Running Head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alexander, M. (2012). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. The
From the late 19th century, the term Jim Crow came to mean the legal and social
segregation of blacks from whites. After Reconstruction and the Civil War, whites marginalized
African Americans through literacy test and the poll tax. During this era, white people would
subject African Americans to low-paying jobs and poorly furnished public schools for their kids.
In this manner, whites in the Jim Crow South established a bitter network of social, economic,
and political barriers to limit the abilities and expressions of blacks completely. However, Rosa
Parks was not the first individual to challenge and criticize the Jim Crow laws. In the late-19th
century, a black man called Homer Plessy from New Orleans challenged segregation in trains.
Although the Jim Crow laws ended in the 1950s, there is a new Jim Crow. The new era of Jim
Crow is witnessed today in the mass incarceration of black people. In addition to extensively
covering the topic, the author has effectively linked the 19th century Jim Crow and the 21st
century Jim Crow.
Bennett, J. B. (2016). Religion and the Rise of Jim Crow in New Orleans. Princeton University
‘Jim Crow’ was a judgmental expression meaning ‘Negro.' Typically, Jim Crow laws
directed the segregation of public places, public schools, and public restaurants and
transportation. By the late 19th century, Reconstruction era was ending. In the pretense of
healing the country and stopping the feud between the South and the North, most white political
leaders left the cause of protecting the black people. In the former Confederacy and neighboring
counties, state governments developed a legal sy...
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