage ' -i-:-an adecluare managclnenl sen icc to ,.,^.'tc1 because at leasl some ---.irrth .r--dttt J\ d wf,) lr1 -.'- l -e IlSr r,1 rrWIlCl-:L .l 1rp f6, r11 -i. ::'rat is put in place :. leaders or hne -ne perlormers, yclu cou1c1 galher a lew ol the leam - -:r: iogether and lacllitare them through using the fishbone diagram to - -.:iit ptoduaa a list trl rLrot causes or barllers lcr performance. Then gc' .. ih. hsr of barriers and ask them what could be done about rhese. it - _ :,rlre solutions brainstorming approach thal you r.vouid have used wtth , on a whiteboard then looking at 1: :1m :d r-: problem, or the s01 Irnal problem - : peopie you're talkir. ^.rr k rrnrl lo,,k et it t, : '.r'm lrVL T th. rr" Ih;l1'. ,:rclli[ated group - . se-q*ci. . i. l.rinA hil.r.kiJ .rnrt'i: thri thc - - ,dr ant.iqc Lh< absolute. ,'nii should Llse the r-'-,sslng the per{trrmance problem w-ith a manaller' you can ' :: irr{ - - rnptrnents c-,1capabillty that the cluality c'f management -,ltr scrutiny when thete is a perlormance problem' ...oulletpointsmentionedabove..lustbear,l,areclfthedynamicthat .irLh thc discrrssi.,---'-.i-i we re part ol the '11,,1 h{iLE'}{}r{; consicleraLion wl-ren discussLng the perlbrmance else -:t them. Many managers rvill point the hnger ever)'r'vhere rt'rll be :-:n-Lse1ves. Orhers w-i1l \va110r,v rn self-b1ame . Sti11 0lhers - ,.- ihe rt-,1e they should have been playing ln the performance ol ' '.rc1 may actually be quite surprised and affronted if someone starLs : -rat lhey could have clone better' '. -. iagn, ,-r :. - r, , t hc d ]Hf. - ::: taken inlo .)l this is the po[en - ., .\ * Arrua :,n. iltcr 'LrluLi.rn i- Lhcn.- irrance consuLtancy fi sh: ,r.lqcTs are rcjp, 'n.ilrl. i ho1cler. to . cnler the list ol possible solulions, ask who would be best placed - : urdrlt each soiution lnerntably, they will realise that many ol the soiutitll-ts their own part in . -,hin their remlt. ancl u.rrh that they rvjl1 also Iecognise ..']lgtheperlormanceproblem,orallowir-rgiLtoextst.Whathappensnext ,..iend un th. quahtv ol people u'ho have those management roles' Will q.. ir-tro c1enta1, or will they commit ro learning a better rvay and slep up . --:ir rur1e as a manager? -.n )/ou are going through this kLnd ol process wiLh a group ol managers. Il .", il a1i the people in Lhe .qroup are at the same hierarchical 1eve1. .-. r boss or anrtther senior manager is in the fL)om, the,v are unlikely [o be as ,-.n or honest. lt is also possible that the senior manager r'vill start directlng lvhal has come ._l1n Lo c1o certarn things or behave a certain way. based on is much better il the _.i ol rhe fishbone ciiagiam ancl rhe list ol solutions. 1t .:rup of managers coiectivell' ciecide how thel' u'ill respond to the new they :iormarion, ani rhen present this to thelr line manasers as something - t)9 fl e raa ral:rg*,'rg sv*El nx the 'training is the and this is somethlng they are taking ownershrp' would like to do' 1n effect' you should encourage' z they understand th range of barriers to which ones'are quickly the' notice at looking are you When a bad one' or t"Aty because that solution is ;'i #;;' the by dismissed isitbecauseimplemeniingthatsolutionwillresultinsomekindoflossfor Do not be drawn i be put in place. J diagnosis process the managers? recommendadonsas a performance prob]em ' quality of management It is possible io look at*the ton"lt'ncy as anissue'in its own righl' and run that through the perlormant" key factors Ior a management is one of the poor thal apparent 1f it becomes look at thei the next step may wiii be to team or organisationai;;i^'l'"g' example' for p"'fo'*"lt" f'oblem tather than' management as [he f imu'y produced by rhe [eam. ,rr. I1i".rrr", of widgets being holder The manager of the Problem be someone h:11:t is the CEO' so there will It is unlikely that the problem even be the u'-'a of course that mav problem the of boss the is lold."'' who matters' no[ ieas[ stakeholder' and their opinion CEO. They u'" a"ft'-tLiy a will need to sign that thty are the p"'=ot' who because there is "";;; ti;;e that is decided' off the budget o" u"y solution performance problem is you need to find out how important rhis particular of their awareness' or is il ih" something "dg" to the senior manager' Is it .on some[hingrhatkeepsthemawakeut.'ighr?no,r-'"],-u"ttobedirectlyinvoived know what has way' or do th"ylust want-to with any solution in a hands-on this directly' but do they results are? You *ot-tid 'Ioiask been done ,"d *tt'ith" problem like1y hanclle ti.'" ptobi"-t t'oii"''o p,our"* rhe trust ":l:t^:Ts is responsible for? g"^rt thut thi' senior manager impact rr't" ru'g;;'il*itt to on how they manager will have a blg impact senior the wrth discussion Your r" o: ,:lT1 your input into rheir deparrmenr, view rhe value of L&D and t" t:I"|]: want )]'l t6*i t-tt"lly about the points you for thls diu.,,tio" thetime,ftu'yot'ttu'ebeengiven'Youwillprobablyfinditnecessarytoglve with the o.,t i',f rhe meeting you had .u*" ihut resuks the of precis them a tort""ations you had with the performprobiem holder, and subsequ"'-" ers. lr is i-po"u"i't'at barriers or roor ;;;;; a number of possible theyundersknd that there are they may well have to th. p"rfor-*. issue because -130- Talk about the nex ask what level o[ re with any further n People in otht Almost every Per[ effect on other deP be significant to th an annoyance. In what they do beci means that no oni Ask the other sta because this maY z A larger overall co and also affect wh Also ask if theY well be that somt holder could be r oI scale avaiiable the barriers maY organisa[ion, ant ments. A solutior to ali dePartmen Another questi.on the original Perfr problem was too I$'r,r<;r: lis is something r- ir1]es are cluickly t. a bacl one j or :: liind oi loss lor :- 3 * Ar"rpra ll*ts &{F.E'c'[ruG the 'traintng is the ansrver' mlnc1set. \ou need [o get them to the pojnt r'vhere they undersrand that there is likely to be a range of solutions, addressing a range olbarriers to perlbrmance. Do not be clratvn inro making promises, ur confirtning what solutions will be put in place. .lust say that you are sti1l golng through a performance cliagnosls process and you are sti1l gatherlng information before making recommendaLions. rr'lrance problem, r: in ils own right. .: key factLtrs lor a ','r11 be to look al trirn. tor example, laik abi,rut Lhe next sleps you intend to take. and ask lor their supllort. Also ask whar 1eve1 of repor[lng they rvant and hou- closely they want to be involvecl with any further meetlngs or decisions. People in other silos .,r-i1l be someone Dray even be the :talters, not least ii-r11 need to sign Almost every perlormance problem rn an organisatjon will have a knock-on eifec[ on other departmenls that are downsileam in lhe process flow. This may be signiltcant Lo them in terms ol their o\\,n productrvitl,, or be 1lttle mole than an anno,vance. ln some cases, [hey r,vi11 not even be au-are Lhai it is allecting r,vhat they do because the long-standing nature of the performance proble m means that no one knows any dilferent. Ask the other stakeholders u,hat the performance problem is costing them, :lance problem is iwareness, tlr tS it : directl,v inrrolrrecl -.. know lvhal has but c1o theY :,i-. problem 1ikely .. responstble for? recl11', :il:rct on holv they :r. so be prepared - \\,anl LO crlver ln -- IleCeSsar)'Ltr $1VC rrru hacl with the -,rith the : pe rform- -imber ol possible ..rev ma)r well ha'"'e because this may acld to the overall cost of the problem across Lhe organisatitrn A larger overall cost wl1 make a dillerence to the r,rrge ncy of fixing the problem, and also alfecr rvhat br-rdget could or should be ailocatecl to fixlns the problem. Also ask if they have a similar problem in their own department lt may well be that some of the solutions that you clevelop lor the original problem holder could be useful to other departmenls, and there may be an econom,v of scale available, and other budgets you can call on. For example, one of the barriers may u.e11 be a cul[urirl issue thaL is endemjc across the lvhole organisatron, and has a negative ellect on the productivity olall the departtxcnts A solution that addresses this cu1[ural issue rvoulc] probabl;, be uselul to all departmenls. Another question to ask is hor,r,these olher departments u,ould be allected when the ongrnal performance problem is soLved. Iror exampie. if the perfbrmance problern \vas too many re.jects from a manulacturing 1ine, yor-r neecl to conslder - llt - {,,q ra xt t-r g'v r{r''WL}tt.iii" whether, when rhe number of re.]ects is dramalically reducecl, downstream processes, such as the assembly llne or the paint shop, will be able to handle the higher volume. Solutions costs will have a hst ol barriers, and an even longer list of soiutions that cou1c1 be put li:t place to remove those barriers. C1ear1y, when the decisLon is macle on which solutions lo use. one of the deciding factors will be the cosl ol each solution. You thetefore need to get al least some inlormatlon aboul the cosi of each ol the possible solutlons. Some ol these cosls you lvl11 be able [o come up rvrth on your or,vn, but many others r.vrll involve input from other departments or even extelnal suppliers, so you r,vill need to have cliscussions with people w-ho could be invoived in clelivering solulions By now. you . You l-he nexr stakehold, rn place a presenlatlr above. Yor prior to th : The outcor undertake t io a close a You have pr and abour 1 not be new At this stage. you ale not lookLng fbr definitive cluotes or detailed proposals from anybody. Yott lusl need some balipark figures that yor-r can take into rhe nexl meeling. and alstt to data - rhe i process. The next meeting The discuss this is a fiee By nor,v )rou r,vrll have gatherecl a huge amounl of inlbrmation ahout the whether the which ones f r'rl( )rm:.\nCc pr,'hle m. . . . and so on. the room, tr You will have a good understanding ol the problem lrom the perspective rtf most ol the stakeholders. \'cri-r will have a reasonable indication ol lhe costs to the business ol the problem. You will have a list or dragram ol the stakeholders, both internal ancl Io rntroduce You should i, best wiry to , external. l. wili have an understanding of what a successlui oulcome r'vouid look like to the clifferent stakeholders. You will have a prioritised 11st trl the root causes that are generating 2. Whar 3. Whar 4. Whar You I . . L Whar hc p,,or pcrl,,rmancc. You lr,,il1 have a list of tl-re barriers ihat are stopping workers frorn belng capable at the point of work. You wr11 have a list ol potential solu[Lons to deal lr,rth those barncrs. Ll2 - lVlany 1t is solutlt also imp rvhen impler Staq;r, 3 . . alr-r\\'ns. .irle t., ii- 'i.rlr u,-i11 * Arrr,u* []dr. r,SLF.T[];{.; have some rough costjng,s lbr each of the solutictns on the list . :-:\t step is lo con\.ene a meeting with a sr-rlficient numbcr ol the to be tnade on which solutions t() llut - -,ic and how- to proceed. The agenda lor the meetlng w'ould be a --:trrtron from you, the perlormance consulLant. on the br-r11e t points :. Yr)E could also lvrite a reporl on the informatton and clrculate lt r io the meetinq. -. - - l ialllll(tlts -. - lhc clecisii: :. .,.,r11 be thc . . . -, ir-niilion alt : '. .,11 \\'111 .lll,rL1[ .---r-, bc ifom , .tt- -. (): , -..,lclers to a1lor.v clecisions Lrtcome trl the meeting is to decide on the lisl ol actions, and wfio uT 11 ..rrLake Lhose actions. In ellect. the performance consr-tl[ancy process clralvs -, -lr-r-ce and transforms ilt[., a pr, ]lCe t managcment pIOCeSS. -'' -r e chscuSSi,'r - ticcl prop.,:" 1 teke inl(l t. rvith ever,vone ln [he meeling about this problem, -. rbout ),our llndings, so much o1'u'1-rat you rvould present to them w'ou1cl . i-.e nelvs. The reason ftrr the presenlalion is to refresh their mcmor.ics, -i also to ensure that everyone in the room is norvu,orking lrom the same . .:--i - the informatton that has come ouL of the pe rlorurance cctnsullancy ,. har.e probabl,v talke d . -)acss. .1.,n aboul thc iu the l business o| --r internal ancl ::e discusslon r'vill centre on the ltst ol solrtticlns. 1 r,voulc1 recttmmend that :-is is a lree-flolving discr-tssron about the soluttons, hou' Lct prioritise them, .,. ne ther the costs seem reasonable, w-hich ones sl-itrulcl be groupecl together, ,,. hich ,-,nes can be testecl easily. which ones can be implemented ln'rmediately .,ncl so on. Use the r.visdom ol the uroup, ancl all the drflerent persfcctt\-cs in .rc room. to star[ homrng in or-i rvhich -sc,1utic',ns to use ancl ln whtch order ,, inlrorl ur:e tlrem. !ou should also be looking at the consecluences oi the pre lerred solutions. The irest u,ay to clo Lhis is to take each one in turn ancl asl< these lbur qu.s[t(]115: i. llCO1]IC \VoUicl '. qeneraLlng rliers 1r0m .lase 1)attiers. What rvlLl happen ilu'e impiem.ent this solution? 2. What $.on't happen i1 rve implement this solution? 3 WhaL rv1l1 happen ii we don't rrnplement thts solution? 4 What wr)n't h:rppen il w-c don'l imitlement this solution? \4any solutions wr1l har.e i-rnintencled ancl sometimes unpreclictable sicle elhcts. It is also imptrrlant to consicle r hor,r, dille renl solutions r'vill rmpact each olher u.hen rmplenented either sequentially or in para11e1. -133- {-eE-anl r.t:t,ui W*ttti. Llyrtu have a large list of causes, it'.s alnrosL certain ytlu r.vtl1 alstl herve a largc shopprng list of prrtential solutions. it should also lte lttrrnc in mirrcl that dealing r,vith son-Le itf the malrtr root eauses r'vtl1 au[ornatically remL]\re SOme olthc sn-raller petipheral onc-s. The problenl mr-lsL be lookecl at as a slstem comprtsecl of a number 0f gompctnents. St) )1()11 muSL ccll-lsider ht)w iilpllt\ l\r the s,vstern al'lbct each othcr. ancl attect thc t)utfluts ,-rf ihe s)'sten-r. first meeling wlth the Problcm holcle r, some ol the stakeholCers ma1, have already taken slrme action, implementing some of rhe quick ancl cheap solurions rhar lve re ide ntifie d. 1l st,, ask them ttr -l'his report Lo the meetjng on hou. lhelr intervention al'fected the problr'nr r,vi1l grve ),()u some insight into horv the syste m tesponds to intervention. and 1-Low, you can tncasure or descnbe the responses ol the syslem lo in[cn'enLiott. lner,ltabl,v solu[ions sometimes crea[e lurther problems. Accorc'ling ttl C.hrts Arg,vrl5. sonre 60 pcr cent ol our pr.rbiems are the resuit ol previtlus stllutitrns. 1l enough Lime has passed since 1,our DependLng on Lhe size ol Lhe proble r-n and the number ol pole nttai solrrtions to be impiemelited. yLru may be discusslng the pt-rssrbi1lt,v that quLte a large programme u,,jll be needecl to pr-rll eve rythlng logether. ThaL obr.iousiy raises the cluestron as lo ,,vhrt lvl11 be the prttgramlnc manllge r. so thc mee ting, shoulcl asree ()n lvho r,vil1 handle that rolc ancl u,htr vl,ill be the execuiive sPonsor. ol stakeholclers. the buclget is no[ sLgnificantly ]31q., then the current problcn-r holcler may lveil be Lhe best person to be the pfqect managcr. In this case, they clearll,rclain or,vnership ol rhe problcm ancl responsibility lor solvinq it ll thc change invohre s a large number ol stakeholclers acr()ss dillerent parts ol the organisatjon, and thcre is a sigr-Lllticant amount trl money at slake, the n some trne r,vho has c-xpericn.c ol managine proqrammes thal are in elTect it pofilolir) ol smallcr pr,r.].uts shor-rld be put rn chargc ll the solutltrns thaL have been agreed are mostly [o bc deliverecl b1, L&1) then jt rna;.be appnrpriale lc.r sttnteone irom LcqrD to Il tl-re chanse involrres a sma11 nr-rmber zrncl be rhe pro.ject manager. ll this Ls agre ec1. then be sure that thc problr:rn l-rolcler js seen as Lhe sp()nsor [c,r lhe pro]ect. As r,vitl-r any programrne lhat rs going to cosl thc orqanis:itlLrn nrone,v ancl iime . it is essential that there i> :trmc \\'ir\' t, ) nlc.tsufe sllccess L)Lrring the consultanc;' ilrocess, 1,ou har.e cltscussecl w-ith peerple u,hat a successlul resolutitln of the perlormance problem r,viil look hke to Lhem in lerurs ol ohsetl'altle bchavt.tltrs ancl cluantLtativc measures. You nor,v har-e L1-Le rau'maleriaL lor clesigning - [+- s(rlne succcss crl:. an agreeci format in elllct. you are I nor,v neecl to be br finishecl. ar least lo $te{,: 3 * Ar trta also have a 1-, _ in tltncl ::.. - .:al1r, remo\-e :,.,rL1 -,rrne ,licci at . : :\ .r - , riS r.1er hor,v - r S\ :tr burlcltn.q ir e hitn[e l]rogrilnune itn(l 1t rs cl'Lanse ski1ls thaL neecl tLr be brirneht into piar: The 1)erformancc \. p-ttlt.rlt\) l,t',..-. i: 'i:hecl. at leasl irr thi-c particular ltnrHgp.,. \'rrL1 i:rr"c '\\ -stCl1l. hr. :rc success criLeria, but it.s rmpLrrtanl that these arc pr-rl1cd [ogeLhcr iir[t, .tgreecl lomri\t. . cttcct. i r.rp r_rr. c 1-.roltlerrr l.l- - :rrn. tmplen]e nt :- - -. 11 so, ask thenr . -- :hc problenr. T:_ : , ulle f\,cltlirtn. .t: - - .ilI lo rntcn.cnlLL :- {ceorcllnq 19 (.hi. . :.r'cvious srtlutirrt-i: rr( )Lcn . ' r-hrtL Lial S()l Llti r,r-r : ciutte il 1ar{r .it ()l)\-i ()Ltsl), rais.. .r . t tlrceti n g,.hor-r l. - 1.J! LlLiVc Sl)ons(r1.. . .iir(1 thc br_rclcct i. : -,r- w.eil lte tire hc..L . ictair-r orvncrship ,: . ic . Lnr,oll.cs :r iargc L<.tlit)r-r. ancl Lhcrc ]l,, has cxlte ricne r. smrrllcr ltro]ects . . -. a.:ai arc m()sll). t(l r,'1lc 1l-()ilt L&D Lir :r ]'. i llr( )]l1c]-u hOlcicr rllr]l-lc) anc1 irntc. -ri thc cLrnsultanc\. '-sirlLttron itl' the .rblc itehar.ior-rrs -'r re :: i'i:it:. }{Ltrr'{ro{; . rl iirr c1t:signrnq - 11) -
#tuffiffi€ffir ffi The role of the manager T'he xrpposition is prevalent the world over that there wouldbe no prttblems in production or service if on\, our production tvorhers tyould do their jobs in the ruai that t'hey were taught. Pleasant dreams. The workers are handicapped by the srste m, and the sysre m belongs to the management. \V Edwnrds Dcnring C Luclics .rrnrinuc [o shorv that an eurplo,risg'-! direct supervisor has [he )g..rr.r, imp;cr,rn Lheir perlormance ani rnotivatlrr-r, aircl loy'a1Lrr to lhe oruanrsation. \ou can't talk about pertormance talkrng aboui managers, lor trvo simplc reasons: in the r'vorkplace lvithout i. fhe manaqers are aimost ce rlain [o be crne ol thc root callses Ior the poor perli,rmAnce on the flshbtne cliagr:rm 2. T1-re rnanagers are almost certain to be ke1, players rn the implcmcntation ol an1' solution to tackle the poor perfc,rmance. I otter-i talk abouL managers havir-rg superpowcrs Whenever somebody, becomes a manrrger. the1, automatically get their superpowers. The,v clon't -17- . need to Llnclergo sornc kind trt traumatic e\,en[ ]ike belng hit b-v a strange -[ nrele ori[e, or bitten ]rr. rr mutant spicler. l-rct' 1r-rst neecl [t, be prc,motecl [c, mana.qe son-Le oLher ;reop1e. ancl thcl'then have therr sr-rperp()\vers ils krng as thel' 1s1r.ira . iil man:lge r., ',.. tl-unkrnq that the iclea ol ,cupcrl]rrwers lor manasers LS sornc ic1lc lantasy. think aunin. Ilere is s()me 'proof'lrom rcsearch dtne at Stanlrrd UniversiL\r ln theLr paper'T1-rc Value Lrl Bosses'rr. Hcir,varcl l,azcar. Kathrr.n . If Shar'v ancl Christofher Sranton came L1p rvith the lolltrlving concLusions... ,,\ important ;rncl r,ar1, ln proclucuvitli Reltlaclng a ltoss in thc lorver 10% trlboss qua11t,v r,vith one whtr is in the upper i0*, of boss clualitv increases a teanr'-s total outpllt ir1 abtruL the same amor-lnt as rvould aclcling one r,vr,r1o perhaps we shoulc1 be saying [here are iour things u,,e need [o do: i-: rhe abiiity to 1 . Help manage rs become ar,vare of the ar,vesome power they have tcr n-rerr to managlng rt-,at relales clirectly ;;;;;;;;t I" rr",n iffihave "T wav thar we ',i' ^"yri?"git here' clefined So,'lhereappears'i::ff the managers in ou lH:flilli?ixx,:T,xf,.T!ilIlTjH.;:t': ti,. r, *'* *- ; ny r ra i n r n g i,l l l;":,i',",l''ri'? i::n.:]. are line p.," ..nt or pu,i,i,. manascr behavi')ur= :i:11'jj,:il:,,=;"';;=,;; to.say rcport goes on i""i^^,.' -,'" ".,,'.,.islent mes:age as to wha' s( rri n s a bc i n g u n d e r *' "' o ar-a r li il *' i;i'l'':l:l ilTi;,T;11'"il: :'iT i:H";il; lt^f:*;i::1T; ll,ffii:'f,ffi ioor managers' at CIPD' said"' a Research Associate Ksenia Zheltoukhova' _ 1.41 - :i::}il';:: reedback on line We can hardir without Pre\1t)l 'i work. \Ve are are particularlr day on, our P€ depends on ht often left on ,-' achieve this. 1 are born, nc-'t I Even a smal1 a yet to hear r:[ t 'it's a manager It is little won even dysfunct practice. The Txrr n&ls *n- rxs. t Better Manager, rrr\-1ng individual t:-rance appraisal is based on two rrr'and part in defining : level ol rdership and ti takes the lorm n. act, monitor, i ihe chapter on rtrk. and indeed r-. seen a lot, it rirs you find on fhere is seldom ar that \ve have r...rm and train es that they are that 36 iheir role. The behaviours are rer-ea1s at organisations rt rrf companies &{At\A{;Lt}r "we hear organisations lament the lack and quallty of leaclers, bur we aren't seelng evidence of their commitment to drive good leadership and management practices. For 29 per cent of managers in the CIpD survey 'other priorities' stand in the way of ensuring that the rnterests of the team members are supported, raising questions about the priorlties that managers - and the organisations - attach to the wellbeing ol their stalI. These findings are a wake-up call for businesses to re-arign the systems and structures in place in their organisari()ns to support leadershlp development. "Businesses address issues such as poor customer service or {hulty machinery straight away, whereas bad management across organisations is tolerated to a shocking degree. In the CIPD survey, 28 per cent of organisaLions thiled to acr upon poor feedback on line managers; and nearly hall (48 per cent) conlessed that indlviduals were promoted into managerial roles based on their performance record rather than peopre management or leadership skills. Irs rime for business to identily and address the roors ol bad management, recognrsing tha[ a more conslstent approach to rrarnrng and supporting leaders at all levels o[ an organisation is needecl to drive sustainable performance." we can hardly blame the managers. Most of us get ro be managers abruptly, wlthout previous experience. Sudden11,, we are put 1n charge of other p"npl", work. we are 'accidental managers'. As a ru1e, we get promoted because we are particularly good at some other 1ob rather than management. From that day on, our personal skl1ls are no ionger of prime imprrrtanee L)ur success depends on how well we can gei other people to give ol their best. we are often left on our owrr to pick up the new set ol skills that we will need tcr achleve thls. The attitude common in many organisations is thar managers are born, not made. Even a sma11 amount of reflectlon will show the fallacy in rhls attirude. I have yet to hear ol the midwile who holds a new-born child and grandly announces 'it's a managerl' eJback on line It is Iittle wonder then that most managers have a rather narrow ancl possibly even dysfunctional view of perf ormance management ancl what that means in practice. The piece of the puzzle they are missing is rhe concept ol capabiliry i45 - Cara*qn-rrt-ar W"fimc{ when you are managing capability, you are actually managing the underlying causes of the perlormance you are gerring. manaQement. Ken Bianchar Manager6a, is concept that ol looklng to Capability management The oxlord dictionary defines management as 'The process of dealing with or controlling rhings or people'. capability managemenr means conriolling the capabiliry o[ the people in your ream, or more accurarely conrrolling thl lactors that alfect rhe capability ol the people in your team. This is one of the lundamental steps to take for organisational success. There is a clear line of sight between managing capabiliry and performance. The 1eve1 of perlorrnance underpins the results that are achieved. The results tha[ are achievec] are what the stakeholders use to decide whether an organisarion is successful in lulfil1ing its vision, mission and purpose. The factors that aflect capability are critical to organisational success, ancl this is good news, because we can figure out what they are, and when we know that, we can figure out what to do about rhem. Frontline and mldline managers are the people who have the most impaci on the capability thcrors, even if they have not yet discoverecl their superpowers. The best way to mentor them through the discovery and elfecrive use of thelr power is to use the performance consultancy process wlth rhem so they have a growrng awareness of their role. work with them io teach them the componenrs ol capabiliry, rhrough the use of rhe fishbone diagram. Help them understand that by doing thls they will begin ro see rhe nurs and bolts of the performance puzzle and how to solve ir. Help them t e see performance as a system with some components that they can directly manage and control. Too often, managers stand back ancl measure performance, and when they don't get the numbers they want, they clecide their people are incompetent, and locus on knee-jerk solutions ro what they perceive as a people problem. The change I am suggesting requires quite a significanr shilt in minclser towards a servant-led style ol management and leadership. Many managers are happy to have influence (power) over rheir employees, but lar leweiare hrppyl; accept responsibiliry for their employees, and far fewer sti11 will even consicler being accctuntable to their employees. -116- I workplace, per that the basic I a parent, there it's lortunate in Every manager people on rheir The capability r in order to be z place that are m lrustrates you at They should al not see. They n preventing my t the task in fronr things can aflecr a problem has u a capabrlity man Being proactive b described by Fer they are suppose( colleagues condu from over 25,00 "Why don't your They lound rhat r ihat questlon, and lack of motivation realised these ans "After workin more interesti controlled b1. management ( ''t-ur. *l'lt i: {}i' r'}i{r. }[,\\],qGF] lrnchard, co-allLhor of the huge11' successtlll book Thr One Minutc . ''.iser'r+, is also vr'c11-knorvn lor his lvritit-tgs abitr.ll sen'ant lel.rcle rs1-rip - thc -:llt thaL el'llctir,e leaclers need l(r serve thc ncecls ol their peollLe. instcad .,king ti, be scncd bv thcrl. This Lclca seems to gel krsl in the nrorlern ...:rlace . perhaps br:cause Lhere are s() lew go,rrl role morlels u,ho unrlerstrrncl . ,he basic llrcmise of management is to serve . lusl as when 1'cru beconlc -,ranL. there rs an arvesonte respLlnsibility' lvhen \.oL1 be come a milnagcr, s() j\L\\, l,l.rlin,: r. .llL lll\'.ln\ r,'ttUi . . c.,nl r,,llini L.rtn. rhirr<,'n.,lL lt.r,,- .r rlr'.rt' Iin. .,. '.t.1,,1 l, rl,','l'p.tit. \''\ - rrtllnate ir-rcleecl lh2lt vou get some suPerpowers at the samc Limer. I .-'rl manager shoulcl fg pn n c()nslilnt qr.lesL to fincl tlut how besl tr.l sen'e the - ,pLe on their tcam t..r help those people do r.r,'hat tl'rc1, 31s emploYecl to c1o. tc caitabilitl, manascr needs t() keep askinU the questions, 'What llil f.iru need ,,rclcr [c, be able tcr do )'our.job rnore elfectn'e11'?' or '\Vhat barricrs arc in ,tce that are making it more drtficnlt than necessarl'ttr dtr )rour lob?' t'r'WhaL Llstritlcs \.irtr at uarrk?' anci'What clr f ou now tole rate that used lrt lrustrate r,trul' .Ltt .ir'htr'\,'tl,tr,, rr | . . - -rr\ !\.r-lLrl in lirlhll,r SLICCCSS, ANC1 Lhi: \\,hen \ve lino\\ \ rr lhe mosL impacL trn , crecl thejr supe r1)()\\.- \ ct'\. ancl e llectir-e usc j-rl.()CcSS r.viLh 1'r lherl -hbone cliauranr. Llelp il()l1s r ilonents that the1, can ,ncl ltack anci measllre - :1 1)roillcm has rvaitcrci lLro 1ong. I--ach martttger neecls to llecotl]e ]lrr)'lulivc 15 a capabilitl, lnanrlser. srr rhcm [o tcach thcnr :cc tlte nllts ancl he1 shoulcl :rlstr lcrtrk [rr barners to capabllitl' tl-rat the pertormers ma\l.t see . 1-hc1'neecl tir sttncl back [t, see the Larqer s1'stem ancl ask'\\'hilt i: :rc\enting m)- leam or pcople tl.jthrrr mV team lrrrn.r beinc capable oldorr-rq, -he task rrL lrc,nt ol then-r ii'hcn I ask them to c1o LL?' \\iith rhe spe cd at r.r'hLe h :hrngs can allect br,rsiness, a manilger r,vho tvait-c lbr an empli)\ree to ann()Ltnce \ \\itnl. lh.r tl...ttl,. .i1,'il- 1,,\\h.rr tlr..t lleine proacLLve brings vou into the arca of prcr-cnt.rti\-c mrnJqclnunl, 2 co[Cel][ clescribecl by Ferc'linancl E Fournics in hts book W'hv employ€e s don't do tvhat they, are suppose d to do and \lhat to do about ir{'-'. FoLrrnie s ;rncl his consr-rltit-Lq coileagr-rcs conciuctccl a stttdi'trver 25 Ycars in rvhicl-L Lhelr ga|h...c1 inl(rrnlation lrom irr-er 25.000 lTlanagcrs in u'l'Lich thel'locusecl ()n as1(ing thu'n "Whv clont ),oul suborcltnalcs cltr lvhat thc,v are stlpllosecl to cltrl" Thcf iouncl tl-Lat mtrst nlilnaqe r,c coulc'l nr,L gtvc a usclul rrr clctaiied answel.fu) thaL clncstion, ancl i-e n- olien blamed lack ol motir.atitrn. W1-re n the Y clisrllor'r,c 1 lack of ilorivatLon as an altswer. thet'startecl to get more clctailecl respr)nses an(1 realiscci these an.qu'cts leli intc. 16 reasot-ts lt,r notr-pcrl()rmancc. They'saicl ... rrlt Ln t-ninclseL towarcls \ manage rs are hillllt\i .,r' arc ha1tp1, tp .r11 u,iI1 cr-cn consiclcr ",\lter lvorkrng rvith this list over the )'ears. we nolicecl somelhing c\.cn m0rc interestinS: almrlst all ol lhese reltt,.l1\ l()f nrrn-1lcr-l,,rntancc r,r'e rt: c,lrntroLlcd b1'thc manaqer. \\1e also realiseci thal therc wcre l\\-(r general miinaqemeut cirllscs tor mi-rsl tll llrcse rcas(rns lor n()n-pe rlorlrance . {-,eragerg}:q' q"i' \&trrUu t 2 4. fhel'Li- The manager cld s.rmething wrong to rrr tor the emplo1,ees. ,rr The manaqer thileci tLr clo something nght t() or li)r the empLryees. 5 "In other lvords, emplo;ee non-perlormance occurrecl hecar,rse of poor This begs I6 reasons. What 7. -l-here . . - Lhr , things i: . 1s : i- 8. Thei. tl"r,: . to th. thc qllcstlon as to ri,h), rranaqers are not aclclressing tire Le1l 9. 1-he1'ari , citrn't kn 10. They ar. - the,v louncl is thaL managers were una\\rarc of [he..c clistinc- '., N,{anaqe seL r. thini: I . TheT-' ani , emplo\ cJ- i2. fhere 1 i: r- \4anager. l i. Obstacle . them qr' ,. l'1. Their pcr. ol[en c..n- instead, he talks abtrut the iclcii ol prer.entative nlanascrrent in the sarne \\.a,v ,vou n'ught taLk about pre ve nlrrli\-e rnainlen.lnce for a rnachine or a car lheir dclirution is. - 15. Personal .pcrlormlr: . 16. Nrt ()ne .. . the lvorli . "Prer.entatiye mana,gcment is thc inLen'entlon ol manipulatinq elements in a speciftc lvork envi ronr-nent to bringabout i.r preclictccl ()LlLcomc that u.ould not have happenecl rvithout [hat interverltion." PrevcntaLive managemen[ is abrrut keepn-Lg things runniug lrrcli br,' cloLt-Lg things that cleny pe ople thc ctpporLr:nit,v Li laiL due Lr) one or n-rore ol ihe l6 [rr non-pcltonrancc. LlelLrrv are Lhcr -lhey 1'1're1 nttrveci ol perlormance problems ur generai [errns ancl them r,viL1-L metaphr)rs. such as'not clltting lhe mustard' \\ihat litt1e describe c1 anait sis the1, clid tende d Lo llrr)cluce answe rs -such as 'The-v are not motivatecl' or 'They are unqualiiied Ior the 1ob' or 'The1- are not the righL person for the 1ob'. According to Frrurnies. mlrn,v rnanagers operaLe on the basls that il ),ou pLrt the right pecrple on the 1ob. the 1ob ri,i1l get clonc rvithou[ [he boss-s help. Ol cr()urse. il this we rc true a Iot of mana.qcrs cor-rld bc e liminirteci, ancl organisatlons could re1;' r,n gor)d recrulters. 1 n-rL.: 6. ." Lions becausLr thelr thoucht reasons -fhe1.rh. lhe management. What lollorveci wa-c Lhc slartlinq realLsatron that il rnanaqc|s took iipproprlate acti()n to make the l6 reasons fu-r ni,t-t-performance go away or prevent them lron-i occurring rn the first place . the resuLi rvoulcl be perlect perfu)rmance , problcn- l(r reasrrns, accorcling to Fournies ancl hrs colleagues. 1-(lurnies lto,tir h. problem ancl a pr, r-rse lul text for i:ln,, When Lhe rnan.r: capabllity. then r . don't knrru,r,i,h1'thcy shoulcl bec:ruse thcl clon't knou.u.'h1, thc1 c1o rt. they,clon't seem [o ci.]re ment [h.1t ]eac1s r shou1c1. 2. They'don't knorv hor.r. [o di] it.-l clling i.-s not tcachins and assuming \\. Eclvyarcls Denr [he\, knou, cr)sts 3. ).r)11 Tr()ney. Thel-ck.n't knc,r,r,'i,vhat thel ale supprrsecl Lr, c1o. Strange pa)' Lhem to clo a L)t ol suesslnq. -1+S- but [rr-re, r,ve "'lb successtr-.- lran-

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UT Austin

hello, kindly find the attached completed work. Thank You.

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Informal and off record chat after meeting
1. What currently frustrates them
While talking with a performer after a meeting, asking them what problems they are
going through can be an excellent way to structure the conversation. Frustration can be a difficult
emotion to deal with it. If left unsolved, it can quickly turn nasty and overwhelm the managers
with disappointment and negativity. The longer it goes, the more confidence they will lose and
angrier they become. Knowing the cause of frustration can be a milestone to improve the
organization management system thus enhancing their image.
There can be several reasons why a performer may be experiencing frustration at work. It
could be as a result of apathy or some issues holding them down. The most common one is the
failure to...

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