In Mark Snyder's article entitled "Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes," he argues that a person who suspects that their
stereotypes are inaccurate can alter those stereotypes by gathering evidence from their everyday experience.
Snyder describes numerous experiments that illustrate how stereotypes are strengthened by the beliefs and behavior
of both prejudiced people and the targets of their prejudice. These experiments include all of the following except:
A. An experiment in which men described women they had never met in ways that conformed with stereotypes
about the relationship between appearance and personality, and that, in turn, elicited the expected behavior
in those women.
B. Experiments showing that women who are expected to drop out of the workplace to raise children in fact do
so more often than women who are believed to be disinterested in having children.
C. A pair of studies indicating that the speech and attitude of white interviewers deteriorates when interviewing
black applicants, and that this change elicits less adequate performance by those applicants.
D. An experiment showing that psychiatric patients who believe their status as psychiatric is known to others
peform poorly on cooperative tasks.
E. Studies showing that students, both children and adults in vocational training, peform better
when teachers are told that those students have unusally high aptitude or that they are likely
to show improvement in intellectual achievement.
F. An experiment showing that beliefs about the gender of one's work partner can influence the
tasks that partner is willing to take on.
In "White Lies" Maurice Berger argues that the Ralph Lauren Polo ad in which black model Tyson Beckford is
pictured adjacent to a horse serves to belittle Beckford's physical beauty by making it animalistic and bestial.
In "Am I Thin Enough Yet" Sharlene Hesse-Biber argues that women focus on their bodies, and on thinness in
particular, as a result of which of the following factors:
A. Women's access to social status is largely indirect, through marriage, and a woman's ability to attract a man
is based largely on her appearance.
B. Industry profits from female insecurities about the body, by selling beautification and diet products.
C. Construing women's eating and weight problems as kinds of disease prevents meaningful dialogue about the
societal forces that encourage focus on female weight, thus perpetuating women's focus on their bodies.
D. All of the above.
In "Media Magic," Gregory Mantsios points out that while the claim that poverty is the result of bad luck is patently
false, the media portrayal of poverty as the result of bad-luck, especially near the Christmas holiday, has the poistive
effect of eliciting substantial charitable giving from our society's most affluent members.
Jonathon Kozol, in "Still Separate, Still Unequal" writes that the disparity in dollars spent on childhood education
has a direct effect on a child's performace and has the additional effect of resegregating schools that were
desegregated by Brown v. Board of Education.
In her essay entitled "Masked Racism," Angela Davis argues that drug addiction, homelessness, and
illiteracy are among the social problems obscured by imprisonment.
In "Masked Racism," Angela Davis mentions that the "prison industrial complex" creates wealth for private
companies in all of the following ways except:
A. The prison industrial complex creates work for the contruction industry, which profits from building new
prisons to accomodate the increasing number of incarcerated persons
B. The prison industrial complex creates wealth for prison guard unions, which collect dues from those who
work in prisons and thus lobby for tough-on-crime policies that create prisons and prison-guard jobs
C. The prison industrial complex creates investment and bond opportunities for financing
corporations like Merrill Lynch
D. The prison industrial complex creates wealth for private prison companies, which are paid by the
government to build and run prisons to house the growing number of incarcerated persons
E. The prison industrial complex creates wealth for corporations that make the technology to facilitate law
enforcement and punishment.
F. The prison industrial complex creates wealth for corporations that use cheap prison inmate labor that is not
represented by unions
In "Masked Racism," Angela Davis argues that incarceration not only obscures pressing social problems by hiding
them from public view, but that the prison industrial complex consumes the capital that could be used to address
those problems (and, presumably, thereby eliminate crime).
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