Introduction Topic essay to MA thesis

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Topic essay (20% - 2 Credits): 1500-2000 words; contributes to learning outcomes 1, 2

Thesis topic - " diplomatic relations between Israel 🇮🇱 and United States 🇺🇸 and their influence on the Middle East under Donald Trump and Barac Obama "

Topic essay. This is a short essay, where the student elaborates on and justifies the topic they wish to research. This offers the student the chance to put together a coherent explanation of their topic and the significance of their topic in lieu of the concerns of the discipline of IR and political science generally.

it should be written by Harvard references style

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Research Methods for IR Dr. Michal Kuz (Instructor, Module Leader), Dr.Christopher Lash (Moderator) Composition of module mark (including weighting of components) Coursework 100%: Prospectus 40%, Bibliography and Literature Review 40%, Essay 20%. Prospectus (40% - 4 Credits): outline, plan of a proposed research project, (3500-4500 words); contributes to learning outcomes 1, 2, 3, 4. The Prospectus is due on the date established in the exam week, announced when the exam schedule is announced. The Prospectus is due on a date in the exam term, in lieu of an in-class exam. The Prospectus is a proposed research plan that explicitly frames the topic of research, it should present the research question and working hypothesis that frame the research project. Then the student needs to connect how his/her project fits with the range of scholarship in the topic area chosen. Then the student should show how he/she will operationalize their research project, with clear explanations about methods and means to be employed to support the claims they wish to make. The student finally should give a rough outline of how the main body of their thesis might look like or what it might address/deal with. Here is the grading matrix for the Prospectus. 1. Research Question & Hypothesis: its clarity, logic, its import 2. Methodology and operationalization of selected method/model 3. Literature Review and Sources used (and their quality) 4. Importance of subject to the field of study and generally 5. The quality of the writing (its logic, its clarity, and its accessibility) 0-4 5-9 10-14 14-19 20 Poor/none or very little Weak, barely understandable Generally understandable Good Very good Poor/none Weak Generally understandable Solid to Good Very good Poor Weak Reasonable Good Very good None Little Some Strong Very Poor Weak Acceptable Good Very good Bibliography and Literature Review (40% - 4 Credits), 1500-2000 words: contributes to learning outcomes 3, 4. Students are expected to put together a working draft of the Bibliography of their research project and explain the import of their sources. The students should obey the criteria of "the Harvard Style" and put together a correct and working bibliography. This should form the basis of their bibliography for their prospectus. The Literature Review should be relevant secondary literature of the student’s research topic (and it usually should follow the topic selected in the topic essay). The student is expected to summarize the main body of scholarship relevant to the topic they are working on. This task is due on December the 19th Here is the grading matrix for the Bibliography and Literature Review. 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20 1. Does it address the literature of the topic? Not at all Poorly to barely Generally Solidly Very well 2. Clarity and faithfulness to what is being summarized Poor/none Weak Generally understandable Solid to Good Very good 3. Does it reflect the scope and range of the scholarship on the topic? Not at all to very poorly Barely and vaguely Generally addresses the range within topic Reasonably solid Very well Generally acceptable without significant mistakes Well done Good Very good 4. Sourcing and referencing None Poorly done Generally acceptable with mistakes 5. The quality of the writing (its logic, its clarity, and its accessibility) Poor Weak Acceptable Topic essay (20% - 2 Credits): 1500-2000 words; contributes to learning outcomes 1, 2 Topic essay. This is a short essay, where the student elaborates on and justifies the topic they wish to research. This offers the student the chance to put together a coherent explanation of their topic and the significance of their topic in lieu of the concerns of the discipline of IR and political science generally. This task is due on November the 14th Here is the grading matrix for the Topic Essay 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20 1. How understandable and readable is the paper? Poor/none or very little Weak, barely understandable Generally understandable Good Very good 2. Is the topic clearly defined or wide? Poor/none Weak Generally understandable Solid to Good Very good 3. Does the topic seek to describe or to analyze? Little or vague understandin g of what needs to be done Generally descriptive Has either explicitly or implicitly an analytical character Generall y analytic in regards the topic Clearly analyzing the topic 4. Importance to the field of study and generally None Little Some Strong Very 5. the quality of the writing Poor Weak Acceptable Good Very good Resit of Topic Essay Bibliography and literature review Prospectus If a student fails any of these three components by under 35% they must re-write and resubmit the given component on a date established after determination of failure of the given component. The resubmit should follow the rules and guidelines of the initial assignment in question. LAZARSKI UNIVERSITY Master of Arts in International Relations Master of Sciences in International Business Economics GRADUATE DISSERTATION MANUAL A Guide for Students (Updated in April 2015) 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1: INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................... 3 2: THE DISSERTATION ............................................................................................. 3 3: GETTING STARTED............................................................................................... 6 4: DISSERTATION SUPERVISION ........................................................................... 6 5: PREPARING THE DISSERTATION .......................................................................7 6: SUBMISSION OF THE COMPLETED DISSERTATION ..................................... 9 7: EXAMINATION OF THE COMPLETED DISSERTATION ................................. 9 8: PLAGIARISM AND UNFAIR PRACTICE............................................................ 10 9: DISSERTATION FORMAT.................................................................................... 10 10: EDITING AND REFERENCING ........................................................................ 12 APPENDIX A: THESIS REPORT FORM .............................................................................. 15 APPENDIX B: LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................... 19 APPENDIX C: TITLE PAGE ..................................................................................................22 APPENDIX D: STATEMENTS PAGE .................................................................................. 23 APPENDIX E: REFERENCE STYLE GUIDE ...................................................................... 23 APPENDIX F: QUOTING AND PARAPHRASING GUIDELINES .................................... 30 1: INTRODUCTION This guide is designed to assist both students and supervisors who participate in the Master of Arts in International Relations and Master of Sciences in International Business Economics programmes. It is important to emphasise that it is a guide only, and that individual style should not be sacrificed. Programme regulations are intended to help, and to reduce potential wastage of time and effort. However, the instructions put forth in this guide should not replace direct consultation between students and their supervisors. The purpose of this manual is to establish the formal requirements and procedures for preparing and writing the graduate dissertation, and to provide further relevant information and advice. All administrative matters relating to the dissertation are the responsibility of the relevant Programme Director who may be contacted with queries about the dissertation. • MAIR Programme Director Christopher Łazarski, Ph.D., room 14, floor IX, sector F; e-mail: • MScIBE Programme Director Olha Zadorozhna, Ph.D., room 265; phone no. 22 54 35 567; e-mail: 2: THE DISSERTATION The Dissertation module constitutes Part II of MA in International Relations and MSc in International Business Economics degrees and carries a credit rating of 60 CATS (20 ECTS). Students are only allowed to proceed on to the dissertation stage of the scheme after they have passed Part I. The dissertation is an important component of the taught programme. It is seen as a means of enabling students to apply the theory learned, both substantive and methodological, to an in-depth specialised study. The module requires independent thought and action, and should encourage the integration of the course material with areas of individual expertise and interest. The context, data, analysis and conclusions of the students’ research are to be presented for assessment in a dissertation that should not exceed 20,000 words in length (excluding the bibliography and appendices). Dissertation assessment will be based on an agreed mark between the supervisor and two internal examiners (following the blind marking procedure) and confirmed by an external examiner of Coventry University. The pass mark for the dissertation is 40%, a distinction is awarded to any student who scores 70% or more in both Part I and Part II of the programme. Students with a Part I average of 65%–69% will also be awarded a degree with distinction where (Part I average + Part II average)/2=70% or more. 2.1: DISSERTATION TOPIC You need to select a closely defined topic for study, in which you can demonstrate the application of theories, concepts and techniques that you have learned in your study of other modules. 3 While all thesis proposals will be considered, the department reserves the right to withhold approval if a proposal is considered unsatisfactory. Reasons for the rejection of dissertation proposals might include: duplication of topics, insufficiency of published literature of adequate standing, insufficiency of published data, the unavailability of a member of staff with expertise appropriate to the proposal, or a proposal which is unrelated or unsuitable to the degree programme. One of the hardest aspects of self-directed research activity is to define exactly what you will do. It is important to keep in mind that what is needed is not just a subject area but also a specific line of inquiry. This may involve, for example, a specific issue for review, or a particular hypothesis to be tested. However, in all cases there must be a purpose beyond the mere collection of information. Furthermore, a good dissertation must be analytical, not just descriptive, and you will need to evaluate literature and empirical evidence, use reasoned argument, and work systematically towards a conclusion. When choosing a specific area of study, you should make sure that your topic: 1. deals with an issue of current major concern. 2. is sufficient in scope and depth to form the basis of a Master Dissertation. 3. is manageable, given time and resource constraints. 4. is relevant to the realm of your studies. It is important to stress points 3 and 4, as many students fall into the trap of choosing a topic that is too ambitious. Students frequently underestimate the time required for each stage of the research process and choose objectives which are better suited for a Doctoral Dissertation rather than a Master’s Dissertation. This should be avoided. Gill and Johnson (1991) include the following in their list of the characteristics of a good research topic: 1. Access – will you be able to obtain the data required for the research? Will you have access to key people, documents, etc.? 2. Achievability – can the work be completed in the time allocated for the dissertation? This may refer more to the timing of required information than to the total amount of work involved. 3. Symmetry of potential outcomes – will the research be of value regardless of the outcome? 4. Student capability – students should choose a topic that suits their own analytical skills. This may seem obvious, but there are examples of students choosing topics which do not play to their strengths. 5. Value and scope of the research – to quote Gill and Johnson: ‘There are several reasons why the value of the research should be considered when topics are selected. Both students and supervisors are likely to be more highly motivated if the work has obvious value and examiners, too, are likely to be more interested and aware higher marks if the work is clearly making a contribution to the solution of a significant problem’. In order to ensure that you do not embark on work which is unnecessary or unlikely to lead to successful completion, it is VITAL THAT YOU KEEP YOUR SUPERVISOR INFORMED OF YOUR INTENTIONS. 2.2: WHAT CONSITUTES A GOOD DISSERTATION? There is no single model to follow when writing a dissertation. However, it is sometimes helpful to look at successful dissertation copies which are available in the main library or from staff in the department. The main point to remember is that you need to demonstrate a good understanding of the principles of research-based academic inquiry, while exploring a theme which will contribute to what is known already in their chosen area of study. Attributes of a good dissertation include (modified from the advice given at the University of Bath, School of Management): Content 1. A careful selection of a problem/issue which is relevant to your sphere of interest. 2. A clear definition of the problems/issues to be investigated. 3. A clear statement of aims. 4. An appropriate literature review. 5. An appropriate research design to investigate the specified problem area including an awareness of alternative approaches and a defence of the chosen method. 6. A consistent and careful implementation of the adopted methodology. 7. Where applicable, the selection of appropriate data. 8. A systematic, objective and efficient analysis of the collected data. 9. The drawing of relevant conclusions from data analysis. Conclusions should be supported by the data, and should be compared and contrasted with the findings of previous studies and put into the context of existing literature. 10. A demonstration that you have a good grasp and understanding of the relevant theory and have integrated it into the dissertation. 11. A demonstration of originality and initiative in pursuing the objectives of the study. Presentation 1. A consistent outline of the material and logical flow of arguments. 2. Inclusion or reference to all material and evidence supporting the conclusions. An appropriate collection of appendices. Assessment Criteria In general, the dissertation is assessed by the following criteria: 1. Originality. 2. A clear definition of the issue under investigation and a clear statement of the aims of the study. 3. An understanding and use of an appropriate research methodology indicating skills in data collection and analysis. 4. The extent to which all of the above result in a set of conclusions that are consistent with the research. 5. The setting out of clear recommendations for action, adoption or otherwise. 3: GETTING STARTED 3.1 MA / MSc Seminar Before selecting the topic you must first choose your dissertation supervisor (no later than the end of November), and then, with the supervisor’s advice, choose the subject of study. Prior to contacting your potential supervisors, you should conduct preliminary research regarding their topic, so that your consultations with the supervisor are fruitful and productive. While deciding on the choice of the supervisor, you may refer to the CVs of LU academic staff included in your Student Handbook. Students will begin working regularly with their supervisors in the sixth semester, during the MA/MSc Seminar. It must be stressed however that the supervisor will not do the work for their pupils! The onus is on students to make their own decisions about what goes into their dissertation, and that includes deciding whether to accept or reject suggestions made by the supervisor. 4: DISSERTATION SUPERVISION 4.1 The Student / Supervisor Relationship Supervisors and students are expected to form an agreement based on a 'partnership', with both parties providing input and having responsibilities. In this case the term 'contract' with its all connotations of terms and conditions, and its remedies for non-performance or compliance, is avoided. The ideal relationship should be a co-operative one with benefits arising for both student and supervisor. Supervisors are expected to provide guidance as to structure, organisation and presentation of the work, and students are expected to undertake the appropriate research and discovery, employing an agreed approach and methodology. At an early stage, the supervisor and student should meet and agree on an approach to the management of the dissertation. Working together they should determine answers to questions such as the following: • where will meetings take place? • what are the arrangements for internal and external communications? 4.2 Formal Supervision Procedure To facilitate an effective supervision process, there is a formalised procedure whereby students are expected to make appointments with their supervisor, and show evidence of progress at each meeting. When arranging meeting times, you should suggest suitable dates via email or in person, and you are expected to keep the appointments that they have made. You are supposed to keep your Dissertation Report Form (see Appendix A) that records each meeting with your supervisors. You must bring this record to every meeting and after each supervision return it to the English-language Studies Registrar for the Programme Director’s further verification of progress. Keeping a clear record of meetings is an essential element of the dissertation process. Supervisors, subject to mutual agreement, might also see their pupils during other times in addition to, but not instead of, their formally scheduled meetings. Supervision time will be limited to 10 meetings per academic year. This figure may change at the discretion of the Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Management. 4.3 Work Plan Clearly it will not be possible at the outset to determine a comprehensive plan of work as this will develop and evolve as the work progresses. Nevertheless, it is desirable that discussions between students and their supervisors take place at an early stage with the view of determining an agreed work schedule, which can be used to monitor student progress. A dissertation timetable is available on However, you should treat this timetable as a guide, there are no absolutes in this business. Nevertheless, deadlines for submission are absolute. 4.4 Roles and Responsibilities of the Supervisor and the Student Supervisors should ensure that: • adequate time is available for supervision and encouragement; • the student fully comprehends the complexity of the proposed task; • the student is focusing on the work in the intended direction; • the student has access to primary research materials. The supervisor acts as a mentor and guide to the student, and should take a professional interest in the work of the student. The student will: • ensure that an appropriate amount of time and effort is applied to the dissertation; • be receptive to counsel from the supervisor; • properly acknowledge text, material and ideas created by others; • meet all regulations relating to the work; • communicate any problems likely to prejudice the quality or timeliness of the work to the supervisor as and when such problems arise. 5: PREPARING THE DISSERTATION 5.1 Word Processing Facilities Windows-based software is available in the Library, computer laboratories and in the University halls. Most of the machines have electronic mail facilities and Internet access. Windows-based printing facilities are accessible in the room of the Students’ Union and are free of charge. In the event of difficulties with the above, you should contact the IT Department at 5.2 Writing the Dissertation You should try at an early stage to envisage the final shape of your dissertation, i.e. the whole as the sum of its parts, including the balance between the chapters and the way that each chapter links to the next. There is no single ideal dissertation structure, and much will depend on the topic chosen, but there are some points of advice which have general application. A dissertation should be systematic in approach, and clear in exposition. Having decided what issues or questions are going to be studied, you should choose your methods of examination. You should ask yourself: ‘How can I best explain my line of enquiry, and what will be the logical steps by which I can build up to a conclusion?’. You may use theory to identify what you expect to happen, then check against evidence of what actually happened to identify conformity with, or divergence from, the theory, and then offer interpretation. Alternatively, you may review the existing literature relating to your topic and identify the extent of common ground or differences of opinion, and then collect and evaluate information to reflect on how the general debate helps understand the case in question. These are examples of methodical research design, and they will be explained in further detail, along with other methods, in the Research Methods course. However, the important thing to remember is that you should avoid having a disorganised, rambling, series of points of information that fills up pages but does not lead anywhere. Having a good research design with a definite layout of chapters, each corresponding to a logical next step in a progressive investigation, is necessary for the reader to understand what is written in the dissertation. Your should keep in mind that even if something is clear in your own head, a lack of logical expression will leave the reader unsure or confused about your argument. In that regard, you must also be careful to avoid ambiguity and to be precise. You should support assertions with evidence or reasoned argument. You should add appropriate qualifications to general statements. And you should be thorough and well organised in their thinking, conveying your ideas through the judicious use of language as well as charts, tables, and graphs if necessary. Although methodology is of central importance, the dissertation also requires communication and presentation skills. In preparing a dissertation it is obviously useful to draw from earlier work in the same topic area (properly acknowledged – see below). Most theses include a literature review, which is not an end in itself but rather a basis from which to consider how best to move forward to deal with the task at hand. You should select what is relevant and useful, and adapt the literature to suit. Appendix B provides some practical suggestions on how to conduct a literature review. In writing your dissertation, you learn the skills by which academics advance knowledge and understanding. A strict requirement here is for you to always acknowledge what is taken from others, and not to present borrowed ideas as your own. In this respect, the bibliography of consulted references is an important part of any dissertation. It is also important to quote data sources. You should start a bibliography at an early stage of your work, and update it regularly as you progress. While reading through research materials, it is also useful to keep a record of important page numbers for later reference – all quotations need specific attribution. The recommended style of presentation is covered in a later section of this document. The dissertation should be within the prescribed length limits, i.e. 20,000 words (excluding bibliography and appendices). Part of this exercise is to experience the discipline of writing within stated confines, necessitating that you make judgements about what is relevant and important. The early stages of dissertation work involve searching for material, reading, planning: these are all inputs. What matters ultimately is the output. The transition from preparation to production can be traumatic! It is suggested that you do not write the introduction first, but rather leave it until you know exactly what you are introducing. A good approach is to start with substantive chapters of the dissertation that review the literature first, or introduce relevant theory, or present the evidence. The next step is to move on to chapters that set up the methodology, undertake the analysis, and provide interpretation. Finally, the last stage is to write the introduction and conclusion. Moreover, towards the end the dissertation writing process it is a good idea to discuss with your supervisors the exact wording of your dissertation title. A dissertation usually evolves over time and the focus can move slightly away from what was initially envisaged. This is normal. Ultimately, you should choose a title that is brief and which accurately describes what your dissertation is all about. 6: SUBMISSION OF THE COMPLETED DISSERTATION Two bound copies of the completed dissertation, preapproved by the dissertation supervisor must be submitted to the English-language Studies Registrar at the end of the sixth semester (the exact date is specified each year, see Dissertation Timetable available on Late submission will result in capping your final mark at 40% and may result in delaying graduation until the fall, or even the next academic year with the obligation to repeat the seminar course worth 20 ECTS points. 7: EXAMINATION OF THE COMPLETED DISSERTATION Each dissertation is marked by two internal examiners independently (blind marking). The agreed grade of the supervisor and the internal markers is also subject to final approval by the external examiner of Coventry University. In assessing the dissertation, markers will consider such factors as the difficulty of the subject matter, the use of sources, the quality of ideas expressed, the quality of analysis, the relevance of the material to the argument, and the general presentation of the study. The standard of English expression and spelling will also be taken into account. The dissertation is evaluated as a completed entity, with markers exercising their professional judgement about overall quality. After the dissertation is marked, all Lazarski University students (validated and nonvalidated) must pass a dissertation defence examination before the Dissertation Board which consists of the supervisor, the internal examiners, the Dean of the Faculty, or the Programme Director acting on his/her behalf. This does not relate to students applying for Coventry University degree only (i.e. validated students who do not intend to obtain Lazarski University degree). 8: PLAGIARISM AND UNFAIR PRACTICE Plagiarism occurs when you present the work of others as if it were your own. This is a serious academic offence which necessitates disciplinary action. Students found guilty of presenting a wholly or substantially plagiarised dissertation will be expelled from the University without a degree. Unfair practice can take many forms. With the dissertation it is expected that students will draw from the work of others, but at every instance this must be acknowledged with a reference to the author. Direct quotations of other people’s words must be placed in quotation marks (or for longer quotes, indented block quotations), and there must be an exact reference to the source location. A recommended style of referencing is presented below. A dissertation which is excessively dependent on referenced material from other sources, without much individual input from the student, is not guilty of an offence but will be marked down for poor scholarship. Unacknowledged copying of work that has been done by another person is unacceptable. The falsification or fabrication of data or results is also a form of objectionable practice. The above is of course not an exhaustive list of forms of misconduct in research. Any indication of malpractice of any kind in a dissertation will lead to an enquiry and results may be withheld until that is completed. In cases of proven significant malpractice a zero mark is recorded and the student is then subject to disciplinary proceedings. Lazarski University requires that each student sign a statement of originality and include it in their dissertation. 9: DISSERTATION FORMAT Although there is no set style for writing a thesis, every dissertation should have the following components in the subsequent order: a title page, a statement of originality, acknowledgements (if any), an abstract, a table of contents, a list of tables and figures (if any), a list of abbreviations (if any), an introductory chapter, substantive chapters, a concluding chapter, a bibliography, and appendices (if any). The format of these components are as follows: 9.1 Title Page The precise title of the thesis (in English and in Polish) is to be typed in capital letters on the first page inside the binding. Below this comes the title of the degree for which the thesis is submitted, the students’ name, the name of the supervisor, and the year of presentation. There should also be no page number on the title page (see Appendix C). 9.2 Statement of Originality The second page the thesis should have the statements of originality (Appendix D) along with the student’s written signature (in blue ink), and date (also in blue ink). The page containing the statement of originality should not include any page numbers. 9.3 Acknowledgements (if any) If you choose to acknowledge the help or input of anyone who has aided you during the writing of the thesis, then you may do so on the third page of the dissertation titled ‘Acknowledgements’. This page should not include any page numbers. 9.4 Abstract An abstract or synopsis of about 300-400 words must be given on the fourth page of the thesis (or third page if there are no acknowledgements). This is for the benefit of a potential user of the thesis who, having been attracted by the title, wants a brief outline of the method of approach, the coverage and the results in order to know whether it is relevant to their own work. This page should not include any page numbers. 9.5 Table of Contents The next page of the thesis should be the ‘Table of Contents’, which lists all of the contents of the thesis and their page numbers, as well as the number and title of each chapter and the number of the page on which each chapter begins. The Table of Contents page itself should not have a page number. 9.6 List of Tables and Figures (if any) Following the Table of Contents page, you should include a list of any tables or figures that appear in the thesis (along with the page numbers where they can be found in the thesis). The ‘List of Tables and Figures’ page should be the first page in the thesis which will be numbered, and this number ought to correspond to the order in which it appears in the thesis (so if the student dedicated one page for Acknowledgements and one page for the Table of Contents, then the ‘List of Tables and Figures’ page should be numbered 6). Every page in the thesis from this point forward ought to have a page number. 9.7 Key to Abbreviations (if any) If the thesis features abbreviations, then these should to be listed in a separate ‘Key of Abbreviations’ section. 9.8 Introductory Chapter This chapter will spell out the main issues addressed in the thesis and might, for example, establish the context of the thesis and provide some background to the issues examined. This may take the form of a statement of a hypothesis, or of a problem, and a general discussion of the methodology and procedures used in the study, as well as the sequence in which these are discussed in subsequent chapters. 9.9 Substantive Chapters Each major theme ought to be presented in a separate chapter, which should be clearly supported by relevant literature, references, and other evidence as appropriate. Details of the reference system are given below. Each chapter should begin on a new page and the chapter heading should be a concise description of the contents of the chapter. 9.10 Summary and Conclusions The final chapter will summarise the entire study and state the conclusions reached and their implications, as well as any recommendations which may come out of the thesis. As this is often the focal point of the thesis, you are advised to give this chapter particular attention. 9.11 Bibliography The bibliography should include a list of all the sources referenced in the text of thesis. Guidelines for the proper referencing of sources are provided below. The content of the bibliography is not taken into consideration for the final word count of the thesis. 9.12 Appendices Appendices may include source documents, charts, tables, pictures, or other materials which might enhance the reader’s understanding of the subject matter tackled in the thesis. Each new piece of material should have its own appendix. The content of the appendices is not taken into consideration for the final word count of the thesis. 10: EDITING AND REFERENCING 10.1 Font and Line Spacing The thesis text should be double spaced, and the text ought to be in Times New Roman Font, size 12. A larger size and different font style may be used for chapter headings at the student’s discretion. The text of the thesis should also be ‘justified’, and the first line of each new paragraph must begin with an indentation. However, the first line at the beginning of each chapter or sub-chapter should not be indented (see example below). 10.2 Page Numbers All pages in the thesis must have page numbers except for the title page, statement of originality, acknowledgements (if any), abstract, and the table of contents. Page numbers must be written at the bottom of each page and should be centred. 10.3 Referencing System Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you have used in your document. It is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations and to enable readers to follow up what you have written and locate the cited author’s work. There are many styles which follow the author-date convention, including the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Chicago Manual of Style. For the BA Thesis at Lazarski University, the preferred referencing system is the ‘Harvard Style’. For information on the Harvard Reference Style please refer to Appendix E and/or the Harvard Reference Style Quick Guide available on 10.4 Use of Italics in Text Italics are used to distinguish certain words from others within the text. Below are some basic rules for when to use italics while writing. Titles Generally, italics are used for the titles of things that can stand by themselves. Thus, the titles of novels and journals must be differentiated from, say, and the titles of poems, short stories, articles, and episodes (for television shows). The titles of these shorter pieces would be surrounded with double quotation marks. In writing the titles of newspapers, ‘the’ is not italicized, even when it is part of the title (the New York Times), and the same goes for name of the city in which the newspaper is published unless that name is part of the title: the Hartford Courant, but the London Times. 10.5 Use of Footnotes and Endnotes The use of endnotes is discouraged in the BA Thesis. However, footnotes at the bottom of pages may be used for clarifying or diversionary comments. Neither endnotes nor footnotes should be used for referencing, as the preferred Harvard Style mentioned above employs a parenthetical system. Footnotes should be single-spaced. 10.6 Quoting and Paraphrasing Please refer to Appendix F for advice that students should follow when paraphrasing and quoting different authors in their thesis. 10.7 Printing and Binding Two copies of the BA Thesis must be submitted to the English-language Studies Registrar before the specified due date. The thesis must be bound in a dark blue hardcover. The thesis must be printed one-sided, on quality A4 paper. The margins of the pages should be 2.5cm on all sides. APPENDIX A: THESIS REPORT FORM LAZARSKI UNIVERSITY, WARSAW THESIS REPORT FORM Student Name: …………………………………………… Programme: …………………………………………… Supervisor: …………………………………………… Working Title of Dissertation: ……………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………………………... Record of Meetings with Student: Date of Meeting 1: Discussion of: Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory) _______________________________ Date of Meeting 2: Discussion of: Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory) _______________________________ Date of Meeting 3: Discussion of: Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory) _______________________________ Date of Meeting 4: Discussion of: Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory) _______________________________ Date of Meeting 5: Discussion of: Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory) _______________________________ Date of Meeting 6: Discussion of: Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory) _______________________________ Date of Meeting 7: Discussion of: Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory) _______________________________ Date of Meeting 8: Discussion of: Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory) _______________________________ Date of Meeting 9: Discussion of: Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory) _______________________________ Date of Meeting 10: Discussion of: Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory) _______________________________ (Additional sheets for other meetings to be appended as necessary) Reasons for Reporting of Unsatisfactory Progress: Date(s) Programme Director Informed of Unsatisfactory Progress: Subsequent Action Taken: End of Dissertation Report: Date of dissertation submission for examination: Was a draft of the dissertation submitted for comments prior to submission: Yes/No* If “No” estimate % of dissertation seen in draft form prior to submission: Comments: I confirm that the above is a true record of the supervision of this dissertation. Signed (Student):........................................................................ Signed (Supervisor):................................................................... Note: The Dissertation Report Form is to be kept in the Students Record File *delete as inappropriate APPENDIX B: LITERATURE REVIEW In order to find out what research other people have done on your chosen topic, you will need to undertake a literature search. Your review of the literature will then act as a background against which you can carry out and report your own research. As Jankowicz points out (1991, p. 116) Knowledge doesn't exist in a vacuum, and your work only has value in relation to other people's. Your work and your findings will be significant only to the extent that they're the same as, or different from, other people's work and findings. What is needed is a ‘critical review which demonstrates some awareness of the current state of knowledge on the subject, its limitations, and how the proposed research aims to add to what is known’ (Gill and Johnson, 1991, p.21). What follows are some practical suggestions on how to undertake an effective literature review: 1. Start off by referring to some books and articles on the topic of your research. Your supervisor should be able to advise you. From these, by following up the references, you will be able to trace more specific publications, which will in turn guide you to others, and so on. You probably need to use the inter-library loan system because it is unlikely that the average academic library will have all the relevant books and articles. 2. If you are unable to trace any previous research on your topic, try broadening your search. For example, if you are researching the use of staff appraisal systems in voluntary organisations and you cannot find any previous research on it, look at staff appraisal generally. You will soon find that the literature is vast! It then becomes a case of narrowing down to some aspect of staff appraisal that is relevant to your research question. 3. When you are writing up your literature review, you will probably need to divide it into sections in order to make the review manageable and reader friendly. What sections you will have will very much depend on what you find in the literature. 4. As a general rule, when writing up the review, deal with the more general material first and then gradually narrow down towards your particular research question. 5. Another rule of thumb is to deal with the literature in chronological order so that the reader can see how the research activity of others has developed over the years. Sometimes you will find that these rules of thumb (paragraphs 4 and 5) conflict with each other. If so, you will need to make a judgement about what makes most sense in the context of your particular research. 6. Remember that you are expected to carry out a critical review of the literature. It is not enough simply to list and describe what has been done by researchers. You need to summarise and compare the pieces of research to see how they differ (in their approaches, research methods, and findings) and to see whether any common themes emerge. Aim for what Gill and Johnson (1991) call an ‘insightful evaluation’ of the literature (p.21). You should then use the results of the review as a backdrop to your own research. The review can help you to plan parts of your own research, and you should use the key ideas from the review in your own discussion of your results; e.g. how your findings fit in with the previous research. 7. Opinions about how long a literature review should be vary greatly. Literature reviews of 15% - 25% of the total word count of the thesis are not uncommon. 8. You need to be fastidious in the way you keep details of the publications consulted. Some people advocate the use of index cards (one for each publication) with a summary of the research and enough detail to enable you to cite the work correctly in ‘References’ at the end of your thesis (e.g. title, and title of journal where relevant), author, date, of publication, publisher, page numbers, and a brief note on the content of the article or book in question). Alternatively, you can use a suitable computer database for keeping your records of the publications consulted. 9. You should aim to complete a reasonably comprehensive literature review before carrying out the substantive part of your own research; this is because what you find out in the literature review can help you to refine your research question and your research method. In one sense you will not be able to achieve a complete review before your own data collection because research will continue to be published during the period of your own research; but you should aim to complete most of the review as early as possible (otherwise you might find, half way through your data collection, that someone else has already done it). 10. The sources which you should search include books, articles, theses and thesiss, government reports research papers, conference papers, abstracts and reviews, library catalogues and on-line databases. Librarians and your supervisor should be able to offer useful guidance. Many professional bodies have libraries which might be relevant to your particular topic. Further reading on literature reviews Bell (1987) chapters 3 and 4, including pp 20 - 1; an extract from a literature review as an illustration. Gill and Johnson (1991) pp. 21 - 22. Jankowicz (1991) chapter 8. References: Bell, J., (1987). Doing Your Research Project. Open University Press. Gill, J. and Johnson, P., (1991). Research Methods for Manager. Paul Chapman. Jankowicz, A., (1991). Business Research Projects for Students. Chapman and Hall. APPENDIX C: TITLE PAGE LAZARSKI UNIVERSITY Faculty of Economics and Management FULL ENGLISH TITLE OF THE THESIS Full Polish title of the thesis Programme of studies (Economics/International Relations) FULL NAME OF THE CANDIDATE Student Enrollment No Bachelor/Master Thesis Supervisor’s name Warsaw 2015 APPENDIX D: STATEMENTS PAGE DECLARATION This work has not previously been accepted in substance for any degree and is not being concurrently submitted in candidature for any degree. Signed (Candidate) Date STATEMENT I, being aware of all the applicable consequences, declare that the submitted dissertation, titled in English and Polish, is the result of my own work and research. Additionally, I declare that the dissertation does not infringe on any copyrights in accordance with the act on copyright and neighboring rights, nor does it infringe on any personal rights as protected by civil law. I also declare that the submitted work does not contain data and information obtained by me in a forbidden manner. I also confirm that the submitted dissertation is identical with the attached electronic version of it. Signed Date (Candidate) APPENDIX E: REFERENCE STYLE GUIDE Book Elements of the citation Author(s) of book – family name and initials Year of publication. Title of book – italicized, Edition, Place of publication, Publisher. Reference type Single author 2 authors 3 authors Example of in-text citation Bibliography example Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Berkman 1994) OR Berkman (1994, p. 25) claimed that … OR Berkman (1994, pp. 30-35) agrees that … … from an engineering perspective (Cengel & Boles 1994) OR Cengel and Boles (1994) found … … as previously demonstrated (Reid, Parsons & Green 1989) Berkman, Robert, 1994. Find It fast: how to uncover expert information on any subject. New York: HarperPerennial. 4 or more authors … neck pain caused by whiplash (Jull et al. 2008). OR Jull et al. (2008) have argued … No author … already mentioned (Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004). OR In Be, know, do: leadership the Army way (2004) there is an interesting example … … geology of Queensland’s national parks (Willmott 2004, 2006). Multiple works by the same author Cengel, Y. A., and Boles, M. A., 1994. Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 2nd ed. London: McGraw Hill. Reid, D. H., Parsons, M. B. & Green, C. W., 1989. Staff management in human services: behavioral research and application. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas. Jull, G., Sterling, M., Fallah, D., Treleaven, J. & O'Leary, S., 2008. Whiplash headache and neck pain: research-based directions for physical therapies. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Be, know, do: leadership the Army way, 2004. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Insert alphabetically into the Bibliography. Willmott, W. F., 2004. Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland. Brisbane: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division. Willmott, W. F., 2006. Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of central Queensland, Brisbane: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division. Order chronologically from in the reference list. Multiple works by the same author, published in the same year Two or more works by different authors … geographically speaking (Dawkins 1996a, 1996b) … rock formations (Dawkins 1996; Willmott 2004) Book by an organisation or institution … in the case of an institution (Australian Government Publishing Service 1987) Different Editions … the meaning of educational research (Pring 2004) Edited book … some findings (Sjostrand 1993) OR … optics defined (Pike & Sarkar 1986) Book Series In defining permutation groups Bhattacharjee (1998) … Dawkins, R., 1996a. Climbing Mount Improbable. London: Viking. Dawkins, R., 1996b. River out of Eden. London: Phoenix. Order alphabetically by title in the reference list. Dawkins, R., 1996. Climbing Mount Improbable. London: Viking. Willmott, W. F., 2004. Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland. Brisbane: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division. Australian Government Publishing Service, 1987. Commonwealth printing and publishing manual, 2nd ed. Canberra: A.G.P.S. Pring, Robert, 2004. Philosophy of educational research, 2nd ed. London: Continuum, London. The edition statement is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition. Sjostrand, S. (ed.), 1993. Institutional change: theory and empirical findings. N.Y.: Harper. Pike, E. R. & Sarkar, S. (eds.), 1986, Frontiers in quantum optics. Bristol: Adam Hilger. Bhattacharjee, M., 1998. Notes of infinite permutation groups, Lecture notes in mathematics no. 1698. New York: Springer. Chapter in a book Elements of the citation Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials Year of publication. ‘Title of chapter – in single quotation marks’, in Editor(s) of book (eds), Title of book – italicized, Edition. Place of publication, Publisher, Page numbers. Reference type Chapter in an edited book Example of in-text citation Bernstein (1995) explained intelligent traffic flows. Bibliography example Bernstein, D., 1995. ‘Transportation planning’, in W. F. Chen (ed.), The civil engineering handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 231-61. Or Bernstein, Darel, 1995. ‘Transportation planning’, in W. F. Chen (ed.), The civil engineering handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 231-61. Conference paper Elements of the citation Author(s) of paper – family name and initials Year of publication. ‘Title of paper – in single quotation marks’, Title of published proceedings which may include place held and date(s) – italicized. Publisher, Place of Publication, Page number(s), (viewed date in-full, URL – if accessed electronically). Reference type Published conference paper Unpublished conference paper Example of in-text citation Bourassa (1999) emphasized … … estimating partner change (Bowden and Fairley 1996) Bibliography example Bourassa, S., 1999. ‘Effects of child care on young children’, Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Child Psychology. Atlanta, Georgia: International Society for Child Psychology, pp. 44-46. Bowden, F. J. & Fairley, C. K., 1996. ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner change’. Paper presented to the scientific meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June. Journal Article Elements of the citation Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials Year of publication. ‘Title of journal article – in single quotation marks’, Title of journal – italicised, Volume, Issue or number, Page number(s), (viewed date in-full, URL – if accessed electronically). Reference type Journal articles Electronic journal article with page numbers Electronic journal article without page Example of in-text citation Huffman (1996) expanded on the theory … OR … uses for whey protein (Huffman 1996). … changes in resource management (Daniel 2009) … the discipline of art history (Donahue-Wallace & Chanda 2005) Bibliography example Huffman, L. M., 1996. ‘Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient’. Food Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 49-52; [or Food Technology, 50, 2: 49-52]. Daniel, T. T., 2009. 'Learning from simpler times'. Risk Management, vol. 56, no. 1: 40-44, viewed 30 January 2009, . For an article retrieved from a database, it is sufficient to give the URL of the database site. Donahue-Wallace, K. & Chanda, J., 2005. 'A case study in integrating the best practices of face-to-face art history and online teaching'. numbers Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, vol. 7, no. 1, viewed 30 January 2009, . Thesis Elements of the citation Author of thesis – family name and initials, Year of preparation of thesis. ‘Title of thesis – in single quotation marks’, Award, Location of institution, Institution issuing degree. Reference type Thesis Example of in-text citation Bibliography example Exelby (1997) described the process … OR … processing gold (Exelby 1997) Exelby, James, 1997. ‘Aspects of gold and mineral liberation’. PhD thesis, Honolulu: Hawaii University. The title is not italicized and is placed in quotation marks. Report Elements of the citation Author(s) of report – (person or organization) Year of Publication, Title of report italicized, Report number (if available), Publisher/ Institution, Place of publication: (viewed date in-full, URL - if accessed electronically). Reference type Print report Electronic report Example of in-text citation … in Queensland waterways (Mortimer & Cox 1999) … young children’s schooling (Rathbun, West & Hausken 2003) Bibliography example Mortimer, M. & Cox, M., 1999. Contaminants in mud crabs and sediments from the Maroochy River. Environment technical report no. 25. Brisbane: Queensland Department of the Environment. Rathbun, A. H., West, J. & Hausken, E. G., 2003. Young children's access to computers in the home and at school in 1999 and 2000, NCES-2003-036. Washington, DC.: National Center for Education Statistics, viewed 4 November 2003, . Newspaper and magazine article Elements of the citation Author(s) of article – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of article – in single quotation marks’, Title of newspaper – italicized, Day month, Page number(s). Reference Example of in-text citation Bibliography example type article (print) ... as seen in the move to privatise the railway (Simpson 1997) Newspaper article (web) … government has been blamed for the water shortage (Porteous 2007). Simpson, L., 1997. ‘Tasmania’s railway goes private’. Australian Financial Review, 13 October, p. 10. Porteous, C., 2007. ‘Rudd blamed for drought’. Courier Mail, 15 August, p. 17, viewed 27 February 2009, . For an article retrieved from a database, it is sufficient to give the URL of the database site. Web page Elements of the citation Author(s) of page – (person or organization), Year (page created or revised), Title of page - italicized, description of document (if applicable), name of the sponsor of the page (if applicable), viewed date-in-full, URL. Reference type Web page with author Example of in-text citation … this agreement (Albanese 2009) Web page with corporate or organisation al author … in this subject guide (University of Queensland Library 2009) Web page with no date of publication … it has been argued that emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies (Bliss n.d.) Bibliography example Albanese, A., 2009. Fairer compensation for air travellers. Media release, 29 January, Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, viewed 30 January 2009, . University of Queensland Library, 2009. Mechanical engineering subject guide.University of Queensland Library, viewed 6 February 2009, . Bliss, S., n.d.. The effect of emotional intelligence on a modern organizational leader’s ability to make effective decisions, viewed 10 February 2008, . Map Elements of the citation Issuing body Year of publication, Title of map – italicized, Series (if available), Place of publication, Publisher. Reference type Example of in-text citation Bibliography example Map … reading this map (Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland 1996) Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland, 1996. Dotswood, Australia 1:100 000 geological series, sheet 8158, Queensland, Brisbane, Department of Mines and Energy. Personal communication Elements of the citation Information obtained by interview, telephone call, letter or email should be documented in the text, but should NOT be included in the list of References. Reference type Personal communicati on Example of in-text citation When interviewed on 15 June 1995, Dr Peter Jones explained that … OR This was later verbally confirmed (P Jones 1995, pers. comm., 15 June). Bibliography example Do not include in the bibliography APPENDIX F: QUOTING AND PARAPHRASING GUIDELINES The guidelines are adopted from a writing guide prepared by the University of Wisconsin-Madison. How to Paraphrase • When reading a passage, try first to understand it as a whole, rather than pausing to write down specific ideas or phrases. • Be selective. You usually do not need to paraphrase an entire passage; instead, choose and summarize the material that helps you make a point in your thesis. • Think of what ‘your own words’ would be if you were telling someone who’s unfamiliar with your subject (your mother, your brother, a friend) what the original source said. • Remember that you can use direct quotations of phrases from the original within your paraphrase, and that you do not need to change or put quotation marks around shared language. Methods of Paraphrasing A. Look away from the source, then write. Read the text you want to paraphrase several times—until you feel that you understand it and can use your own words to restate it to someone else. Then, look away from the original and rewrite the text in your own words. B. Take notes. Take abbreviated notes, set the notes aside, then paraphrase from the notes a day or so later, or when you draft. C. While looking at the source, first change the structure, then the words. For example, consider the following passage from Love and Toil (a book on motherhood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the author, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her major arguments: Love and Toil maintains that family survival was the mother’s main charge among the large majority of London’s population who were poor or working class; the emotional and intellectual nurture of her child or children and even their actual comfort were forced into the background. To mother was to work for and organize household subsistence. (p. 9) 1. Change the structure • Begin by starting at a different place in the passage and/or sentence(s), basing your choice on the focus of your paper. This will lead naturally to some changes in wording. Some places you might start in the passage above are ‘The mother’s main charge,’ ‘Among the ... poor or working class,’ ‘Working for and organizing household subsistence,’ or ‘The emotional and intellectual nurture.’ Or you could begin with one of the people the passage is about: ‘Mothers,’ ‘A mother,’ ‘Children,’ ‘A child.’ Focusing on specific people rather than abstractions will make your paraphrase more readable. • At this stage, you might also break up long sentences, combine short ones, expand phrases for clarity, or shorten them for conciseness, or you might do this in an additional step. In this process, you will naturally eliminate some words and change others. Here is one of the many ways you might get started with a paraphrase of the passage above by changing its structure. In this case, the focus of the paper is the effect of economic status on children at the turn of the century, so the writer begins with children: Children of the poor at the turn of the century received little if any emotional or intellectual nurturing from their mothers, whose main charge was family survival. Working for and organizing household subsistence were what defined mothering. Next to this, even the children’s basic comfort was forced into the background (Ross, 1995). Now you have succeeded in changing the structure, but the passage still contains many direct quotations, so you need to go on to the second step: 2. Change the words • • use synonyms or a phrase that expresses the same meaning. leave shared language unchanged. It is important to start by changing the structure, not the words, but you might find that as you change the words, you see ways to change the structure further. The final paraphrase might look like this: According to Ross (1993), poor children at the turn of the century received little mothering in our sense of the term. Mothering was defined by economic status, and among the poor, a mother’s foremost responsibility was not to stimulate her children’s minds or foster their emotional growth but to provide food and shelter to meet the basic requirements for physical survival. Given the magnitude of this task, children were deprived of even the ‘actual comfort’ (p. 9) we expect mothers to provide today. You may need to go through this process several times to create a satisfactory paraphrase. How to Use Direct Quotation Direct quotation can be used for a variety of reasons, such as: • To show that an authority supports a point in the thesis • To present a position or argument to critique or comment on • To include especially moving or historically significant language • To present a particularly well-stated passage whose meaning would be lost or changed if paraphrased or summarized However, students should not rely too heavily on direct quotation. Most of the ideas and text in their thesis should be in their own words. Below are some guidelines to follow when using direct quotations. Introducing Quotations One of your jobs as a writer is to guide your reader through your text. Do not simply drop quotations into your thesis and leave it to the reader to make connections. Integrating a quotation into your text usually involves two elements: • • A signal that a quotation is coming—generally the author’s name and/or a reference to the work An assertion that indicates the relationship of the quotation to your text Often both the signal and the assertion appear in a single introductory statement, as in the example below. Notice how a transitional phrase also serves to connect the quotation smoothly to the introductory statement. Ross (1993), in her study of poor and working-class mothers in London from 1870-1918 [signal], makes it clear that economic status to a large extent determined the meaning of motherhood [assertion]. Among this population [connection], ‘To mother was to work for and organize household subsistence’ (p. 9). The signal can also come after the assertion, again with a connecting word or phrase: Illness was rarely a routine matter in the nineteenth century [assertion]. As [connection] Ross observes [signal], ‘Maternal thinking about children’s health revolved around the possibility of a child’s maiming or death’ (p. 166). Formatting Quotations Incorporate short direct prose quotations into the text of your thesis and enclose them in double quotation marks, as in the examples above. Begin longer quotations (2 lines or more) on a new line and indent the entire quotation (i.e., put in block form), with no quotation marks at beginning or end, as in the quoted passage Punctuation with Quotation Marks 1. Parenthetical citations. With short quotations, place citations outside of closing quotation marks, followed by sentence punctuation (period, question mark, comma, semi-colon, colon): Menand (2002) characterizes language as ‘a social weapon’ (p. 115). 2. Commas and periods. Place inside closing quotation marks when no parenthetical citation follows: Hertzberg (2002) notes that ‘treating the Constitution as imperfect is not new,’ but because of Dahl’s credentials, his ‘apostasy merits attention’ (p. 85). 3. Question marks and exclamation points. Place inside closing quotation marks if the quotation is a question/exclamation: Menand (2001) acknowledges that H. W. Fowler’s Modern English Usage is ‘a classic of the language,’ but he asks, ‘Is it a dead classic?’ (p. 114). [Note that a period still follows the closing parenthesis.] Place outside of closing quotation marks if the entire sentence containing the quotation is a question or exclamation: How many students actually read the guide to find out what is meant by ‘academic misconduct’? 4. Quotations within quotations. Use double quotation marks for the embedded quotation: According to Hertzberg (2002), Dahl gives the U. S. Constitution ‘bad marks in ‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus’’’ (p. 90). [The phrases ‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus’ are already in quotation marks in Dahl’s sentence.] LAZARSKI UNIVERSITY ESSAY WRITING STANDARD A Guide for Students and Lecturers (Updated October 2014) TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Essay Format 2.1. Title Page 2.2. Font, Spacing, Margins, and Page Numbers 2.3. Essay Length 2.4. Referencing System 3. Essay Submission and Grading 3.1. Submission 3.2. Grading Appendix A – Sample Title Page Appendix B – Page Format 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 8 9 1: INTRODUCTION Essay writing assignments are an important element of course assessment. They not only allow lecturers and professors to check if students have understood the material in a given course, but they also allow them to assess the students’ critical thinking and analytical skills. More importantly, essays are a good way for students to learn about a given subject, and a good means for them to test their own investigative and diagnostic abilities. There is no one way that an essay should be structured, and no one way that an argument should be presented. Essays, like novels, can be as long and convoluted as a Dostoyevsky epic, or as short and straightforward as a Hemingway novella, and still retain the same literary or academic value. Nevertheless, in order to train strong writers and successful researchers, Lazarski University has developed this “Essay Writing Standard” to be used by all students in all courses in its English-language programs. The Standard is not intended to constrain the creativity of students, but rather to enforce basic habits such as proper citation, quotation, and paraphrasing, which are essential for good academic writing. Like in any trade, whether it be painting, carpentry, or architecture, once students master the basic rules and tools required to be good academics, they will be free to experiment and demonstrate their full creative abilities. But before they can do this, they must learn the fundamentals. 2: ESSAY FORMAT As stated earlier, there is no set style for writing an essay. However, in order to ease the grading process, as well as to help students focus on the content of their essay without worrying about its format, Lazarski University has adopted uniform rules concerning title pages, font and line spacing, page numbers, bibliography, and citation, which are to be used by all students for all essay-writing assignments. 2.1 Title Page All essays should have a precise title. For long essays, the title is to be typed in capital letters on the first page. Below this comes the student’s name, their student number, the course for which the essay is submitted, the name of the course coordinator, and the date of submission. There should be no page number on the title page. An example of a proper title page is given in Appendix A. For shorter essays (below 2500 words), students may forgo the title page and simply write the title above the text of their essay, along with their name, student number, and date of submission. However, it is up to the course coordinator to designate whether or not a proper title page is required. 2.2 Font, Spacing, Margins, and Page Numbers The essay text should be double spaced, and the font ought to be in Times New Roman, size 12. A larger size and different font style may be used for headings or section titles at the student’s discretion. 3 The margins of the essay should be 2.5 cm all around and all pages in the essay must have page numbers, except for the title page. Page numbers must be written at the bottom of each page and should be centred. The text of the essay should also be ‘justified’, and the first line of each new paragraph must begin with an indentation. However, the first line at the beginning of a new section and below a section heading should not be indented, see Appendix B. 2.3 Essay Length The length of the essay assignment is dependent on the amount of coursework in a given course, as well as the year in which the course is taught. The length is also determined by the course coordinator and shall be given in terms of word-count (e.g. 3000 words). Given that the Essay Standard requires that all papers be double-spaced, with 2.5 cm margins all around, one page should fit approximately 350 words. Bibliographies are not counted in the word/page count. 2.4 Referencing System Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that are used while writing the essay. In that regard, students should do their best to cite all of their sources properly and avoid plagiarism. Proper referencing also helps readers to verify quotations, allows readers to follow up on what the authors have written, and lets them locate the cited works easily. There are many different citation styles, such as the American Psychological Association (APA) style, or the Chicago Manual of Style. For essays written at Lazarski University however, the preferred referencing system is the ‘Harvard Style’. Harvard style is often referred to as an “author-date”, or “parenthetical” system. It is widely accepted in academic publications, although there are several variations in the way that it is used. The Harvard style uses parentheses instead of footnotes as a way to cite sources. In their essays, students may also use footnotes but only as a way to clarify or expand on a given point and NOT as a way to reference. For good examples of how to use and apply the Harvard style, check the following links: Students may also refer to the BA Thesis Manual, as well as the MA/MSc Dissertation Manual, for more details. Moreover, they may refer to the Coventry University Harvard Reference Style Quick Guide. The Quick Guide and the Manuals are available on the student resource page (zasoby) under the codes “course1-Econ”, “course1-IR”, “course2-Econ” and “course2-IR”. 4 3: ESSAY SUBMISSION AND GRADING 3.1 Submission All essays are to be submitted before or on the day specified by the course coordinator. Late submissions may result in penalties and lower grades. Each student MUST submit a paper copy of their essay AND an electronic copy either on disc or via email. The electronic copy will be used by the course coordinator to verify that the work has not been plagiarized by using the antiplagiarism programs Turn-it-in-UK, as well as 3.2 Grading Essay grades will be given in percents ranging from 0 to 100, although students should not expect to be given perfect scores because, after all, it is impossible to define what exactly constitutes a “perfect” essay. To receive an “A” on their essays, students should aim to achieve 70 percent or above. Scores below 40 percent constitute a failing grade. The table below details the different grade scales in terms of percents, British-letter grades, and Polish grades. Percent 76-100%* 70-75% 63-69% 54-62% 49-53% 40-48% 0-39% British letter scale A+ A B C D E F Polish scale 5,5* 5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5 3,0 2 * a grade of A+ or in Polish “celujący”, is to be given only for truly exceptional work The following table specifies the characteristics of excellent, mediocre, and poor essays. BA level Class Mark range 90 – 100% Class I 80 – 89% 70 – 79% Guidelines In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, an outstanding answer that could hardly be bettered. High degree of understanding, critical/analytic skills and original research, where specified. Outstanding in all respects. In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, the answer will demonstrate an excellent level of understanding, presence of clear description, critical/analytical skills or research, as appropriate. Answer entirely relevant to the assignment set. Answer will demonstrate clear understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. There will be evidence of wide-ranging reading and/or research, as appropriate, beyond the minimum recommended. Answers will be written/presented in a clear, well-structured way with clarity of expression. At level 3, evidence of independent, critical thought would normally be expected. 5 65 – 69% Class II : I 60 – 64% 55 – 59% Class II : II 50 – 54% Marginal fail 35 – 39% Answer demonstrating a very good understanding of the requirements of the assignment. Answer will demonstrate very good understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. Answer will be mostly accurate/appropriate, with few errors. Little, if any, irrelevant material may be present. Reading beyond the recommended minimum will be present where appropriate. Well organised and clearly written/presented. A good understanding, with few errors. Some irrelevant material may be present. Well organised and clearly written/presented. Some reading/research beyond recommended in evidence. Answer demonstrating a good understanding of relevant theories, concepts, issues and methodology. Some reading/research beyond that recommended may be present. Some errors may be present and inclusion of irrelevant material. May not be particularly well-structured, and/or clearly presented. Answer demonstrating a reasonable understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology. Answer likely to show some errors of understanding. May be significant amount of irrelevant material. May not be well-structured and expression/presentation may be unclear at times. Some relevant material will be present. Understanding will be poor with little evidence of reading/research on the topic. Fundamental errors and misunderstanding likely to be present. Poor structure and poor expression/presentation. Much material may not be relevant to the assignment. Inadequate answer with little relevant material and poor understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. Fundamental errors and misunderstandings will be present. Material may be largely irrelevant. Poorly structured and poorly expressed/presented. 30 – 34% Fail 20 – 29% 0 – 19% Clear failure to provide answer to the assignment. Little understanding and only a vague knowledge of the area. Serious and fundamental errors and lack of understanding. Virtually no evidence of relevant reading/research. Poorly structured and inadequately expressed/presented. Complete failure, virtually no understanding of requirements of the assignment. Material may be entirely irrelevant. Answer may be extremely short, and in note form only. Answer may be fundamentally wrong, or trivial. Not a serious attempt. MA/MSc level INDICATIVE GRADE A UK % MARKS 70% and above CHARACTERISTICS Very high standard of critical analysis using appropriate conceptual frameworks. Excellent understanding and exposition of relevant issues. Clearly structured and logically developed arguments. Good awareness of nuances and complexities. Substantial evidence of well-executed independent research. Excellent evaluation and synthesis of source material. Relevant data and examples, all properly referenced. Distinction 70% and above B C D 69-60% High standard of critical analysis using appropriate conceptual frameworks. Clear awareness and exposition of relevant issues. Clearly structured and logically developed arguments. Awareness of nuances and complexities. Evidence of independent research. Good evaluation and synthesis of source material. Relevant data and examples, all properly referenced. 59-50% Uses appropriate conceptual frameworks. Attempts analysis but includes some errors and/or omissions. Shows awareness of issues but no more than to be expected from attendance at classes. Arguments reasonably clear but underdeveloped. Insufficient evidence of independent research. Insufficient evaluation of source material. Some good use of relevant data and examples, but incompletely referenced. 49-40% Adequate understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks. Answer too descriptive and/or any attempt at analysis is superficial, containing errors and/or omissions. Shows limited awareness of issues but also some confusion. Arguments not particularly clear. Limited evidence of independent research and reliance on a superficial repeat of class notes. Relatively superficial use of relevant data, sources and examples and poorly referenced. Pass Mark = 40% E 39-30% F 29% and below Weak understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks. Weak analysis and several errors and omissions. Establishes a few relevant points but superficial and confused exposition of issues. No evidence of independent research and reliance on a superficial repeat of class notes. Relatively superficial use of relevant data, sources and examples and poorly referenced. Very weak or no understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks. Very weak or no grasp of analysis and may errors and omissions. Very little or no understanding of the issues raised by the question. No appropriate references to data, sources, examples or even class notes. 7 APPENDIX A – SAMPLE TITLE PAGE The Role of Intellectuals in Contemporary Politics By: John F. Awesome Student Number: 100 500 Course: Advanced Political Theory Course Coordinator: Prof. Knows-A-Lot Date of Submission: February 31, 2052 8 APPENDIX B – PAGE FORMAT 9
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Diplomatic Relations Between Israel and the United States 1

Diplomatic Relations Between Israel and the United States under Barack Obama and Donald

Diplomatic Relations Between Israel and the United States 2
Diplomatic Relations Between Israel and the United States under Barack Obama and Donald
The purpose of the paper is to review the diplomatic relations between Israel and the
United States under Barack Obama and Donald Trump and how these relations impacted the rest
of the Middle East. It is argued that the relations between the U.S. and Israel plays a fundamental
role in maintaining a relative stability in the Middle East and a compromise of this relationship
could significantly challenge the geopolitical climate of the region.
The United States is arguably Israel’s most important ally and few politicians in the
United States questions the role of U.S. as a key ally of Israel. Unlike most topics in the United
States, supporting Israel is not a question of favoring a left, right, or moderate political approach.
The fact that politicians of all colors favor strong U.S.-Israel relationships is explained by the
fact that bilateral cooperation between the two countries plays an important role in handling
several challenges in the Middle East, both military and non-military. On the other hand, the
strong relationship between U.S. and Israel also affected U.S. image in Arab countries and
sometimes in other parts of the world as well, as Israel handling of the Palestinian issue is often
highly questionable. However, because a significant weakness in the relationship between the
two countries could threaten stability, U.S. rarely questions some of Israel’s most questionable
interventions the way other countries do. In other words, the U.S.-Israel relations have a strong
strategic importance and a weakness of this relationship might affect stability in the Middle East,
and maybe even in the world as a whole. Because the relationship between the two countries is
so important for stability in the Middle East and beyond, it is highly relevant to international
relations studies.

Diplomatic Relations Between Israel and the United States 3
The relationship between U.S. and Israel has entered a new era when Barack Obama took
charge. One of the most important events during this administ...

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