Earthquake lab

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Please complete the earthquake lab

Earthquake lab
Physical Geology (GOL 105) 40 points possible Name: _____________________________________ EARTHQUAKES & SEISMOLOGY To prepare for this lab, please read Chapter 16 in your lab manual and Chapter 11 in your textbook. Familiarize yourself with the typical “anatomy” of a seismogram using the following example. 1) On page 395 of the lab manual, you are provided with P-, S-, and L-wave travel times for seismographs at nine locations, all for this one New Guinean earthquake. You won’t necessarily know which measurement refers to which wave until you plot them all on the accompanying graph paper. Once all the data have been recorded, you should draw three “best-fit” curves to show the travel-times for P-waves, S-waves, and L-waves. (P will be fastest, L slowest, and S somewhere in between.) Figure 16.5 (page 395) in your lab manual can serve as a guide, but you must plot the data yourself. If you wish to plot the data using a spreadsheet program (such as Microsoft Excel), that’s fine too. Just attach your graph to the lab as a new page when you submit it for grading. 0 1000 2000 3000 Distance to epicenter (kilometers) 4000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Travel time (minutes) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2) Now examine the three seismographs below. Only P- and S- waves are shown (not L). For each, determine the time the first P-wave arrived, the time the first S-wave arrived, and then the S-minus-P time (expressed in minutes and seconds). Fill these values into the data table below. Then use the graph you made on the previous page to determine how far away the earthquake was from each of these three stations. Finally, use the three-circle method to plot the location of the earthquake on the map below. Distance to earthquake (km) Honolulu S-wave arrival time P-wave arrival time Charlotte S-P time (difference between S and P) Sitka Sitka, Alaska (57°N, 135°W) Charlotte, North Carolina (35°N, 81°W) Honolulu, Hawai’i (21°N, 158°W) 3) Which major tectonic-boundary fault lies at the location you have determined? _______________ Now, use the following information to help you determine the sense of motion (“left-lateral” or “right-lateral”) on an important strike-slip fault in the middle of the North American continent. 4) Using the 13 seismograms below (P-waves only), determine the relative stress (compression or dilation) for each. Mark each with a C or a D, according to whether it is compressional or dilational. Revised CB, 7/2014 5) Using the stress information you determined for the preceding 13 seismograms, and the following map showing seismographic station locations, determine the relative motion of the New Madrid Fault system (shown as a dark line on the map). Mark the map first with your C’s and D’s, and then draw a pair of arrows (parallel to the fault) showing the direction this fault is moving. 6) Is the New Madrid Fault system left-lateral or right-lateral? _____________________________ 7) You have an earthquake with S-P time of 10 seconds, and a S-wave amplitude of 50 mm. Determine the magnitude of the earthquake on the Richter Scale; write it in the box provided. Use Figure 11.16 in your textbook as a reference. Magnitude 8) For this same earthquake, but at another seismograph 300 km away from the quake, what would be the amplitude of the S waves? ______________ mm 9) What does this indicate about the amount of shaking that happens, further away from the epicenter?

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School: Rice University

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