Critical evaluation of source

timer Asked: Nov 29th, 2017
account_balance_wallet $10

Question Description

critical evaluation of sources

Read attached article and evaluate source

This assignment will be structured to assess the skills and content of module 2 and must assess the following learning outcomes: 1. analyze college level materials. 2. evaluate the ideas of others. 6. select appropriate research sources and document them correctly 7. incorporate research information correctly and effectively into their own writing.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: RESEARCH ESSAY 1 Research Essay: Childhood Obesity in Canada Student Name Sheridan College RESEARCH ESSAY 2 Abstract This is where the content for your abstract will go. This should be approximately 250 words and should accruately summarize the content in your research essay. Please see the rubric for assessment details. RESEARCH ESSAY 3 Childhood Obesity in Canada This is where the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion of the essay should go. This should be 5 – 10 paragraphs. Remember to include appropriate visuals like graphs, tables, and charts that add to the content where applicable. In-text citations must be included where appropriate. Please see the assignment rubric for assessment details. RESEARCH ESSAY 4 References All references should be in APA format. The minimum amount of references is 5. Please see the rubric for assessment details and library APA guide for referencing help. RESEARCH ESSAY 5 Appendix If there is supplemental material that you would like to include with your document, please do this here. This may include visuals like charts and graphs; although, this may be written material as well. After the appendix include the assignment rubric, your approved proposal, and the graded annotated bibliography assignment. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology © 2014 Indian Association of Health, Research and Welfare 2014, 5(4), 393-397 ISSN-p-2229-4937e-2321-368X Exploring college student's conception of happiness Parnika Sharma Swati Patra Amity Institute of Psychology and Allied Sciences Noida, Uttar Pradesh School of Social Sciences IGNOU, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi Happiness is a state we all want to achieve,but what exactly is happiness and how to be in that state is very subjective and depends upon person to person. The present study was aimed to explore the meaning and conception of happiness among College students. Total 48 college students (ages range 18 to 24 year old) were selected from private universities of Greater Noida. The study employed qualitative-descriptive research design. Findings showed that happiness is a multifaceted construct as: Self orientation, Enjoyment, Other oriented, Positive Thoughts, Achievements, Work Life Balance, Purpose in Life, satisfaction, Determination, Spend time with love ones. Self orientation as components of happiness was found difference on the level of age. The findings of the research conclude the several of happiness and provide further research suggestions in the psychology of happiness. Keywords: happiness, qualitative research, college students Happiness is the cherished goal of every person in every phase of life, but what constitute happiness is very subjective. According to Veenhoven (1991), the interest in happiness and well-being dates back to Greek philosophers. Dating back to Aristotle's (384322 BCE) who gave the notion of eudemonia according to which happiness is a lifetime of virtuous activity (excellence) made possible by the opportunity of leisure, leisure being the condition of freedom from the need to labour as well as freedom for the noble exercise of a person's highest capacities, as quoted by (Sylvester, 2005). Further more, according to Aristuppus (435366 BCE), who tried to explain happiness with Hedonism i.e., happiness is a matter of raw subjective feelings maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain. Combining the two views Eysenck and Eysenck (1990) states that happiness is equal to satisfaction plus hedonic level, hedonic level is the degree to which pleasant emotions overweight unpleasant emotions. In the recent times Myers and Diener did lot of research on happiness and concluded that happiness is primarily a subjective phenomenon “for which the final judge is whoever lives inside a person's skin” (Myers & Diener, 1950). According to Lyubomirsky (2001), happiness is relative to our past experience as also to our comparisons with others, Happiness is an imaginary condition, formerly attributed by the living to the dead, now usually attributed by adult to children and by children to adults [Thomas Sazz as quoted in Mayer & Dyner, 1995)]. According to Csikzentmihalyi (1990), happiness comes from engagement in mindful challenge, which he termed as flow, an activity in which one get so caught up that the mind does not wander, one become oblivious to surroundings and time flies. Seligman (2003) revolutionized the concept of happiness with his notion of Authentic happiness. He holds that there are three distinct kinds of happiness: the Pleasant Life (pleasures), the Good Life (engagement), and the Meaningful Life. The first two are subjective, but the third is at least partly objective and lodges in belonging to and serving what is larger and more worthwhile than the just the self's pleasures and desires. It can be observed that Seligman's concept of authentic happiness includes each and every concept of happiness, it includes the Correspondence should be sent to Parnika Sharma Amity Institute of Psychology and Allied Sciences, Noida, U.P. Pleasant Life, that is about happiness in Hedonism's sense. The Good Life in Desire sense. The Meaningful Life is about happiness that consists of achieving certain things from a list of worthwhile pursuits: such a list might include career accomplishments, friendship, freedom from disease and pain, material comforts, civic spirit, beauty, education, love, knowledge, and good conscience (Nussbaum, 1992; Sen, 1985). Here it is worth to quote Ed Diener's term for happiness which is "subjective well-being" Subjective well-being includes experiencing pleasant emotions, low levels of negative moods, and high life satisfaction (Diener, 2002). The Indian perspective on happiness has flourished with the ideas of harmony, evolution and connectivity across life forms. Upanishadic concept of Pancha Koshas (Annamaya, Pranamaya, Vigyanmaya, Manomaya & Anandmaya), which articulates human existence in terms of a multilayered organization. In this scheme, the idea of 'being' is of a conscious being and not of a reactive organism. It operates following the principles of complementarity, interdependence, sharing and reciprocity between self and tasks externally, through persistence (Dalal & Misra, 2000). Bhagavad Geeta, the Indian spiritual scripture, says that there are three kinds of happiness, Sattwik, Rajasik and Tamasik. Sattwik is the best kind of happiness, which initially appears to be bad but in the end is felt like nectar. Rajasika is the sensory happiness, which appears to be nectar in the beginning but creates problem at the end. Tamasika is the worst kind of happiness, which deludes the self, such as, laziness, negligence etc. (Bhagabat Gita, Chapter-18, Sloka 37- 39). Ananda has been described as the highest state of higher self. Real happiness, is an inherent state of the soul, a quality we can use only when we have a true perception of our nature of soul. (Sharma, 2010). As early as 1960's, happiness was being explored through the use of different survey forms (Argyle as cited in Primasari & Yuniarti, 2010). Some of them focused on possible predictors of happiness which majority fall into the result of social economic status of a person (Kozaryn, 2010). On the contrary, Piccolo, Judge, Takahash, Watanabe, and Locke (2005), claimed that positive self-regard is the most important predictor of happiness and as well as life satisfaction. Using the Big Five Personality Model, Tkach, and Lyubomirsky (2006) found out that personality traits can mediate happiness, especially extraversion. Howell, Chenot, Hill, and Howell (2011) concluded that satisfaction of daily psychological 394 SHARMA AND PATRA/ EXPLORING COLLEGE STUDENT'S CONCEPTION and family relationship (Holder & Coleman, 2007) as similar with the adolescents (Chen & Lu, 2009) and romantic relationship for married adults (Demir, 2008; Demir, 2010) while best friend and mother relationship arouse for single adults (Demir, 2010). In an another study done by Datu, Jesus Alfonso, Valdez, Jana Patricia, (2012); “Exploring Filipino adolescents' conception of happiness”. Researchers aimed to explore the meaning and conception of happiness among selected Filipino adolescents. Findings showed that happiness is a multifaceted construct that involved the following major themes: satisfaction of wants, absence of worries, expression of positive emotions, motivational drive, and fulfillment of relational needs. A study done by Luo Lu ( 2001) on 'Understanding happiness; A look into the Chinese folk psychology' This qualitative study using a folk psychology approach explored what Chinese people think about happiness. Using thematic analysis, four main themes were found. (1) Happiness can be defined in terms of (a) a mental state of satisfaction and contentment; (b) positive feelings/emotions; (c) a harmonious homeostasis; (d) achievement and hope; and (e) freedom from ill-being. (2) Happiness is a harmonious state of existence, under the following conditions: (a) the individual is satisfied or content; (b) the individual is the agent of his own happiness; (c) spiritual enrichment is emphasized more than material satisfaction; and (d) the individual maintains a positive outlook for the future. (3) The relationship between happiness and unhappiness is dialectical. These two distinct entities are locked in a never-ending relationship of interdependence: each depends on the other for contrast and meaning. Moreover, this relationship between the two opposites is also dynamic and constantly changing. (4) Happiness can be achieved, provided that one has the following abilities: (a) the wisdom of discovery; (b) the wisdom of contentment and gratitude; (c) the wisdom of giving; and (d) the wisdom of self-cultivation. Various definitions of happiness highlights importance of factors such as ethics (Aristotle, (384322 BCE), Flow (Csikzentmihalyi, 1990), pleasure (Aristuppus, 435366 BCE), a relative sense (Lyubomirsky, 2001), gratitude (Cicero, 54 BC as quoted in Frederiksen, 1996) meaningful life (Seligman, (2003). Still the benefits one derive from being happy are multitude. Diener, Lyubomirsky, and King (2005) asserted that happiness can be directly related to success. As people attain success, they tend to have positive affect which leads to happiness. That hypothesis was similar to the findings of Heady &Veehoven (as cited in Primasari & Yuniarti, 2010) which capitalized on the influence of happiness to the feeling of satisfaction. What remained constant across different studies is the formulation that happiness is an antecedent, correlate and predictor of positive psychological outcomes (Parks, Della Porta, Pierce, Zilca, & Lyubomirsky, 2012; Lyubomirsky, Diener, & King, 2005). Adolescents have long been regarded as a group of people who are searching for themselves to find some form of identity and meaning in their lives (Erikson 1968). According to Pittman, (1993) youth is a time when individuals are engaged in attempting to (1) meet their basic personal and social needs to be safe, feel cared for, be valued, be useful, and be spiritually grounded, and (2) to build skills and competencies that allow them to function and contribute in their daily lives. Identity theorists, from Erikson (1968) to Loevinger (1976), have marked adolescence as the period in the life-span when people first begin to dedicate themselves to systems of belief that reflects compelling purposes. Keeping this view in the mind, the specific objective of present study was to address the qualitative study of conceptions of happiness among college students. The general objective of the study was: 1) to address the conceptions of happiness in college students, 2) to study the relationship with age and various components of happiness for college students. To accomplish this, all the participants were enquired open ended interview with happiness question. Method Participants Total 48 college students (age range from 18 to 25 year) from various private universities were selected. They were students of managements and engineering courses enrolled in Noida and Greater Noida Institutions. Instrument and procedure The current research utilized open ended questionnaire as a way to collect responses from the participants. It has ten questions in total. Some of the sample questions include; a) What exactly is happiness, b) Describe a moment of perfect happiness, c) What changes can you effect in your work and home environment that cultivate happiness and d) How can one become happier. The investigator had first established rapport with each participant to elicit sincere and can did responses in college and university settings. After establishment of rapport the sociodemographic and conceptions of happiness characteristics of the participants was written using a personal data sheet. Each participant was tested individually. It took around 20 to 30 minutes for the questionnaire to be filled by each participant. The investigator promised not to disclose the information given by participants to anyone. As soon as they completed, the data was scored and analyzed according to the research objectives. Results The content analysis method was used for data analysis. The major theme and categories emerged from data analysis along with frequencies has been presented in the following tables and figures. Table 1: Conceptions of Happiness in college students. Sr. Conceptions of Happiness Frequency Percentage 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Self oriented Enjoyment Others oriented Positive thought Achievement Goal Work life balance Purpose in Life Satisfaction Determination Spend time with love ones 43 29 44 37 34 05 06 20 11 43 89.59 67.44 91.66 77.08 70.83 10.41 12.50 41.66 22.91 89.59 Figure 1: Graphical Presentation of Conceptions of Happiness. 395 Indian Journal of Positive Psychology 2014, 5(4), 393-397 Table: 6 Percentage of participant's age in conception of happiness namely achievements of goal. Looking at Table 1, it clearly appeared that participants have perceived ten conceptions about happiness as self oriented, enjoyment, other oriented, positive thought, achievement goals, work life balance, purpose in life, satisfaction, determination and spent time with love ones. However, the participants have perceived three conceptions of happiness above 80 percent as self oriented, other oriented and spent time with love ones. Three conceptions were identified below 25 percentage as work life balance, purpose in life and determination. To investigate the relationship with age and various components of happiness, Chi-square tests of independence were performed. The age range of participants was 18 25 years. It was devised in two parts: 18-21 and 22-25 year old. To apply the chi square test of independence, each theme of happiness was divided into two groups of high and low. After that each theme was analysed on the bases of age. Age level High work life balance Low work life balance Table: 2 Percentage of participant's age in conception of happiness namely self orientation 18-21 Year 22-25 Year Age level 18-21 22-25 High self orientation 31.81 68.18 Low self orientation 61.54 38.46 Age level 18-21 Year 22-25 Year High achievements of goal. 57.14 42.86 Low achievements of goal. 44.12 55.88 2 c .67 Table- 6 reveals that 57.14 percent (n=14) of the high achievements of goal and 44.12 percent (n=34) of the low achievements of goal expressed by 18-22 years. The difference was not statistically 2 significant [ c (1, N=48) = .67, p >.05]. Table 7: Percentage of participant's age in conception of happiness namely work life balance. 66.67 33.33 45.24 54.76 2 c .96 2 Table- 7 reveals that 67.67 percent (n=6) of the high work life balance and c 45.24 percent (n=42) of the low work life balance expressed by 18-22 years. 4.21* 2 The difference was not statistically significant [c (1, N=48) = .96, p >.05]. Table 8: Percentage of participant's age in conception of happiness namely purpose in life. Note* (p<.05) Table-2 shows that 68.18 percent (n=22) of the high self orientation 2 Age level High Purpose in life Low purpose in life c and 38.46 percent (n=26) of the low self orientation expressed by 222 18-21 Year 37.5 50 .41 25 years. The difference was statistically reliable at the .05 level [c 22-25 Year 62.5 50 (1, N=48) = 4.21, p <.05]. Table- 8 presents that 62.5 percent (n=8) of the high purpose in life and50 percent (n=40) of the low purpose in life expressed by 22-25 2 years. The difference was not statistically significant [c (1, N=48) = 2 c .41, p >.05]. Table 3: Percentage of participant's age in conception of happiness namely Enjoyment Age level 18-21 Year 22-25 Year High Enjoyment 70 30 Low Enjoyment 42.11 57.89 2.46 Table: 9 Percentage of participant's age in conception of happiness namely satisfaction. 2 Table-3 indicates that 70 percent (n=10) of the high enjoyment and Age level High satisfaction Low satisfaction c 42.11 percent (n=38) of the low enjoyment expressed by 18-21 years. 2 18-21 Year 50 47.5 .017 The difference was not statistically significant [ c (1, N=48) = 2.46, p 22-25 Year 50 52.5 >.05]. Table- 9 presents that 52.5 percent (n=40) of the low purpose in life Table 4: Percentage of participant's age in conception of happiness and 50 percent (n=40) of the high satisfaction in life expressed by namely other oriented. 2 22-25 years. The difference was not statistically significant [c (1, 2 Age level High other oriented Low other oriented c N=48) = .017, p >.05]. 18-21 Year 22-25 Year 46.67 53.33 50 50 .05 Table: 10 Percentage of participant's age in conception of happiness namely determination. Table- 4 suggest 53.33 percent (n=30) of the high other oriented and 50 Age level High determination Low determination percent (n=18) of the low other oriented expressed by 22-25 years. The 2 18-21 Year 40 48.84 difference was not statistically significant [c (1, N=48) = .05, p >.05]. Table 5: Percentage of participant's age in conception of happiness namely positive thoughts. Age level 18-21 Year 22-25 Year High Positive thoughts 64.29 35.71 Low Positive thoughts 41.18 58.82 22-25 Year 60 2 c .14 51.62 Table- 10 suggest that 60 percent (n=5) of the high determination and 51.62 percent (n=48) of the low determination expressed by 222 2 c 25 years. The difference was not statistically significant [c (1, N=48) = .14, p >.05]. .221 Table 11: Percentage of participant's age in conception of happiness namely spent time in love. Table- 5 tells that 64.29 percent (n=14) of the high positive thoughts and 41.18 percent (n=34) of the low positive thoughts Age level High spend time in love expressed by 18-22 years. The difference was not statistically 18-21 Year 39.39 2 significant [ c (1, N=48) = .221, p >.05]. 22-25 Year 60.61 Low spend time in love 66.67 33.33 2 c 3.07 SHARMA AND PATRA/ EXPLORING COLLEGE STUDENT'S CONCEPTION 396 Table- 11 suggest that 60.61 percent (n=33) of the high spend time in love and 33.33 percent (n=15) of the low spend time in love expressed by 22-25 years. The difference was not statistically significant [(1, N=48) = 3.07, p >.05]. Thus, overall ten concepts were found among university students. Conceptions of happiness were equal for all the 18 to 25 year participants. One component of happiness as self orientation was found significant difference on the level of age. Seligman. These two happiness-increasing behaviours were consistently seen in the study of Tkach and Lyubomirsky (2006) that hypothesized these strategies under social affiliation. It also validates the premises from past theoretical and empirical underpinnings that socially-engaging endeavours enhance happiness (Lu & Gilmour, 2004; Lu & Shih, 1997; Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter, 2003). Discussion The study can be beneficial for the teachers, psychologi ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment

Tutor Answer

School: Carnegie Mellon University



Critical Evaluation of Source
Student’s name
Institution affiliation
Date of submission




From the research findings, happiness is said to be a multifaceted construct that whose
components include determination, satisfaction, self-orientation, positive thoughts, enjoyment,
other-oriented, time spent with loved ones, an achievement goal, purpose in life, and work-life
balance (Sharma, & Patra, 2014). Literature analysis gives a good support and foundation to the
study but should not be too old as current research makes the topic of study relevant. A good
study has an introduction, research questions, hypothesis, literature review, methodology, results
analysis, discussion recommendation and conclusion as the key components of research they
make the reader follow closely about what the research is all about and make tangible judgment
concerning the study. The paper intends to evaluate how Sharma and Patra, 2014 have carried
out their research, whether they achieved their purpose and their conclusion.



Critical Evaluation of Source
Parnika Sharma's and Swati Patra’s psychology journal: ‘Exploring College Student’s
Conception of Happiness’ is a qualitative research about the aspect of happiness and how college
students perceive it. According to the research, happiness has been described as a condition
everyone wishes to have and asserts that true happiness and ways of achieving this condition is
subjective and varies among people. From the research findings, happiness is said to be a
multifaceted construct that whose comp...

flag Report DMCA

Thank you! Reasonably priced given the quality not just of the tutors but the moderators too. They were helpful and accommodating given my needs.

Brown University

1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology

2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University

982 Tutors

Columbia University

1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University

2113 Tutors

Emory University

2279 Tutors

Harvard University

599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2319 Tutors

New York University

1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University

1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University

2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University

932 Tutors

Princeton University

1211 Tutors

Stanford University

983 Tutors

University of California

1282 Tutors

Oxford University

123 Tutors

Yale University

2325 Tutors