what if today's world powers followed the ideal government of Niccolo Machiavelli? Research Paper.

Los Angeles Pierce College

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RESEARCH ESSAY OVERVIEW The research paper involves researching a topic that you develop out of your understanding of the thematically organized readings in the text. The themes include government, the individual, ethics and morality, nature, the mind, etc. Your topic and thesis should relate to one or more of the articles in one of these categories and be current and relevant but also original. You must defend your position by supporting it with research. There are many steps to the process, and writing the paper is the last step. We will discuss the following: o o o o o o What is meant by “research paper”? Choosing a topic An overview of argument and persuasion (Classical, Rogerian, Toulmin methods) Logic (deduction, induction, fallacies) Developing research questions Using sources (library and databases, documentation, MLA format, works cited) Before you turn in your final paper, you will be required to complete the two preliminary assignments below: 1. PROSPECTUS: A one-page proposal that states your working thesis and outlines the steps you will take in the research process. 2. WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHY: An annotated bibliography in MLA format of the sources you are consulting in your research. Finally, you will write an 8-10 page paper that meets the guidelines below: o o o o o o Defend your position, keeping in mind the three elements of classical persuasion we’ve discussed in class: your credibility with the audience, the logic of your argument, and the emotional power of your words. Support the position you take with one or more of the approaches from the textbook and evidence from your independent research. The articles you reference should be credible and objective (based on facts, not feelings or beliefs). You need a minimum of six sources (max. one web source) that relate to your topic. Remember to organize your ideas coherently, using logical transitions and one of the organizing principles we’ve discussed. Don’t forget to engage the opposing point of view at some point in your essay— a counter-argument (rebuttal) that addresses differing opinions. To get credit you must document your sources using MLA format and include a “Works Cited” page (see the MLA Handbook and the policy for submitting papers in the syllabus). You must also attach highlighted or underlined copies of your sources (in their entirety) to your essay before you turn it in. THE RESEARCH ESSAY MUST BE COMPLETED TO RECEIVE A PASSING GRADE IN THIS CLASS. DEVELOPING A TOPIC AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS FROM THE READING SAMPLE Thoreau’s concerns: The role of government The role of the individual citizen Justice and the law Conscience Conformity/self-reliance Democracy Higher laws Related issues/topics: War Slavery/civil or human rights Spirit of law vs. letter of law Elections Rights of minorities Church and state Forms of government Questions: When is war justified? Do elected officials represent the voters who elected them or all citizens? How should judges interpret the law? What are the theories that exist? What constitutes citizenship? What is the appropriate relationship between church and state? What are the points of view? How can they be evaluated? Are elections fair for everyone? How can they be conducted fairly? What would a better or more just government look like? What are the alternative forms? Should human rights ever be violated to ensure the safety of the governed? How would Thoreau respond? Process: Choose one of these questions. Develop more specific questions as you research. Respond with a well-constructed argument that takes a clear position on the issue and supports it. RESEARCH PAPER PROSPECTUS Instructions: After you have done some preliminary investigation of your topic, write a one-page proposal for your research paper, including all of the following information. Number, title, and single-space each section. 1. PURPOSE: What is your working thesis (your claim)? 2. AUDIENCE: How is the topic relevant to your chosen audience? What implications will your solution or claim have for them? 3. BACKGROUND: Summarize the scholarship available on your topic. Who appear to be the leading authorities? What are the predominant theories or opposing points of view? What are the key issues in this field? How does your thesis engage with the current discourse? 4. PROCEDURE: Which sources have you consulted and which do you intend to consult? Will you be using many primary sources or mostly secondary sources? How do you justify this decision? 5. LIMITATIONS/QUALIFIERS: To what extent is your claim justified? What special circumstances exist that might need to be addressed? Do you make any concessions to the opposing point of view? Which scholarship will be left aside and why? Are there any situations in which your claim will not hold? 6. PRELIMINARY WORKS CONSULTED: Provide a list of MLA citation information for at least three works you consulted in your preliminary investigation. Be sure to use the handbook! 7. SOURCE EVALUATION WORKSHEET: Complete the attached questionnaire concerning ONE of your sources, or type your responses to the questions and attach them. Is the source appropriate for a research paper? Why or why not? WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHY (ANNOTATED) A week or two before you turn in your research paper, you will need to turn in an annotated bibliography with at least ten sources. This is a list of the sources you have been using as you research your topic. The bibliography does not need to include all the sources you will use in your final paper, nor do you need to use every work you list in the bibliography. It is just a list of some of the works you have consulted up to this point. After each entry, you must include three to five sentences describing the source. These sentences may be a summary of the article, a critique of the article, a discussion of how the work might be useful for your topic, or all of the above. Below is a sample taken from a paper on the American writer Henry Miller. Be sure to use your MLA handbook to get the format correct. Borg 5 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, Mary. “Henry Miller: Yea-Sayer.” Tennessee Studies in Literature 23 (1978): 100-10. Print. Mary Allen argues that Miller is a voice of joy, which is unconventional in an era when much writing expresses despair. She mentions his desire for more freedom, an echo of Thoreau’s Walden. She views the novel as a statement in favor of freedom, yet notes that the freedom comes at the cost of love, since Miller’s happiness often stems from another’s loss. For Allen, Miller represents an escape from illusion and responsibility in order to find love for life, “as is.” He is a reminder to readers that joy does exist. Hoffman, Michael J. “Miller’s Debt to Whitman, Emerson, Thoreau, et al.: Miller and the Apocalypse of Transcendentalism.” Lost Generation Journal 4.3 (1976-77): 18-21. Print. Hoffman places Miller in the transcendental tradition, comparing his autobiographical-fictional style to that of Whitman and Thoreau. Hoffman also identifies Miller as an “apocalyptist,” citing his desire to defame the sacred and bring about a revolution. Hoffman finds similarities to Nietzsche, as well, in Miller’s Zarathustrian monologues designed to bring about the evolution of humankind. Jackson, Paul R. “Henry Miller, Emerson, and the Divided Self.” American Literature 43.2 (1971 ): 231-41. Print. Jackson traces the influence of Emerson in Miller’s writing. He points out the prophetic tone of some of Miller’s statements. Jackson also examines the influence of Emerson’s concern for autobiographical writing on Miller, emphasizing the idea of multiple levels of the self. Truthfully recording the full emancipation of this self, Jackson argues, is Miller’s subject in the autobiographical novels. SOURCE EVALUATION WORKSHEET (to be turned in with your Prospectus) Instructions: Using the following questions as a guide, evaluate one of the sources you use in your research paper. You may include your responses on a separate sheet of paper. Previewing the source 1. TITLE: What does the title suggest about the author’s attitude toward the subject? What can you tell about the article’s content simply from the title? 2. AUTHOR: What background information, if any, are you given on the author? 3. DATE: How recent is the source? Is it likely that new information has come into existence since the publication? Of what use is the source if it is old? 4. PUBLISHER: What do you know about the publisher? 5. KIND OF INFORMATION: Is this a source that will provide background information on your topic? Are there key terms and concepts here? A particular point of view? 6. YOUR ATTITUDE: Before reading the source, have you made any assumptions that might affect an objective reading? Are you open-minded on the topic? Is this source likely to affect your opinion? Reading the source 1. MAIN POINT: What is the author’s main point? Can you determine his or her purpose and audience? 2. SUPPORT: What is the basis of the author’s support? Which statements are unsupported? Is there enough information to convince the reader? What questions are left unanswered? 3. SOURCES: Are the sources adequately documented? Do the sources appear reliable? Why or why not? Do they reveal a bias? What has been omitted? 4. LANGUAGE/STYLE: Does the author use any ambiguous or undefined terms? Does the author use inflammatory examples (emotional appeals)? What is the tone of the work? Quotes: Pick a few important passages (quotes you might use) from the article, and copy them to your response (Be sure to use quotation marks and record page numbers!). Adapted from Taking a Stand by Irene Clark ...
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Final Answer

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Deriving from the understandings of the thematically organized readings in the text, I
have taken the prospect of an ideal government as my theme that I have defined and explained
in detail. Citizens of this world should be given the ideal types of governments that observes
the principles of justice legitimacy, mercy and upholds the rule of law because it would
improve the lives of all inhabitants of the world in entirety. Governments are at the very core
of influencing their subject’s lives not only regarding the political aspects but also the socialcultural and economic aspects. Governments are all designed to protect their citizens when
they are originally being hammered by their formulators in the path that guides nations
towards a specific set path of success before self-interests get in the way of common good and
deconstructs the entire system to harm rather than safeguard its people as required.
This targets not only the students but all young adults both in formal education and
informal sectors of our institutions to remind and shed light to them about how their
governments should be set like, their primary responsibilities to their citizens and the best
form of governance that profoundly shapes our environments when the government is
working for the people and not against them.
Ideal government’s exercise justice that is not stern towards mistakes that are socially
considered and accepted as trivial by humankind. The one that means impartiality, equity and
the same application of the rule of law to all people considered equal before the eyes of God.
A system that is legitimate and popularly recognized by the simple majority of its citizens and
that respects the rights of the minority and is merciful to all by treating them more than they



Norris, Pippa, ed. Critical citizens: Global support for democratic government. OUP Oxford,
Norris stipulates worldwide the ever-increasing support for representative democracy
as the legitimate form of governance that supports the principles of freedom and equality in
many world nations that are essential in advancing their political, social and economic
dynamics of those democracies. These system has received the overwhelming support
because they give their citizens the freedoms to private property and making their own
Kooiman, Jan. "Societal governance." Demokratien in Europa. VS Verlag für
Sozialwissenschaften, 2003. 229-250.
Kooiman states that this concept of governance, especially the modern governance
idea is very vital for the survival of humanity on planet earth. Looking at governance as
societal, according to Kooiman, helps to satisfy the ever-increasing service demands from the
public, and when both the public and private governors do this, services are conducted
swiftly. Poor governance from those given the responsibility to be the custodians of the rule
of law can lead to anarchy that in turn causes violence and many evils in society that
eventually leads it towards a downward spiral of underdevelopment, poverty, and
infringement of the basic liberty of freedom of life. Societal problems, therefore, can only be
solved when the private and public joins hands and increase opportunities for all people.



Government essay
As earlier stated, when the term government is mentioned, it may be interpreted by
many people can be defined ge...

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