Paraphrasing Hydraulics Report

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Hi... Please I want u to just re-write the report in your own words to avoid the similarity in turnit-in.

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Department of civil engineering HYDRAULICS-1 Spring 2017 CIVIL 0008 Individual Assignment )Extensive laboratory reports) Submitted by ID: Submitted to: Mr.Himanshu Gaur 1 Table Of Content Summary 4 Introdaction 5-6 Materials and methods 7-10 Result 11-16 Discussion 17-18 Conclusion and Recommendation 19-20 References 21 2 List Of Figure N.O figure Discraption materials used to determine density and S.G of Figure 3.1 liquids Figure 3.2 Ways to use Eureka can method Figure 3.3 ways to measure time when dropping the ball (stone, iron, coin, Eureka can and timer) Figure 3.4 that use to verify Archimedes principle Figure 3.5 machine used to verify Bernoulli's theorem Figure 4.1 chart show relationship between viscosity and time Figure 4.2 relationship between area & velocity head Figure 4.3 relationship between pressure head & velocity head List of Table N.O Table Discraption Table 4.1 result of viscosity fluids Table 4.2 result of Archimedes principle experiment Table 4.3 result after calculation for exp4 3 1. Summary The main objective of this report is to explain and analyze the data and results of experiments that we have done before, and to clarify their physical equations and applications in scientific and practical life and to prove their mathematical equivalent in the form of true experiments and facts. So in this report I will discuss and analyze four experiment which is: 1. Determination of density and specific gravity of liquid 2. Determination of viscosity of liquid 3. Verification of Archimedes principle 4. Verification of Bernoulli's theorem So, In each experiment I will explain a set of important points which is provide and give a clear picture for the reader about that experiments and provide general idea of each experiment with its materials, results and discuss the results based on the facts available and prove the aim. In general , every experiment provide different aim , so in first experiment we need to determine specific gravity and density of water by different way and must the final result of density its almost 1000 kg/m3.. The second experiment is to prove viscosity in different fluids which is ( gals rain, machine oil and cook oil) by this experiment we will prove which have lass and haggiest viscosity. The third experiment have different idea which is to verify Archimedes principle by many different object like: (stoon,iron and coin). Last experiment is to prove the Bernoulli's theorem and total energy at all section are equal , so this is the result we got in this test . 4 2. Introduction EXP 1: The main objective of this experiment is to determine density and specific gravity of water by different method which is : ( measuring beaker, Eureka can and density bottle). The density of the liquid can be determined using a specific gravity gauge. This tool is placed in the liquid so that it dips into it. The depth of the dive indicates the density of the liquid. Solid body density can be determined by measuring body mass, calculating its size, and dividing the mass by volume. The size can be determined by immersing the body in water and the size of the body is equal to the volume of the excess water. There are Some of the applications are due to the specific gravity of saltwater and coral reef aquaculture enthusiasts to assess salinity in their basins. also used for a number of scientific works, including chemistry, geology, biology and medicine. EXP 2: The main aim of this experiment is to define viscosity for many different fluids in fixed temperature which is (Glycerin, machine oil and cook oil). As we know viscosity Is a property of the material that causes a strong resistance or friction between the layers of the liquid that obstructs sliding over each other Or - the fluid resistance to flow by forces of the type of friction forces, and reduce the viscosity of the fluid by increasing its ability to flow and vice versa Some of the fluids are very fluid and motionless and their resistance to movement of solid objects is small and they have a small viscosity (such as water, alcohol), Some fluids are very fluid and motionless, and their resistance to movement of solid objects is large and has a large viscosity (e.g. honey, glycerin). The viscosity is influenced by two important factors which is : Temperature and type of liquid. There are many practical applications used for the viscosity such as: Lubrication (purpose) Reduce friction heat and Protect machine parts from corrosion. 5 EXP 3: The aim of this experiment is to prove the principle of Archimedes, which states that the upward buoyancy force arises by immersing an object in a fluid whether it is inundation in whole or in part, where the weight of the fluid discharged from the total fluid during the immersion process is equal to the size of the submerged body. We use to prove that different object which is: stone, iron and coin.They are many Examples applications of principle of Archimedes like: Hydrometer, Ship, The submarine and Airship, for example: the moment of the rise of the submarine to the surface, it is only need to empty the reservoirs or tanks that have already fallen to fall, and the weight and thus float are climb to the surface. EXP 4: The main objective of this experiment is to verify the Bernoulli's theorem which state that the pressure of the liquid rises with its low speed, and in scientific sense the pressure decreases with increasing speed. Through the experiment we toke reading from piezometer tubes in many trail ,than we use equation for every trail and the total energy at all section are almost equal which prove Bernoulli's theorem . The principle of Bernoulli is one of the most important principles that explain the behavior of liquid and mobile gases, whether in water transport pipes or in moving water. The most important practical application of Bernoulli's theorem is liftings force of aircraft which is The wings of the plane curved from the top more than the bottom to be the speed of air at the top is greater than below so, Bernoulli principle that the pressure at the top is less than the pressure from the bottom of the wing and from which the force is generated on the wing from the bottom of the highest than the plane rises. 6 3. Materials and Methods EXP1: This experiment we used 3 different methods that's to prove S.I standard of water density which is say: the density of water in 20 c is 998.2 kg/π‘š3 and this is often rounded up to 1000kg/π‘š3. Which density of liquid means the physical attributes and properties of any object. It is also the relationship between the mass and volume. The relationship between mass and volume is considered to be positive. The density of the liquid is affected by pressure and heat factors, and the effect of heat on objects is expressed by its expansion. So if liquid density we want to found, one of the following methods must be followed: Measuring beaker, Eureka can and Density bottle. Which can calculate density by 𝜌 = π‘šπ‘Žπ‘ π‘  (𝑔)/ π‘‰π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘šπ‘’ (π‘šπ‘™) Γ— (106/103) (π‘˜π‘”π‘š3) The specific gravity is the mass ratio of a given volume of material to an equal volume mass of water. It is extracted by dividing the density of the material by the water density at 4 Β° C or 20 Β° C and we measuring by using sample equation which is: 𝑆. 𝐺 =𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑦 π‘œπ‘“ πΏπ‘–π‘žπ‘’π‘–π‘‘/𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑦 π‘œπ‘“ π‘Šπ‘Žπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ(π‘›π‘œ 𝑒𝑛𝑖𝑑𝑠). Finally of this experiment we can measure specific gravity direct from the liquid by using Hydrometer then we use mathematic equation as we show before to find it. In this experiment we used many different material to find density of liquid and S.G as I show in this fig: ( Gaur,H, (2017)) Fig 3.1: materials used to determine density and S.G of liquids 7 Fig3.2: Ways to use Eureka can method EXP2: Viscosity is the fluid resistance of the flow, and the amount of resistance to pressure forcing him to move and gonorrhea. The more fluid a viscosity is, the less likely it is to run.. So in this experiment we use 3 different fluids, with different viscosity to determinate the viscosity for every fluids. The fluid is a state of matter, a fluid that has a fixed volume when the temperature and pressure are established, and which takes the form of the vessel containing it As the liquids expand by heating, shrink in the cooling. So in this experiment we will use 3 types of liquids at the constant temperature for the knowledge of the most and least viscosity and these liquids are: cook oil, machine car oil and Glycerin. Than we use sample equation to find viscosity which is: Β΅= (gd2) /( 18v) / (6/p)-1 . Finally, through this exterminate we used many different material that help as to find viscosity like: 3 different fluids (machine oil, cooking oil and Glycerin), steel ball, timer. (Kumar, U, (2016)). . Fig3.3: ways to measure time when dropping the ball 8 EXP3: As we know Archimedes principle state that the immersion process is equal to the size of the submerged body, so in this experiment mean (apparent loss of weight of object in water is equal to the weight of water displaced. To prove that we used many different objects this is: stone + iron + coin To prove Archimedes principle we compare finally the result we found between weight of water displaced must = apparent loss of weight of object in water by using Dive objects and calculate the amount of water falling from the cup method.. Through this experiment we used many Apparatus and material like: Different object (stone + iron + coin), Eureka can, spring balance and beakers. (Gaur,H, (2017)) , Fig3.4: (stone, iron, coin, Eureka can and timer) that use to verify Archimedes principle EXP 4: The last experiment in these reports is to prove Bernoulli's theorem which state that if the non-performing liquid flows along a tube of un even cross-section, the pressure is lower at the contractions where the speed is higher, and higher where the tube opens and stagnation prevails. Many people find this situation paradoxical when they first encounter it (higher speed, lower pressure): 9 1. fluid is incompressible ( density r is constant ); 2. flow is steady: 3. flow is frictionless (t = 0); 4. along a streamline; Then, it is expressed with the following equation: In this experiment we used many important Apparatus and materials which is: Water, Tank for water supply, measuring tank, piezometer tubes and stop watch. (Bansal,K, (2010.09)) Fig3.5: machine used to verify Bernoulli's theorem 10 4. Result EXP1: 1. Breaker: breaker empty= 210 g , Volume= 300 ml, breaker with water =496 g So, the real mass of water = breaker with water- breaker empty =496β€”210 = 286x10-3 kg Density = mass/volume so, 286x10-3 kg / 300x10-6 = 953.3 kg/m3 _______________________________________________________________ 2. Eureka Can: volume of cube= 1.9 x 1.9 x 1.9 = 6.859 mm3 , empty mass = 49 g , cube with water mass = 55.5 g So, mass = 55.5-49 = 6.5 g Density=6.5 x 10-3 / 6.859 x 10-6 = 947.6 kg/m3 _______________________________________________________________ 3. Density bottle: volume =50 ml , empty mass= 32 g , with water=82 g So, mass= 85-32 = 50 g Density = 50 x 10-3 / 50 x 10-6 = 1000 kg/m3 4. 𝑆. 𝐺 =𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑦 π‘œπ‘“ πΏπ‘–π‘žπ‘’π‘–π‘‘ / 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑦 π‘œπ‘“ π‘Šπ‘Žπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ (no unit) Density of liquid (water)= 1000 kg/m3 , density of water= 1000 kg/m3 So, S.G= 1000 / 1000 = 1 kg/m3. 11 EXP2: Diameter of ball (1.6 mm) = 0.0016 m Distance from first point to end point (200 mm) = 0.2m Density for steel bar (7800 kg/m3) Density of: (glycerin) = 1260, machine car oil= 899, cooking oil= 930 Table 4.1: result of viscosity fluids No Liquid Specific Gravity Kinematic Viscosity π’ŽπŸ (v xπŸπŸŽπŸ“ ) 𝒔 at 𝟐𝟎 °𝒄 Typical time to fall 200 mm Distance Time 1 glycerin 1.26 0.063x105 3.2 mm 2.35 s 2 Cooking oil 0.93 0.153x105 3.2 mm 98 s 3 Machine car oil 0.899 0.087x105 3.2 mm 1.71 s First of all we calculate velocity v= H / t 1. V (glycerin)= 0.150 m / 2.35 s = 0.063 m/s 2. V (cooking oil)= 0.150 m / 98 s = 0.153 m/s 3. V (Machine car oil)= 0.150 m / 1.71 s = 0.087 m/s Then calculate viscosity = π’ˆ π’…πŸ πŸπŸ– 𝒗 𝝈 ( βˆ’ 𝟏) 𝝆 1. Glycerin = 9.81 x (3.2 x 10-3)2 / ((18 x 0.063) x (7800 / 1260) – 1 ) = 4.59 x 10-4 kg/m.s 2. Cooking oil = 9.81 x (3.2 x 10-3)2 / ((18 x 0.153) x (7800 / 930) – 1 ) = 2.68 x 10-4 kg/m.s 3. Machine car oil = 9.81 x (3.2 x 10-3)2 / ((18 x 0.087) x (7800 / 899) – 1 ) = 4.09 x 10-4 kg/m.s 12 Finally I calculate specific gravity = 𝑆. 𝐺 =𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑦 π‘œπ‘“ πΏπ‘–π‘žπ‘’π‘–π‘‘ / 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑦 π‘œπ‘“ π‘Šπ‘Žπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ 1. Glycerin = 1260 / 1000 = 1.26 2. Cooking oil = 930 / 1000 = 0.93 3. Machine car oil = 899 / 1000 = 0.899 Viscosity Vs Time 2.50 2.30 2.10 Time (sec) 1.90 1.70 1.50 1.30 1.10 0.90 0.70 0.50 Time 4.59*10-4 4.09*10-4 2.68*10-4 Galycerin Car oil Cooking oil 2.35 1.71 0.98 Fig4.1: chart show relationship between viscosity and time EXP3: Table 4.2: result of Archimedes principle experiment S The type Weight of the Weight of the Apparent loss of Weight of No of object Object in air Object in water weight of the water A - gm B - gm object in water displaced A-B =C gm D - gm 40 gm 20 gm 18 gm 80 gm 30 gm 28 gm 260 gm 50 gm 47 gm 1. stone 60 gm 2.0.29g =290 Iron gf 110 gm 3. Coin 310 gm 13 -we measure apparent loss of weight of the object in water = (Weight of object in air – weight of the object in water) 1. Stone = 60 gm – 40 gm = 20 gm 2. Iron = 110 gm – 80 gm = 30 gm 3. Coin = 310 gm – 260 gm = 50 gm Then we found weight of water displaced from the experiment reading. EXP4: Table 4.3 : result after calculation for exp4 Piezometer A B C D E F G H J K L 0.349 0.353 0.269 0.139 1.66 2.26 2.62 2.33 2.89 3.05 3.19 5.3O9 4.227 2.659 2.O11 2.214 2.679 3.192 3.745 4.348 4.993 5.30 O.84 1.06 1.69 2.23 2.03 1.68 1.40 1.20 1.03 0.90 0.85 0.349 0.353 0.269 0.139 O.166 O.226 O.262 0.233 0.298 0.305 0.319 tubes Reading of piezometer (h) Area ( m2) x 10 -4 Velocity of water(m/s) Pressure (p/pg) = h(m) Velocity O.O35 O.O57 O.145 O.253 O.210 O.143 O.O99 O.O73 O.O54 O.O41 O.O36 head (v2/2g) Datum (z) -O.O54 -O.O34 -O.O22 -O.OO8 O.OO7 Total O.33 O.376 O.392 O.384 O.383 O.391 O.395 (p/pg+v2/2g +z 14 O.O22 O.O37 O.O52 O.O67 O.O82 O.O102 O.358 O.419 O.428 O.367 Way Haw to find all calculation for first tubes : *First we calculate Q= v / t Q= 5 x 10-3 / 11.0 = 4.5 x 10-4 m3/s\ *Area , datum fixed from table Table 4.4: value of area and datum *Velocity of water = Q/area V= 4.5 x10-4 / 5.309 x10-4 = 0.84 m2 *pressure = p/pg = h ( its same value of piezometer reading) *velocity head = v2 / 2g = (0.84)2 / ( 2 x 9.81) = 0.035 m/s *Total = (p/pg)+(v2/2g)+(z) = 0.349 + 0.035 – 0.054 = 0.33 m 15 Viscosity Vs Area 6.50 velocity (m/s)) 5.50 4.50 3.50 2.50 1.50 0.50 Area 0.04 0.06 0.15 5.31 4.23 2.66 Figure 4.2: relationship between area & velocity head 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 pressure head 0.20 velosity head 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Figure 4.3: relationship between pressure head & velocity head ( when increase pressure & decrease in velocity) 16 1 5. Discussion EXP1: As we noticed in this experiment, it must be proved that the density of water must be 1000 kg/m3 or less by a percentage not exceeding 1% in all methods . In the first method is Beaker we got the result after the calculations about 953.3 kg/m3 which confirms the validity of the experiment because the result is close to 1000 kg/m3 . On the other hand, the Eureka can got a score of 947.6, which is less accurate but within limits Because this method depends on the calculation of the amount of water that falls from the Eureka can and thus difficult to estimate the water that falls and which we have overcome. In the last method we obtained a very accurate result which is 1000 kg/m3 , which confirms that we have proven correctly, which is equal to the density of water and estimated at 1000 kg/m3 Because the bottle with a known size is designed to calculate the density of any liquid. (Mario, A, (2009) EXP2: In this experiment We filled the three jars with one type of fluid which is (glycerin, car machine oil and cooking oil) and we measure the time taken of ball up to reaches to the end point.. First one is glycerin, we noticed that the time of ball made until it reached from start point up to end point took about 2.35 seconds, which is the highest number of seconds between three liquids, which means that glycerin carries the highest viscosity between this three liquid. Second liquid is machine car oil , the ball took until reached to the end point almost 1.71 seconds, which is the second highest time estimated between the three liquids, which means that has less viscosity than glycerin. Third liquid, is cooking oil, the ball take until reached to end point almost 0.98 seconds, which means that, the cooking oil have lass viscosity than glycerin and car oil. Finally from all this result we conclude that: Viscosity have ∝ Inverse relationship with velocity and Positive relationship with Time. (Wiley,J, (2006) 17 EXP3: In this experience we want to emphasize the principle of Archimedes. So through the experiment result we noted that, they are small error because same of the displaced water fall into the ground and did not fall off the cube so it was not counted for example the apparent loss of weight of the coin in water is 50 gm however the weight of water displaced is 47gm, so there is 3 gm error. But these simple errors are present in all practical experiments, so I deduced from all of the above as following: 1. According to the results obtained, we are sure that when the body is immersed as molecule or completely in water, it loses weight. 2. The body loses its total weight when it is completely immersed in water. 3. When the body is partially or wholly in water is : Loss in body weight = the weight of water that falls when the body is introduced into water. 4. Volume of water displaced = volume of the body submerged in water. So as we notice from this prove and result: The relationship between Water is displaced and the weight of body introduces is positive. EXP4: In this experiment we verify Bernoulli theorem , as we notice from the result , the total; energy in all section are almost same , that’s mean when the cross section was smaller, there was an increase in velocities along the distribution tube. The result showed that the greater pressure differentials give the greatest velocity of the flow of fluids. We also noticed through the experiment increase in pressure when opening the tubes, We conclude from this that there is an inverse relationship between pressure and speed, when increase pressure they are decrease in velocity. (Arey , Ariena)(2012), (https://ar.scribd.com/doc/246653261/Bernoulli-s-PrincipleDemonstration-Lab-Report). 18 6. Conclusion and Recommendation EXP1: In these experiments we used 3 different methods to calculate the density of water which is: measuring beaker, Eureka Can and density bottle. Like what has been shown to us through experiments, different results have emerged for each method. The method of glass density is the most accurate output of the three methods and the actual result is "1000 kg/m3". In the beaker method we find the measurement of density after the calculations about "953.3 kg/m3", which come as the second best accuracy of the three methods. The last method, which is the Eureka Can, The rate is about "947.6 kg/m3", because as we know in Eureka can method the rate of errors are higher because of the difficulty o ...
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strongboss5
School: Carnegie Mellon University

Please find attached the edited lab reportI'd advise you to go through my comments since the results of experiments 2 and 4 don't make sense at all so I guess you made different typo errors when copying the data into the tables

Department of civil engineering

HYDRAULICS-1
Spring 2017 CIVIL 0008

Individual Assignment
)Extensive laboratory reports)

Submitted by
ID:
Submitted to: Mr.Himanshu Gaur

1

Table of Contents
Summary

4

Introduction

5

Materials and methods

9

Results

13

Discussion

19

Conclusion and Recommendation

21

References

23

2

List of Figures
Figure

Description

1

Experimental setup used in the measurement of the density and specific
gravity of water

2

Experimental setup used in the measurement of the viscosity of glycerin,
cooking oil and machine car oil

3

Materials used in the verification of the Archimedes’ law

4

Experimental setup used in the verification of the Bernoulli’s theorem

List of Tables
Table

Description

1

Experimental results used in the calculation of the density of water
(Experiment 1.1.)

2

Experimental results used in the calculation of the density of water
(Experiment 1.2.)

3

Experimental results used in the calculation of the density of water
(Experiment 1.3.)

4

Specific gravity of water at 20ΒΊC

5

Variables affecting experiment 2

6

Experimental results obtained from the measurement of the viscosity of
three different fluids (Experiment 2)

7

Experimental results obtained from the verification of the Archimedes’
law (Experiment 3)

8

Experimental results obtained from the verification of the Bernoulli’s
theorem (Experiment 4)

3

1. Summary
This lab report summarizes the results obtained from the experiments carried out in
the evaluation of the accuracy and validity of the basic laws of hydraulics, the Law
of Archimedes and the theorem of Bernoulli. The objective of these experiments is
thus to exemplify how this law can be used in the accurate estimation of the density
and volume of irregular objects introduced in a fluid, as well as the evaluation of
how these parameters affect the behavior of the fluid.
In order to verify the above laws, four different experiments have been designed,
oriented to:
β€’

The measuring of the density and specific gravity of the fluid used

β€’

The measuring of the kinematic viscosity of the fluid

β€’

The evaluation of the displacement of a fluid when an irregularly shaped object
is introduced in it (law of Archimedes)

β€’

The evaluation of the influence of the hydraulic pressure on the speed of the
fluid (theorem of Bernoulli)

A common structure has been followed in the description of the experiments carried
out throughout the lab report. In this regard, the experimental details and all the
relevant information is outlined in order to provide with an accurate description of
all the steps followed in the experimental setup, such that they can be repeated by
an unexperienced person. Additionally, information related to the different
materials necessary to perform each of the experiments is provided in the
methodology section. Finally, the obtained results for each experiment are
summarized, and critically discussed in light of the currently accepted physical laws
and the available facts.

4

2. Introduction
Experiment 1. Evaluation of the density and specific gravity of a fluid
The first experiment consists on the monitoring of the density and the specific
gravity of a fluid. As an example, water has been selected as target fluid. As will be
detailed in the materials and methods section. The material used in this experiment,
stated in section 3, consists of a graduated beaker, an Eureka can and a density
bottle.
Briefly, the measurements have been carried out by using a specific gravity gauge,
which is introduced in the water, and allowed the water to dip into the gauge. As
the water dips into the specific gravity gauge, it will dive deeper until the pressure
inside the gauge is equivalent to the pressure outside the gauge. The specific gravity
of the liquid being monitored will then be determined by evaluating the depth of the
dive once the equilibrium condition is achieved once the pressure inside and outside
the gauge are equivalent. The density, on the other hand, can be estimated by
considering the mass of water that has dipped into the specific gravity gauge at this
equilibrium situation, assuming that the volume inside the gauge will be equivalent
to the volume of the gauge itself. Once both the mass and volume of water have
been measured, the density can be calculated by considering the ratio between mass
and volume.
The relevance of the experiment carried out is tha...

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Anonymous
awesome work thanks

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