Humanities
EH1020 Columbia Southern Effects of Jim Crow Laws Research Proposal

EH1020

Columbia Southern University

Question Description

The purpose of the research proposal is to help you to understand your project, to gain direction and feedback on your project, and to establish a blueprint for your project. Description: In this assignment, you will create a research proposal consisting of three sections: Section 1: What is the topic? (100-150 words) Section 2: What is the controversy? Include paragraphs that detail both sides of the controversy. (300-400 words) Section 3: Your tentative thesis statement (one to two sentences) Click here to access the research proposal example. All sources must be documented via APA citations and references. You may also seek out the guidance of the Success Center; the specialists are always there to assist you with your writing and comprehension. APA format. Attached previous assignment with sources.

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Running Head: EFFECTS OF JIM CROW Effects of Jim Crow Alvin Hayes Ann Schwalboski Columbia Southern University November 21,2017 1 JIM CROW 2 Alexander, M. (2012). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. The New Press. From the late 19th century, the term Jim Crow came to mean the legal and social segregation of blacks from whites. After Reconstruction and the Civil War, whites marginalized African Americans through literacy test and the poll tax. During this era, white people would subject African Americans to low-paying jobs and poorly furnished public schools for their kids. In this manner, whites in the Jim Crow South established a bitter network of social, economic, and political barriers to limit the abilities and expressions of blacks completely. However, Rosa Parks was not the first individual to challenge and criticize the Jim Crow laws. In the late-19th century, a black man called Homer Plessy from New Orleans challenged segregation in trains. Although the Jim Crow laws ended in the 1950s, there is a new Jim Crow. The new era of Jim Crow is witnessed today in the mass incarceration of black people. In addition to extensively covering the topic, the author has effectively linked the 19th century Jim Crow and the 21st century Jim Crow. Bennett, J. B. (2016). Religion and the Rise of Jim Crow in New Orleans. Princeton University Press. ‘Jim Crow’ was a judgmental expression meaning ‘Negro.' Typically, Jim Crow laws directed the segregation of public places, public schools, and public restaurants and transportation. By the late 19th century, Reconstruction era was ending. In the pretense of healing the country and stopping the feud between the South and the North, most white political leaders left the cause of protecting the black people. In the former Confederacy and neighboring counties, state governments developed a legal system intended for re-creating a society founded JIM CROW 3 on white supremacy. This legal framework prohibited African Americans from voting. The law was called Jim Crow legislation, and it segregated people of color from whites in housing, schools, public places, and jobs. Denying African Americans their rights to vote via legal steering was the first phase in taking away their fundamental civil rights. The Jim Crow legislation proved to be very effective as the number of registered black voters plunged by early 20th century. The information provided by the author is well-researched and valid and is supported by credible sources. Katagiri, Y. (2014). Black Freedom, White Resistance, and Red Menace: Civil Rights and Anticommunism in the Jim Crow South. Louisiana State University Press. In the mid-20th century, the Supreme Court illegalized racial segregation in public schools in the Brown v. Board of Education case. Immediately after the ruling, anti-Communists from the North regarded the South as a promising new region where they can expand their cause. As a result, southern segregationists supported the help provided by the Yankee collaborators. In the subsequent years, southerners adopted the ‘northern messiahs’ in implementing a huge resistance to the Supreme Court’s ruling and the civil rights movement as a whole. White leaders in the South framed African Americans’ civil rights campaigners for human dignity and social justice as an alien scheme planned by despicable outside protesters. This article describes how a southern form of McCarthyism becomes part of the famous civil rights campaigns. In a nutshell, the northerners’ anti-Communists steered the southerners in implementing racial segregation. The author of the article provides the first scholarly work to depict a critical but significant facet of civil rights history. The author has incorporated a range of scholarly works from other credible authors. JIM CROW 4 Klarman, M. J. (2004). From Jim Crow to civil rights: The Supreme Court and the struggle for racial equality. Oxford University Press. Jim Crows legislation in several states mandated the separation of races in common places such as theaters, restaurants, and public transportation. The ‘separate but equal’ policy developed by the Supreme Court in the 1896 case between Plessy and Ferguson provided high judicial backing to segregation. For instance, a decree in Montgomery, Alabama mandated African Americans to take seats on municipal buses. During that period, the ‘separate but equal’ doctrine applied, but the real segregation utilized by the Montgomery City Lines was barely equal. The Jim Crow law that was established in the late 19th century extended to the mid-20th century. In the 1950s, for instance, a white individual would not stand on a Montgomery bus. Furthermore, it regularly happened that African Americans boarding the bus were coerced to stand so that white people could sit. Nevertheless, the Jim Crow legislation was challenged in 1955 by the famous Rosa Parks. This move prompted the Supreme Court to declare the Jim Crow laws unconstitutional hence the beginning of civil rights movement. The author has effectively covered a range of facts that are based on factual information. The information in the paper has been substantiated with valid sources. Pilgrim, D. (2000). What Was Jim Crow?. Ferris State University, 16, 2007. Jim Crow refers to the name of the racial segregation framework, which operated particularly in the south between mid-19th century to mid-20th century. Jim Crow was essentially a way of life as opposed to a mere sequence of harsh anti-black legislation. Under this new legislation, blacks were given the position of second-class citizens and made racists to look right. In fact, most Christian pastors taught that God chose white people and that blacks were JIM CROW 5 cursed and were meant to be servants. Furthermore, many teachers and professionals at the education level backed the notion that African-Americans were culturally and intellectually inferior to whites. The Jim Crow framework was grounded on the following notions: whites were superior to African Americans in all significant manners, entailing morality, intelligence, and behaviors. The Jim Crow laws promoted racisms, racial segregation, and social injustices. The information in the article appears to be well-researched and valid and it supported by credible evidence. Tischauser, L. V. (2012). Jim Crow Laws. ABC-CLIO. After the end of the Civil War, three critical elements of legislation were introduced, which allegedly meant that African Americans were free. These elements were the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendment to the constitution. As a result of these amendments states that previously supported slavery started establishing legislation to limit the rights of blacks. These legislations were known as ‘black codes.' Between the late 19th century and the mid-20th century, there was 342 state legislation that allowed Southern states to disregard the law, meaning black people continued to be subjected to racial discrimination and were regarded as second-class citizens, hence the Jim Crow legislation. Typically, this legislation enforced segregation between the whites and the blacks. Nonetheless, the Supreme Court ruling of Plessy vs. Ferguson was responsible for the conception of this law. The Southern states used the Jim Crow laws to exploit and humiliate African-Americans. The author has utilized both primary and secondary sources to back his facts. Upchurch, T. A. (2015). Legislating Racism: The Billion Dollar Congress and the Birth of Jim Crow. University Press of Kentucky. JIM CROW 6 The Jim Crow legislation was a depiction of racial segregation. Typically, Jim Crow segregation entailed a framework of anti-black regulations and race-discriminated cultural activities. The Jim Crow South was the period where state and local legislation imposed the legal segregation of black and white people from the late-19th century into the mid-20th century. Under this legislation, it was illegal for black people to ride in public transportation facilities and eat in restaurants that were intended for the white people. Furthermore, there was also an understated, social facet of Jim Crow laws that mandated blacks to show inferiority and subservience to white people all the time. In fact, most whites from the South would interpret any allegation of pride or parity by blacks as an insult. The term Jim Crow stemmed from the name of a black character (white man in a black mask) in the 19th-century American theater. The author has extensively covered the topic and has incorporated a range of viewpoints from other authors. JIM CROW 7 References Alexander, M. (2012). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. The New Press. Bennett, J. B. (2016). Religion and the Rise of Jim Crow in New Orleans. Princeton University Press. Katagiri, Y. (2014). Black Freedom, White Resistance, and Red Menace: Civil Rights and Anticommunism in the Jim Crow South. Louisiana State University Press. Klarman, M. J. (2004). From Jim Crow to civil rights: The Supreme Court and the struggle for racial equality. Oxford University Press. Pilgrim, D. (2000). What Was Jim Crow?. Ferris State University, 16, 2007. Tischauser, L. V. (2012). Jim Crow Laws. ABC-CLIO. Upchurch, T. A. (2015). Legislating Racism: The Billion Dollar Congress and the Birth of Jim Crow. University Press of Kentucky. Running head: RECYCLING CAN BE WORTH IT Recycling Can Be Worth It, If We Focus Efforts Student’s Name Columbia Southern University 1 RECYCLING CAN BE WORTH IT 2 Recycling Can Be Worth It, If We Focus Our Efforts The Topic For decades, people have expressed concern about the environment and how human activity may impact it in a negative way. Conservation efforts have included global concerns about production waste, water pollution, and endangered species. Because the scope of human activity has an array of negative effects, many people feel somewhat powerless to affect any kind of real change. As a result, ecologists and activists have attempted to educate the public about ways that every individual might make small changes that will begin to alleviate long-term effects. One of these methods is household recycling. Recently, however, some people have begun to question the efficacy of recycling as a means for alleviating landfill waste. The Controversy An on-going concern is that recycling is not the solution that the U.S. government thought it would be in the 1980s. While many people do not disagree that recycling is a good idea, there is little to incentivize people to recycle. Further, some people even question whether recycling bottles is better for the environment because of the shear amount of energy resources used in the production of recycled bottles that still cause waste. There is increasing concern about unsustainable resources and whether or not the human race can afford not to recycle. Pro Side of the Controversy While there are imperfections in the recycling process, those in favor of recycling contend that investing in the process is worth it because of the positive impacts to the environment. According to the Aluminum Association (as cited in Moss & Scheer, 2015), aluminum cans are the most recycled material, which is good because recycling these cans saves aluminum and only uses 8% of the energy to make a new can. Recycling prevents the release of RECYCLING CAN BE WORTH IT 3 dangerous carbon dioxide. According to Moss and Scheer (2015), who interviewed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 2013, recycling and compositing saved nearly 186 million metric tons of carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere. Szaky (2015) argues that those against recycling fail to account for the current impacts of failing to recycle. For example, a new study by the 5 Gyres Institute indicates that there are more than five trillion pieces of plastic floating on the surface of the world’s oceans, which is roughly the weight of 134,500 average U.S. cars (Elks & Hower, 2014). While the statistics can be staggering, others are concerned about the economic questions regarding recycling and sustainability. Con Side of the Controversy Those who question recycling do so on the basis of effectiveness and convenience. Hutchinson (2008) contends that while a plastic water bottle might last in a landfill for centuries, the petroleum reused is barely worth the diesel fuel burned by the large trucks sent to collect the bottles. While recycling aluminum is worth the energy, recycling glass uses 21% less energy (Hutchinson, 2008). There are further concerns about looking at recycling as part of a larger picture. For example, Chris Goodall calculates that “if you wash plastic in water that was heated by coal-derived electricity, then the net effect of your recycling could be more carbon in the atmosphere” (as cited in Tierney, 2015). While some cities are attempting to convert to a “zero trash” policy within the next 15 to 20 years, there is no guarantee that these expensive measures will have any positive impacts on the environment; in fact, many speculate that the benefits are few (Tierney, 2015). RECYCLING CAN BE WORTH IT 4 Tentative Thesis Statement Recycling efforts should continue because materials that are recycled are often unsustainable, there should be a more focused effort to recycle materials that have a reproduction-cost benefit. References Elks, J., & Hower, M. (2014, December 18). Reports find over 5 trillion pieces of plastic floating in the world’s oceans…and 10,000 times more in the deep sea. Retrieved from http://www.sustainablebrands.com/news_and_views/waste_not/mike_hower/report_5_tril lion_pieces_plastic_floating_world%E2%80%99s_oceans Hutchinson, A. (2008, November 12). Is recycling worth it? PM investigates its economic and environmental impact. Retrieved from http://www.popularmechanics.com/science /environment/a3752/4291566/ Moss, D., & Scheer, R. (2015, November 5). Is recycling worth it? Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-recycling-worth-it/ Szaky, T. (2015, October 13). 7 reasons why recycling is not a waste: A response to “The Reign of Recycling.” Retrieved from http://www.sustainablebrands.com/ news_and_views/waste_not/tom_szaky/7_reasons_why_recycling_not_waste_response_r eign_recycling Tierney, J. (2015, October 3). The reign of recycling. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/04/opinion/sunday/the-reign-of-recycling.html?_r=0 ...
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Running Head: ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF JIM CROW LAWS

Analysis of Effects of Jim Crow Laws
Alvin Hayes
Ann Schwalboski
Columbia Southern University
November 27,2017

1

ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF JIM CROW LAWS

2

The Topic
Effects of Jim Crow Laws
Was the Law Fair?
Jim Crow Law was legislation that supported racial segregation in the South in the 19th
century. This law was passed in the southern parts of the United States between the end of the
Reconstruction in the late-19th century and the beginning of the civil rights movement in mid20th century. Since the late-19th century, southern state laws, no longer regulated by freedmen,
passed legislation mandating the separation of whites from blacks in schools and public
transportation. The Jim Crow law depicted a formal codified framework of racial apartheid that
ruled the southern part of America for almost one century. This legislation impacted almost
every facet of daily life, authorizing segregation of parks, schools, taverns,...

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