I would say to divide 5 into 200 to find out miles per inch. It would be 200/5=40 so for every inch on the map, the distance is 40 miles. It wants to know what the actual distance between the cities are so it would be the 200 miles for 5 inches plus 80 for the extra 2 inches. The amount would be 280miles.
To make one costume it takes 6 yards, but for several costumes she uses 48 yards. I divided 6 into 48 which would mean that she would be making 8 costumes ( 48/6=8) then I took the amount of costumes and multiplied it by the yards of trim (8*3=24) so it would be 24 yards of trim. Or you could just say that the the rule is to divide it by half since the yards of trim are exactly one half of the yards of material. You'd still end up with 24 yards as your answer.