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My friend gave me this paper and I will submit it same instructor today. Please edit it and Make sure NOT be noticed when I trick someone.

1 The Biases of Media Coverage during Disasters It comes as no surprise that the United States media leaves out details and only tells the public what it wants them to know during disasters. The media plays a huge role in the event of a natural or man-made disaster. They have a responsibility to inform the public of any incident involving public health large and small scale deaths, and destructive events. Their primary role entails providing the public with updates on all global disasters around the world. Yet some events seem to go unrecognized or receive less attention than other similar situations. The news media favors stories about events and people closest to western culture and location which heads the public to consider its people and culture most important. Over the past two decades, the world has experienced a large number of disasters. Everywhere it seems hurricane, earthquake, terrorist attack, or disease outbreak unfolds. Recently, this includes the Ebola outbreak in Liberia, terrorist attacks in Paris and Turkey, the San Bernardino shootings. These disasters have dominated the world’s headlines. The media can create an immensely powerful image of a tragedy to gain the public’s concern and attention. It makes the public most concerned about the painful events most related to its own western culture. Sometimes, however, the imagery they create excludes certain points of view, and sometimes it is a completely inaccurate representation. Mainstream media often narrowly its stories to only a few groups of people. Too often media focuses on certain kinds of pain. The United States media sympathizes most with people groups most similar to its own western culture. In a survey regarding attitudes and reactions of the media’s coverage of terrorist attacks, 534 people were asked how they prefer to receive information. 71.5 percent preferred to receive information by watching TV (Keinan 2). In the same study, people were asked what position should 2 carry more weight in relation to media coverage of a terrorist attack. 58.4 percent answered the position that what should carry the most weight was the argument stressing the public’s right to know (including painful and difficult details) (Keinan 3). Not all disasters seem to capture the attention of the camera. Terrorist attacks and the “war on terror” seem to be the most popular events covered by the media. Other stories that are equally as significant don’t get that type of coverage. For example, 110 people die everyday in The USA by car accidents; that accounts for more deaths than terrorist attacks, but they don’t get as much news coverage. Large number of countries are abused by terrorist. Some attacks that received very little news coverage include the November 2005 Al Qaeda attacks- what Jordanians have called their 9/11- on three hotels in Amman that turned a wedding reception into a morgue, killing over fifty and wounding almost two hundred and fifty; the series of explosions in Bali at the beginning of October 2005 that killed twenty people and left perhaps one hundred injured; the July car bombing of tourist sites in Egypt that killed almost ninety and wounded more than 100 ; and the Valentine’s Day car bombing that killed former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri and twenty others in Beirut (Moeller, pg. 174) It is shocking that these events are not considered newsworthy in the Western world. Global crises are assessed by government officials often in terms of security interests at stake, while policy analysts typically look at crises in terms of their own singular priorities (Moeller, pg. 174). The media does not consider the amount of destruction or the amount of lives taken when covering stories on mainstream media. Obama talked about the Paris attacks, and he showed appeared very concerned. One day after the attacks Obama said we will stand by them “shoulder to shoulder” he also said America 3 would help them fight terrorism (Garunay,2015). However he did not say anything about Beirut, and Beirut’s attacks happened one day before the Paris attacks. Politically Obama cares about the relationship between France and The USA, and the interest between both countries. Also he cares for France because it is powerful country, but Lebanon is not. More than twice as many people died in the Paris as they did in Beirut, and that still not enough coverage, the CIA did not even mention Beirut in condores during speech but mentioned Paris attack victims and those lost in plane crash over Russia. We can say the CIA did not mention Beirut, because Lebanon is not as big and powerful as France. (Beckwith. 2015) According to the director speech of the CIA, only spoke about France and how they care about what happened in Paris, and this continues in western news. They focus on the Paris attacks. Western news did not mention Beirut for some reason, small country and not large number died as much as Paris. They not mentioning Beirut shows just the western people and culture are important when it comes to news for the masses. The media talked about the Paris attacks every where, and they showed the whole scene. CNN made a web page for the people who died in the Paris attacks, and the information of all the people who died and pictures for most of them. For example, people who died in Paris, they give more information and pictures, such as “Artist Albab Denuit 32 years old, completed his PHD in fine Arts at the universite Bordeaux Montaigne where he also taught in the school’s Department of Arts (Conlon, gray, Fantz and Stapleton,2015). However, the CNN revealed the Beirut attack as basic information and just a number for the people who died. The specific information is “three local members of Hezbollah were among those killed in the attack” (Botelho,2015). Thats shows five words for three people out of 43 people who died. 4 Another example of a disaster that the American media failed to cover was the earthquake in the Iranian city Bam in December of 2004. The tragedy killed nearly 60,000 people, many of them children. The rest still live in the ruins, broken hearted and destitute, trying to raise the will to rebuild their lives slowly (Moeller, pg. 176). Only Iran seems to care that this disaster ever happened. It seems as if the United States completely turned away from this horrible tragedy. One of the biggest misrepresentations the media has created after a disaster is racism against the Muslim and Arab communities after the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001. Mainstream media suggests the year 2001 was a transformative moment in Arab-American relationships in which the Americans see Arab Muslims as fanatical, violent, and lacking in tolerance while Arab Muslims see the Americans as selfish, immoral, and greedy as well as violent and fanatical (Altwaiji, pg. 1). On August 11th, 2001, Reporter Alexander Rose critiqued the Arab Middle East in the following : They say in news Muslims celebrate the 9/11 attacks. “Despite all the golden promises of their leaders, Arab countries are poor, oppressed, nervous, pitiful places that can only stare enviously at Israel, a country which enjoys a standard of living approaching that of Canada. Unlike its neighbors, Israel is a thriving noisy democracy with a high-tech sector greater in absolute terms than any other country apart from the United States. Fifty years ago, that land was a desert. It has never lost a war.” Based on Rose’s critique above, the events after September 11th, 2001 were depicted with racist views. This narrow perspective, predominantly conservative and American in origin, has rendered an immensely homogenized Islamic “Arab World” that is characterized by its poverty, dictatorial regimes, draconian human rights record, economic backwardness, and social malaise (Ismael, pg. 3). 5 They say in news Muslims celebrate the 9/11 attacks. The news talked about 9/11 during that time, and some of them reported that some Arab celebrated the attacks of 9/11. In US they show that just the American culture is important, and the Arabs look bad and blood thirsty. Also they presented a whole people group as an enemy. In the past, the United States actually encouraged and supported Islamic political groups, which were also considered anti-communist. Arab-Americans even state that they express pride in their heritage by investing every talent they possess to make America great (Kaufer, pg. 55). Now, Western mainstream news media as well as movies, magazines, and the internet is all a part of Americans understanding of the Islamic and Arab people. The truth is, many of the Muslim faith have the same goals as people living in the Western world. They want to live peaceful lives, have good economies and jobs, and have families of their own. What Arab and Muslim people really object to is that, thanks to the repressive and corrupt regimes that Washington has supported, they have been deprived of democratic freedoms, and in their eyes, the US tramples on the self-determination of peoples, especially when those people are Palestinian (Ismael, pg. 5). Many in Arab countries actually would like to have the democracy and freedoms that the Western world has. In the media, Arab countries are depicted as following Bin Laden and how he is the voice of Islam. The Arab people don’t see him that way at all; however, they see him as a leader of a disaffected political organization. The men that were most likely responsible for the attacks were men from tribal cultures built on blood and revenge. Bin Laden and the men that were involved in the attacks used violence and hate, which is not in the Muslim doctrine anywhere. 6 The view of the Muslim faith in media is only portrayed when it affects the Western world in a negative way. Mostly, these people are put on display after a form of political violence occurs. It is misleading to identify any Arab state or political movement as being representative of Islam and its teachings, as it would be to reduce Christianity to a single Protestant church or Judaism to the interpretations of any single Rabbi (Ismael, pg. 6).Christian extremists are rarely even put on display in this manner. There are many hate organizations such as the KKK and pro-life activists who bomb abortion clinics and even kill medical professionals that don’t receive this type of media attention. These groups are definitely not connected to the Christian faith in the media. Much of the media in the United States is government based. Media now depends on the government and military briefings, inside contacts, and professional press kits in order to construct the basic information on which their coverage of events is based (Ismael, pg. 7). Since there is a positive portrayal of the military in the media, people don’t think much of this. One example of how the government gets its message out through the media is President George Bush’s announcement regarding the attacks of September 11th 2001: “Every nation in every region now has a decision to make…either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.” A statement like this makes people believe they are supporting the right thing, and everyone that does not agree is a terrorist. Evident by its absence within the media’s analysis was any formulation explaining the motivations of the terrorists themselves, or an examination of why anyone in the world would have such antipathy towards the government of the United States (Ismael, pg. 9). The attacks of American aggression and violence towards the Arab and Muslim communities were not portrayed in the media. The United States called it “The War on Terror”. Another example of how racism is evident toward the Arab and Islamic groups in the media is by a National Post columnist named Jonathan Kay: 7 “We should not pretend that an effective fight against terrorism can be waged in a truly color-blind fashion. The fact is, those who plot the annihilation of our civilization are of one religion and, almost without exception, one race. Multiculturalism is a relativistic creed that assumes all immigrant cultures are equally tolerant, civilized and enlightened once you scratch the surface.” Reports such as these come from a place of fear and anger towards the attacks of September 11th, 2001. People should be upset, but they need to know they cannot take it out on one race or culture as a whole. The whole Muslim and Arab community is not to blame for the violence and hatred of a few men. Many hate crimes resulted because of the constant media coverage regarding these groups. Many innocent Muslims were attacked in their own homes, schools, and mosques. Mosques were shot at and many were harassed on the streets. Several incidents were reported, in Oakville, Ontario there were five school children with Arabic-sounding names that were physically assaulted. The violence even reached the point where it extended to other immigrant groups. Those who had a little darker skin but were not even Muslim reported to suffer from angry Americans. After September 11th, media reports continued, but left out the forms of terrorism that seemed to be in connection with Israel. Israeli fatalities and injured were often named, and the locations and activities they were carrying out at the time of the attacks lent not only sympathy but also an intimate awareness, connecting readers with Israelis who were attacked while shopping, eating pizza, dancing in a nightclub, riding a bus, or attending a family meal (Ismael, pg. 13). Although the media depicted those attacks in a descriptive and emotional way, the innocent Palestinian victims of terror were never recognized. After September 11th, and still to this day, Palestinians live in harsh conditions and even refugee camps. The daily encumbrance and humiliation of military checkpoints, arrest without charge, inability to move freely from one Palestinian 8 town or area to another, curfews, and periodic household searches have devastated an already anemic Palestinian economy, and had untold consequences on the social fabric of their entire society (Ismael, pg. 13). Israeli victims of terror created empathy in the media while Palestinian victims, who had to endure worse conditions, remained in the dark. Victims of U.S. bombings in Iraq and Afghanistan were also left out of the media around the globe. The horrific truth is that the majority of victims that were not receiving any attention on the media were completely innocent. How is it fair that some innocent people are mourned but others are ignored just because of their race or because of how important they seem to a government? All people should be considered equal. Media focuses on western people and culture, leading the public to take an ethnocentric view of the world. At the same time, they present Arabs as bad and blood thirsty. Mainstream media will continue to misrepresent many cultures and events around the globe. The US media focuses on the powerful countries and their importance to the USA. Focus and care should be for all the countries. 9 Work Cited Altwaiji, Mubarak. “Neo-Orientalism and the Neo-Imperialism Thesis: Post 9/11 US and Arab World Relationship.” Pluto Journals 36.4 (2014) 314-319. 14 Feb. 2016. Beckwith, Ryan Teague. “Read the CIA Director’s THoughts on the Paris Attacks.” Time . 16 Nov 2015. Conlon, Kevin, Melissa Gray, Ashley Fantz, Anneclaire Stapleton. “Paris Victims from all over the world and All Walks of Life.” CNN.18 Nov 2015. 12 Apr 2016. Garunay, Melanie. “President Obama Offers a Statement on the Attacks in Paris.” Whitehouse.gov. 13 Nov. 2015. 10 Apr. 2016. Ismael, T.Y. "Racism and the North American Media Following 11 September." Arab Studies Quarterly, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2016. Kaufer, David. “The War on Terror through Arab-American Eyes: The Arab-American Press as a Rhetorical Counter public.” Rhetoric Review 28.1, Carnegie Mellon University, 2009. Web. 14. Feb. 2016. 10 Keinan, Gloria. “Attitudes and reactions to media coverage of terrorist attacks.” Journal of Community Psychology 31.2, 2003. Web. 14 Feb. 2016. Kim, Yung Soo. “News Images of Terrorist Attacks: Framing September 11th and its Aftermath in the Pictures of the Year International Competition.” Atlantic Journal of Communication 20.3 (2012) 158-184. EBSCO. Web. 12 Apr. 2016. Meyer, Josh. “Media Responsibility During a Terror Attack.” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 38.3 (2007) 581-587. Web. 14 Feb. 2016. Moeller, Susan. "Regarding the Pain of Others Media, Bias, and the Coverage of International Disasters." Journal of International Affairs 59.2 (2006) 173-87. The Trustees of Columbia University. Web. 14 Feb. 2016.

Tutor Answer

University of Virginia

hi i have changed all i can if i change anything else it wont make sense and most of the work is direct news no one can notice it is not yours😊

1
The Biases of Media Coverage during Disasters

It is a usual thing that the United States media leaves out details and only tells the public
what it wants them to know during tragedies. The media plays a huge role in the event of a natural
or man-made tragedies. They have a duty to inform the public of any incident involving public
health at large and small scale deaths, and disastrous events. Their primary role involves providing
the public with updates on all global tragedies around the world. Yet some events receive less
attention than other similar situations or seem to just go unrecognized. The news media favors
stories about events and people closest to western culture and location which heads the public to
consider its people and culture most important.
Over the past two decades, the world has experienced a large number of tragedies. Everywhere it seems hurricane, earthquake, terrorist attack, or disease outbreak unfolds. Recently, this
includes the Ebola outbreak in Liberia, terrorist attacks in Paris and Turkey, the San Bernardino
shootings. These tragedies have took over the world’s headlines. The media can create an extremely powerful image of a tragedy to gain the public’s concern and attention. It makes the public
most concerned about the painful events most related to its own western culture.
Sometimes, however, the imagery they create excludes certain points of view, and sometimes
it is a completely imprecise representation. Mainstream media often narrowly its stories to only a
few groups of people. Too often media focuses on certain kinds of pain. The United States media
shows compassion mostly with people groups most similar to its own western culture.
In a survey regarding attitudes and reactions of the media’s coverage of terrorist attacks, 534
people were asked how they prefer to receive information. 71.5 percent preferred to receive information by watching TV (Keinan 2). In the same study, people were asked what position should

2
carry more weight in relation to media coverage of a terrorist attack. 58.4 percent answered the
position that what should carry the most weight was the argument stressing the public’s right to
know (including painful and difficult details) (Keinan 3). Not all disasters seem to capture the
attention of the camera. Terrorist attacks and the “war on terror” seem to be the most popular
events covered by the media. Other stories that are equally as significant don’t get that type of
coverage. For example, 110 people die every day in The USA by car accidents; that accounts for
more deaths than terrorist attacks, but they don’t get as much news coverage.
Large number of countries are abused by terrorist.
Some attacks that received very little news coverage include the November 2005 Al Qaeda
attacks- what Jordanians have called their 9/11- on three hotels in Amman that turned a wedding
reception into a morgue, killing over fifty and wounding almost two hundred and fifty; the series
of explosions in Bali at the beginning of October 2005 that killed twenty people and left perhaps
one hundred injured; the July car bombing of tourist sites in Egypt that killed almost ninety and
wounded more than 100 ; and the Valentine’s Day car b...

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Anonymous
Totally impressed with results!! :-)

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