How to reduce suffering?

Question Description

Follow instruction I attach below. I also attach sample philosophy paper, book's pages for relate this topic

In this “Guidelines For The Philosophy Paper,” I shall provide the following: (1) “The Instructions,” (2) “The Recommended Outline of the Philosophy Paper,” (3) “The Sample Cover Page Form,” and the “Appendix 01

Using sources from text book that I attach below in files' name "Phil 104 page 59-71" (just read from page 59-64 about middle way topic), and "Phil 104 page 100-106"(Just read page from 100 to 102) , find more philosophy researcher like Thich Nhat Hanh and Dalai Lama, other sources on Internet.

Professor suggested 3 points to claim in reduce suffering: "Cling to nothing, Empty your mind, No mind or Have no mind". And he also wants to use "The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism" to write this research paper.

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THE GUIDELINES FOR THE PHILOSOPHY PAPER In this “Guidelines For The Philosophy Paper,” I shall provide the following: (1) “The Instructions,” (2) “The Recommended Outline of the Philosophy Paper,” (3) “The Sample Cover Page Form,” and the “Appendix 01.” The Instructions 01. Your Philosophy Paper (hereafter PP) should be from a minimum of 5 pages (1500 words) to a maximum of 10 pages (3000 words according to the SJSU standard). 02. Your PP must be research-based, pointed, argumentative, and critical. To be "pointed" means that you must (1) focus on a given point that you make and (2) give sufficient reasons, arguments, and evidence to support your point. a.02. DO NOT MAKE A HUGE POINT and let it hang out there by itself without finishing it by providing sufficient reasons, arguments, and evidence. If you wrote this sentence ("Lao Tzu is a famous Chinese philosopher.") and left it there by itself like that and went on to write something else different from it, then, it is not scholarly at all (and it is like you took your baby to the market place and leave it out there by itself). b.02. One academic rule is that you make a point to serve a purpose, only if, it is sufficiently explained, well argued, and well supported. If not, it is wiser not to make it. 03. Your PP should be written according to (1) the “The Recommended Outline of the Philosophy Paper” (if you do not have a superior outline of your own) and (2) the “Basic Writing Rules” (for your adherence to the latter, you will earn 10 extra points). 04. Please read and use “The Recommended Outline of the Philosophy Paper” (Level 1 of the Dialectical Method) and the “Appendix 01” attached herein for the purpose of knowing how to write your PP in a scholarly and dialectical manner. 05. To start the PP project, you need first to fill out “The Statement of Research Purpose” (posted on Canvas Modules – PHILOSOPHY PAPER folder) and set up an appointment to discuss with the instructor about your PROPOSED TOPIC and get the TOPIC of your PP APPROVED by the instructor following the appointment. 06. You should submit your PP in its PDF format to Canvas before or on the deadline (check Syllabus). 07. Your PP must be written dialectically by using “the level 1 of the dialectical method.” For whatever topic, you must have two different pear-reviewed articles (PRA) or two chapters in two different scholarly books, which must deal with one similar topic or the same topic in an important Eastern text (like “What is the Laoian view of opposites and their relationship in The Dao De Jing?”). One of these secondary sources must serve as your case study PRA or your case study Chapter. The books must be published by a major academic press like Harvard University Press or University of California Press. THE RECOMMENDED OUTLINE OF THE PHILOSOPHY PAPER (PP) (LEVEL 1 OF THE DIALECTICAL METHOD) A. THE INTRODUCTION 5 POINTS 1_ The Topic Sentence State the topic of your PP in the form of a philosophical question, like “What does Confucius mean by ren?” or “What does Lao Zi mean by the Mother Dao?” or “What is the Laoian view of opposites?” (the WHAT question). 2_ The Purpose Sentence Explain the main purposes of your PP (the WHY question). 3_ The Plan Sentence Explain how you plan to address the topic and accomplish the purposes of your PP (the HOW question). 4_ The Methodological Sentence List the titles and publication years of the texts (primary sources) and the peer-reviewed articles (secondary sources) you plan to use for writing your PP (the RESEARCH qt). B. THE BODY 60 POINTS I_ The Research 1_ The background information about the topic 2_ The main issues about the topic you intend to examine in your PP II_ The Interpretation 1_ Explain the historical context surrounding the topic that the author provided in her/his peer-reviewed article. If the author (scholar) failed to do so, then, make your critical remark about this scholarly failure and resolve the critiqued problem. 2_ Quote the author’s interpretive thesis (if there is one) and offer your brief thesis analysis (identify its key concepts and key points). 3_ Analyze all the main arguments (with quotes) that the author made for the validation of his/her interpretive thesis. 4_ Explain how author cites quotes from primary and secondary sources to support each of her/his main arguments. 5_ Your PP must be research-based and your reasoning and analysis must be pointed, argumentative, and critical. (To be “pointed” means making a point, sticking to the point, and finishing the point with explanation, argument, and proof) III_ The Evaluation1 In making your evaluation, you need to explain clearly what aspects/issues of the case study peer-reviewed article you agree with and why you agree with the author. IV_ The Critique1 In making your critique of the interpretations of the topic by the author (scholar) made in her/his peer-reviewed article, you are taking a position. For your critique, you are advised to make your critique by raising the one most important problem you have with the interpretation of the topic by the author. By raising this most important problem, you show that you can think critically because that aspect of the interpretation of the topic does not reflect the view of the philosopher in part or in whole (like the disagreements with and objections Professor Lau made to those interpretations of the Laoian view of opposites). Please read Professor Lau’s peer-reviewed article so that you can learn how to make your hermeneutically grounded critique (posted on Canvas Modules). V_ The Resolution1 Offer your resolution of the most important problem you have critiqued by using the second interpretation of the topic by the second scholar as given in her/his peer-reviewed article that you agree with it. Please read Professor Lau’s peer-reviewed article so that you can learn how to make your hermeneutically grounded resolution (posted on Canvas Modules). C. THE CONCLUSION 5 POINTS 1_ Give a good summary of the main points that you presented in your PP. 2_ Explain how you have accomplished what you set out to achieve (your “purposes”) as stated in the “Introduction” of your PP. D. THE DOCUMENTATION 25 POINTS 1_ The Works Cited contains all research sources prepared either according to the APA or MLA or CMS style. 2_ Organize your PP according to the “Proposed Outline…”). 3_ Give sufficient and meaningful quotes in your PP from the primary research sources used. 4_ Give sufficient meaningful ideas, info, & quotes from the secondary research sources used. 5_ Provide correct in-text notes2 for quotes, ideas, info cited from research sources used. 6_ Use the standard font Times New Roman, size 12, 1-inch margins on all sides of the page, and no artwork. 7_ Your writing must be grammatically correct and all words must be correctly spelled. 8_ Submit a pocked folder that contains the hard copy of the case study PRA (peerreviewed article) and hard copies of other peer-reviewed articles. E. THE COVER PAGE 5 POINTS One cover page contains vital information. Please check the “Sample Cover Page Form” for your model. ___________________________ 1 How should you make your critical responses? One strategy is herein suggested: Use the interpretation in the second PRA (or other scholarly sources) that you strongly agree with as your research resource to make your evaluation and critique and resolution. 2 You should have seen the type of “in-text notes” used in the textbook (Phan 2002) and my PowerPoint lectures. This is an “in-text note” (if you have not known): (Fung 1952: 14) used in “The Introduction” (Phan 2002: 19). (The Sample Cover Page Form) San Jose State University Philosophy Department Philosophies of Asia PHIL/ASIA 104 Full Title of the Philosophy Paper By Student full name Student ID number Student email address Student phone number (optional) Class meeting time Semester and year Appendix 01 A Methodological Application of the Hegelian Dialectics (Level 1 of the Dialectical Method) In this “Appendix 01,” I shall first restate the two methods that you can choose to write your PP (Philosophy Paper) in a scholarly manner, and then, explain the dialectical method that you are recommended to use to write your PP in a dialectical manner. There are different academic methods that can be used for the task of writing a PP in a scholarly manner. I assume that each student, who takes PHIL 104, must have already learned and used one of the academic methods for the purpose of writing their research papers in a scholarly manner. Each student is therefore entitled to use the academic method that one has known and used to write one’s PP in a scholarly manner according to the currently accepted US academic standards of higher education. However, if you are not really sure about how to write your PP in a scholarly manner and even wish to write your PP in a dialectical manner at the level 1 of the dialectical method, then, I strongly recommend “The Recommended Outline of the Philosophy Paper.” “The Recommended Outline of the Philosophy Paper” is specifically designed to serve as the methodological applications of the formula of the Hegelian dialectics and the “Rosenberg Model” (Phan 2002: 42-45 and its summary is posted in the Canvas Modules folder METHODOLOGY) for the scholarly writing of a research paper in a dialectical manner. You are advised to read the “Rosenberg Model.” The dialectical method that I propose herein is the methodological application of the famous formula of the Hegelian dialectics (which is known as follows): THE THESIS <> THE ANTITHESIS > THE SYNTHESIS What is the Hegelian dialectics? The Hegelian dialectics is understood herein as a special method of philosophical thinking and writing that takes the two interpretations of a similar topic or best the same topic addressed by two different scholars and turn them into the two mutually opposing interpretations and view them as the intellectual struggle between these two scholars (authors). The first principle of dialectics that you should grasp is this: Everything has its opposite. The “everything” can be viewed as the “thesis” in mutual opposition to “its opposite” to be viewed as the “antithesis.” An example that you to consider is this religious question: Does God exist? There are at least two opposing views. Monotheistic people believe that “God exists.” This positive claim can be called a monotheistic “thesis” (to use the Hegelian language). But at the opposite end of the line, atheists believe that “God does not exist.” This second claim can be called an atheistic “antithesis” in its direct opposition to the former. Everything has its opposite as conceptualized by the first principle of the dialectics. The thesis is therefore the opposite of the antithesis. The antithesis is therefore the opposite of the thesis. The thesis and the antithesis form into one pair of opposites (giving rise to a duality or a dualistic unity) or they can be called the paired opposites. Being paired opposites, their interactional relationship can be and can become harmonious or neutral or dialectical whenever and wherever they interact with each other. The existences of the paired opposites as such do not make their interactional relationship “dialectical” yet. Their relationship c a n become and does become “dialectical” ( t h a t m e a n s m u t u a l l y o p p o s i n g o r c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l ) , whenever, for example, a monotheist and an atheist confront each other as they engage in an intellectual or religious struggle to argue for their different positions concerning the very religious topic stated. Their dialectical relationship as such may become m u t u a l l y a n t a g o n i s t i c o r e v e n m u t u a l l y destructive, whenever, they become mutually hateful and even attempt to harm each other. If the dialectical debate between the theist and the atheist should produce a new and higher understanding of the topic (“Does God exist?), then, you can say a “synthesis” have emerged. The dialectics can also be created in your own mind when you take two mutually opposing positions, stating that “God exists” (monotheistic thesis) on the one hand, and that “God does not exist” (atheistic antithesis) on the other hand. Then, you make the arguments to defend the monotheistic “thesis” and attack the atheistic “antithesis” and turn around to attack the “thesis” and defend the “antithesis” until you find and arrive at a new position (synthesis1). If you understand the dialectical method or the method of dialectical thinking and writing based on the formula of the Hegelian dialectics, you can use it to write your PP in a dialectical manner. I shall now provide the formula of the Hegelian dialectics (công thức biện chứng Hegel) again and explain how you can apply it for the writing of your PP in a scholarly and dialectical manner. The Thesis <> The Antithesis > The Synthesis I shall take this topic as an example: How does Lao Tzu understand the phenomena of opposites and the true relationship between opposites? If you take this topic to write your PP (I strongly recommend it), then you can apply the formula of the Hegelian dialectics for the task of writing your PP in a scholarly and dialectical manner. For this philosophical topic, you can take the author D. C. Lau and his article “The Treatment of Opposites in Lao Tzu 老子” (1958) as a case study PRA. To apply the formula of the Hegelian dialectics, you shall assign the status of the “Thesis” to the author Lau and his interpretation of the topic in their dialectical relation to you and your responses to his interpretation as the “Antithesis” for the emergence of the “Synthesis” (that is your PP and your new and higher understanding of the topic). In that PRA, Professor Lau can be said to have positioned himself as the “Antithesis” in his dialectical opposition to other Chinese scholars (like Feng Yulan), who had interpreted the topic as the “Thesis). Professor Lau argued persuasively that they had misinterpreted the topic (the Laoian view of opposites) and made his powerful responses. The Cover Page San Jose State University Humanities Department Asian Philosophy PHILOSOPHY 104 Can the Confucianist Doctrine of Rulership or Kingship Be Applied For Modern Business Management? By Linda Wei The Components of the Philosophy Paper and the Sequential Grading Process 1_The Cover Page:_________out of 5 points 2_The Introduction:_______out of 10 points 3_The Conclusion:_________out of 5 points 4_The Documentation:______out of 30 points 5_The Contents (Body):_____out of 50 points The Research Paper Grade:_____________________out of 100 points 6_Dedicated Reading (See D.7 of Outline):_____(extra credits) “Writing shall be assessed for correctness, clarity, and conciseness.” (One of the GE learning objectives) Be reminded that the grade of your RP depends mainly on its scholarly qualities (forms and contents) as outlined and demanded in “The Outline of the Research Paper.” Student ID Number: 008941907 Student Email Address: Student Telephone: No phone at the moment Class Meeting Time: M/W 10:30am Semester and Year: Fall 2013 Appendix 01 Can the Confucianist Doctrine of Rulership or Kingship Be Applied For Modern Business Management? What ways can Confucian theories of rulership or kingship in the Analects, be applied to modern business management? This paper will discuss the positive and negative aspects of Confucian theories applied in modern business management. This paper will first go over the fundamental essence of Confucianism, then analyze the positive aspects of the theory, followed by the down sides of the theory, when adhered in a business setting. The documents that will be cited in this paper are: ● Duo Lei. "Guanxi And Its Influence On Chinese Business Practices." Harvard China Review 5.2 (2005): 81­84. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Dec. 2013 ● Goxe, François. "Innovation With ‘Chinese’ Characteristics? Reflecting On The Implications Of An Ethnic­Based Paradigm Of Management And Innovation." Prometheus 30.2 (2012): 155­168.Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Dec. 2013 ● Guo, Xiao­Wei. "Counterproductive Work Behaviors, Confucian Values, and Production Deviance: The Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction." Economic Management Journal. (2011): 1045­1054. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. ● Qin, Guoji. "The Thinking Way of Confucianism and the Rule of Law." Journal of Politics and Law. 1.1 (2008): 68­75. Web. 12 Dec. 2013 ● Tan, Sor­hoon. "The Dao of Politics: Li (Ritual/Rites) and Laws as Pragmatic Tools of Government."University of Hawai'i Press. 61. (2011): 468­491. Web. 27 Dec. 2013. ● Yang, Fang. "The Importance of Guanxi to Multinational Companies in China." Canadian Center of Science and Education. 7.7 (2011): 163­167. Web. 26 Nov. 2013. ● Yao, Yucheng, and Wenzhong Zhu. "On the Value of Traditional Confucian Culture And the Value of Modern Corporate Social Responsibility."International Journal of Business and Management. 3.2 (2008): 58­62. Web. 29 Dec. 2013. The documents that were referenced for this paper are: ● Biggart, Nicole Woolsey, and Gary G. Hamilton. "Market, Culture, and Authority: A Comparative Analysis of Management and Organization in the Far East."Chicago Journals. 94. (1988): 52­94. Web. 15 Nov. 2013. ● Hwang, Kwang­Kuo. "Modernization Of The Chinese Family Business." International Journal Of Psychology 25.3­6 (1990): 593­618. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Dec. 2013 ● Kim, Kyung Hee, and Hang Eun Lee. "Creativity and Confucianism Among American and Korean Educators." Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. (2011): 357­367. Web. 2 Dec. 2013. ● Louie, Kam. "Confucius the Chameloen: Dubious Envoy for "Brand China"." Duke University Press. (2011): 76­100. Web. 1 Jan. 2014. ● Sim, May. "Confucian Values And Human Rights." Review Of Metaphysics 67.1 (2013): 3­27. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. In this section, I will talk about Confucian concepts of rulership and kingship and how it differs from Western concepts of governing. But first, I will go over the three fundamental values of Confucianism: Ren, Li, and Dao. Ren, which can be translated to mean “to love all man” (quoted Legge 171 by Qin 69) or morality, is comprised of two parts in the Chinese character. “The left part means the ‘person’ and the right part means the number ‘two’”, this suggests that Ren is the relationship between two people and that the relationship “will be established when the people consider for others” (Qin 69). The second meaning of Ren is “to subdue oneself and return to propriety (Li)” (quoted Legge 155 by Qin 69), this meaning is the reason why people should “love all men”. To practice Ren, one must show the combination of considering for others and restraining oneself (Qin 69). With the Ren and Li, now comes the Dao, which is the way for people to behave. According to Confucius, there are three types of people: Xiao Ren (small men), Jun Zi (superior men), and Sheng Ren (sage). The Xiao Ren “thinks of favors which he may receive”, the Jun Zi “thinks of virtue” and the Sage could be interpreted as “a man of real talent and virtue” (Qin 69). During Confucius’ time, the people lived in a state of chaos, rulers waged wars against each other, and people did not obey their superiors. From this, Confucius came up with the 5 societal Dao: Ruler­Subject, Father­Child, Husband­Wife, Older­Younger, and Friend­Friend (Duo 81). These 5 Daos were to help stabilize society by having everyone following set formalities according to their roles paired with the pursuit of becoming a Jun Zi. Co ...
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Running head: CASE STUDY


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