Humanities
9 questions +1 matching question + writing a journal

Question Description

 I need help with two Homework . 

The first one : 

This is the reading : First reading

And the questions : questions.docx


The second one : 
the reading part is Reading part 2
then answer this q1.jpg 

Then please write a journal 300-600 words : 

The readings in Part VIII of your textbook focus on the way that race, class, and gender inequality is maintained not only by entrenched habits of thought and cultural standards, but also by the law. Although American history is marked by a movement away from laws that discriminate in their content, some laws, and the way those laws are enforced, nevertheless have a discriminatory effect. In that vein, we have already discussed the way that stand your ground laws may fail to serve people of color. In a similar spirit of openmindedness and with an eye towards revisting heretofore unchallenged assumptions, let us turn our focus now to the discriminatory nature of incarceration in general and of incarceration for marijuana possession in particular.


As Angela Davis' essay in your textbook mentions, the number of incarcerated people in the United States is growing at an incredible rate, and women are among the fastest growing prison populations. According to additional data provided by the NAACP, in 2008 African-Americans and Hispanics made up 58% of all prisoners in the U.S., despite making up a much smaller segment of the population. Moreover, a disproportionate number of people of color are targeted for enforcement of drug laws, despite using drugs less frequently than whites -- and, due to mandatory minimum sentencing laws, many are sent to prison for possessing even very small amounts of marijuana that are clearly intended for personal use. The total picture is one that, to many, suggests a pattern of drug law enforcement and a standard of sentencing that limits opportunity and perpetuates race and class divides. For additional reading on the subject, including the sources I mention here, consult the following (you may also complement these sources with those that you find on your own, of course):

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/04/us/marijuana-arrests-four-times-as-likely-for-blacks.html?_r=0

https://www.aclu.org/billions-dollars-wasted-racially-biased-arrests

http://www.naacp.org/pages/criminal-justice-fact-sheet

In part in an effort to repair the damage done by mandatory minimum sentencing laws as spelled out in these and related sources, yet presumably finding that legislation that would change the laws would not be forthcoming from Congress, in 2013 the White House and the Justice Department changed their prosecutorial procedure for federal crimes -- no longer, they announced, would low-level, non-violent offenders be prosecuted for all charges or the most obvious charges of which a federal prosecutor could reasonably find guilt. This presumed target of this move is to decriminalize marijuana possession when it is held for personal use. You can find the White House's press release on the subject here:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2013/08/12/real-drugpolicyreform-doj-s-change-mandatory-minimum-policies

Your journal entry topic is this: is decriminalizing marijuana in this way a good way, in your opinion, to address discrimination in the manner that drug laws are enforced? Why or why not? Is it a good way to help members of historically disenfranchised communities to achieve a better place in society? Why or why not? Lastly, are you comfortable with the White House deciding which laws to enforce -- even when greater equality can be achieved this way -- or would you prefer that the Justice Department uphold the laws passed by the legislature? Why or why not?

Your entry should be 300-600 words in length.


Unformatted Attachment Preview

QUESTION 1 1. In Mark Snyder's article entitled "Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes," he argues that a person who suspects that their stereotypes are inaccurate can alter those stereotypes by gathering evidence from their everyday experience. True False 4 points QUESTION 2 1. Snyder describes numerous experiments that illustrate how stereotypes are strengthened by the beliefs and behavior of both prejudiced people and the targets of their prejudice. These experiments include all of the following except: A. An experiment in which men described women they had never met in ways that conformed with stereotypes about the relationship between appearance and personality, and that, in turn, elicited the expected behavior in those women. B. Experiments showing that women who are expected to drop out of the workplace to raise children in fact do so more often than women who are believed to be disinterested in having children. C. A pair of studies indicating that the speech and attitude of white interviewers deteriorates when interviewing black applicants, and that this change elicits less adequate performance by those applicants. D. An experiment showing that psychiatric patients who believe their status as psychiatric is known to others peform poorly on cooperative tasks. E. Studies showing that students, both children and adults in vocational training, peform better when teachers are told that those students have unusally high aptitude or that they are likely to show improvement in intellectual achievement. F. An experiment showing that beliefs about the gender of one's work partner can influence the tasks that partner is willing to take on. 4 points QUESTION 3 1. In "White Lies" Maurice Berger argues that the Ralph Lauren Polo ad in which black model Tyson Beckford is pictured adjacent to a horse serves to belittle Beckford's physical beauty by making it animalistic and bestial. True False 2 points QUESTION 4 1. In "Am I Thin Enough Yet" Sharlene Hesse-Biber argues that women focus on their bodies, and on thinness in particular, as a result of which of the following factors: A. Women's access to social status is largely indirect, through marriage, and a woman's ability to attract a man is based largely on her appearance. B. Industry profits from female insecurities about the body, by selling beautification and diet products. C. Construing women's eating and weight problems as kinds of disease prevents meaningful dialogue about the societal forces that encourage focus on female weight, thus perpetuating women's focus on their bodies. D. All of the above. 4 points QUESTION 5 1. In "Media Magic," Gregory Mantsios points out that while the claim that poverty is the result of bad luck is patently false, the media portrayal of poverty as the result of bad-luck, especially near the Christmas holiday, has the poistive effect of eliciting substantial charitable giving from our society's most affluent members. True False 4 points QUESTION 6 1. Jonathon Kozol, in "Still Separate, Still Unequal" writes that the disparity in dollars spent on childhood education has a direct effect on a child's performace and has the additional effect of resegregating schools that were desegregated by Brown v. Board of Education. True False 4 points QUESTION 7 1. In her essay entitled "Masked Racism," Angela Davis argues that drug addiction, homelessness, and illiteracy are among the social problems obscured by imprisonment. True False 2 points QUESTION 8 1. In "Masked Racism," Angela Davis mentions that the "prison industrial complex" creates wealth for private companies in all of the following ways except: A. The prison industrial complex creates work for the contruction industry, which profits from building new prisons to accomodate the increasing number of incarcerated persons B. The prison industrial complex creates wealth for prison guard unions, which collect dues from those who work in prisons and thus lobby for tough-on-crime policies that create prisons and prison-guard jobs C. The prison industrial complex creates investment and bond opportunities for financing corporations like Merrill Lynch D. The prison industrial complex creates wealth for private prison companies, which are paid by the government to build and run prisons to house the growing number of incarcerated persons E. The prison industrial complex creates wealth for corporations that make the technology to facilitate law enforcement and punishment. F. The prison industrial complex creates wealth for corporations that use cheap prison inmate labor that is not represented by unions 4 points QUESTION 9 1. In "Masked Racism," Angela Davis argues that incarceration not only obscures pressing social problems by hiding them from public view, but that the prison industrial complex consumes the capital that could be used to address those problems (and, presumably, thereby eliminate crime). True False ...
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Final Answer

Sofia007 (511)
University of Virginia

Anonymous
Thanks for the help.

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