1. In separate essays of
150–250 words each (with a typical font and double-spacing, this will be
approximately a half to 1 page per essay), respond to each of the following
Briefly summarize the difference between a mode (as used in
church music of the Middle Ages) and a major/minor scale (as used during the
common practice period). Cite two examples from the Norton Anthology of
Western Music, explaining what mode system is being used, and at what
points in the text setting the final occurs in the musical line. Does the
mode's final appear at specific points in the text setting? Be sure to listen
to the examples as well, which may illuminate your discussion.
musical differences between the sacred and secular music of the Middle
Ages. Include mention of at least two examples of each genre (sacred or
secular) from the required videos, describing how each of your examples
represents its genre.
the uses and sounds of song in ancient Greece with secular song of the
Middle Ages. You do not need to use specific musical terminology in your
descriptions, unless you're able.
2. For your writing assignment in this module, address the following three
Compare the role of music in ancient Greece to that in the
early Middle Ages. Include mention of at least two musical examples from each
period from the required listening, describing how each represents the role
the differences between organum and motet.
Include mention of at least two examples of each form, describing how each
represents its form.
the characteristics of the three types of organum described
in your textbook. For each, find at least one example from your listening.
Describe each example to clarify the type of organum it represents, using
Your writing assignment will produce an essay of 100–250 words for each of
the three topics, using good grammatical and organizational practice. Remember
to cite at least the number of the pieces from your required listening as
instructed in each topic. You can also expand your research beyond the required
readings and listening assignments, but be sure to cite sources where appropriate
(including passages from your textbook or other readings), and include a
bibliography if needed.
2. In a narrative of at least 250 words,
explain the characteristics of isorhythm, citing the isorhythmic movements of
Machaut'sMesse de Nostre Dame fromNAWM/NRAWM as examples. For each of the
isorhythmic movements from Machaut's mass, describe the use of thecolor and thetalea. The color and talea statements are obviously used to
provide structure to the music, but how do they create interest? Besides your
narrative, you'll be judged on the correct identification of these items in
each section, showing your understanding of the isorhythmic process.
this written assignment, you'll categorize the required study pieces from NAWM as
to form and comment on how each represents its form. The objective of this
assignment is to confirm your understanding of the characteristics of each of
the vocal forms and instrumental categories used during the sixteenth century.
Identify the form of selections 55–61, 63, and 64 from NAWM.
For each selection, indicate how it conforms to or deviates from the form you
the category for instrumental selections 66 (a, b, and c) and 70 from NAWM (see
pp. 141-142 of CHWM). For each instrumental selection, specify
how it fits its category, and cite any characteristics the composer
includes to make it unique.
1. 4.Study and listen to NAWM 74(a–e), excerpts
from act 2 of Claudio Monteverdi’s opera L’Orfeo (1607). How
does Monteverdi use dissonance, rhythm, melodic contour, and other elements to
convey the meaning of the text and the feelings it reflects in Orfeo’s
recitative Tu se’ morta (NAWM 74d)?
2. In Orfeo,
Monteverdi uses particular musical forms and styles to convey the changing
dramatic situation and the feelings of the characters. What characteristics
make each of the following forms and styles appropriate in building and
expressing the drama of this scene?
Orfeo, canzonetta (NAWM 74a)
Messenger, Shepherd, and Orfeo, recitative (NAWM 74c)
Orfeo, recitative (NAWM 74d)
Chorus, choral madrigal (NAWM 74e)
1. 5.In her cantata Lagrime mie (NAWM 77),
Strozzi uses a variety of singing styles ranging from recitative to aria to
something between (arioso). Indicate the measure numbers at which those changes
in style occur and briefly describe the character of each section. Why do you
think Strozzi chose to use the singing styles in this order? What about the
structure of the text and its meaning may have influenced her compositional
2. How does Schütz use
changes of texture and style to depict the events and text of Saul, was
verfolgst du mich (NAWM 81)? What types of style and texture
does he use?
3. Complete a list of the
new forms of vocal music described in Chapter 11. Briefly describe the
characteristics of each form and provide an example of each from NAWM.
6. In what
ways do Bach’s melodies in both the fugue and the prelude (NAWM 100) show the influence of Italian violin style? Use the solo
violin portions of Vivaldi’s op. 3, no. 6, first movement (NAWM 96), for comparison.
1. 7. The aria “Sì, sì ben mio” from Scarlatti’s cantata Clori
vezzosa, e bella (NAWM 92b) follows da capo aria form. Give the
primary harmonic areas for each of the following sections:
a. A section,
opening ritornello (mm. 51–54)
b. A section, first vocal statement (mm. 54–59)
c. A section, middle ritornello (mm. 59–60)
d. A section, second vocal statement (mm. 60–73)
e. B section (mm. 74–87)
How does da capo aria form reflect the form of the text?
2. What characteristics of
the overture to Lully’s Armide (NAWM 85a) mark it as a
3. How does the musical
setting of Armide’s recitative “Enfin il est en ma puissance” (NAWM 85b)
reflect the dramatic situation and the emotional conflict Armide is feeling?
4. How was England’s musical
culture different from France’s in the Baroque period? What accounts for that
5. Describe the differences
in the function and character of music in Orthodox Lutheran services and
Pietist Lutheran services.
1. What was a sonata in
the sixteenth century? How was the term used in the seventeenth century?
2. What role did toccatas,
preludes, and chorale preludes play in the Protestant church?
3. Where and in what
position was Dietrich Buxtehude employed for most of his career? What types of
music did he compose for use in that position?
4. How does Buxtehude’s Praeludium
in E Major (NAWM 95) fit the definition of a late
seventeenth-century toccata or prelude given in CHWM, page 215?
What type of texture and figuration does it use? How does it fall into
Choose one (1) of the following topics (A, B, or
C), and complete a paper of not less than six
(6), double-spaced pages (minimum 1500–1800 words). Your final paper should be
in essay style, not presented as a list or in outline form. It should include
citations of any resources consulted (including your text materials). Please
use an accepted academic style manual (e.g., MLA, Chicago, APA, etc.) in
preparing, styling, and formatting your essay (see Writing Resources at the end
of this document). Topic C. Keyboard Music
each of the major historical periods covered in this course (Medieval,
Renaissance, and Baroque), describe the important keyboard instruments used by
musicians and composers. Include in your essay:
brief description of each instrument.
instrument’s role in sacred or secular musical performances.
of the forms that used keyboard, identifying and describing at least three
(3) examples of each form from your required reading and listening; for each
example, name the composer and title of the piece, and give a brief description
of its historical significance.
Five audio examples are
attached. For each music excerpt, identify its historical period and provide at
least one-half, double-spaced page (minimum 125–150 words) giving your reasons
for your choice. You'll be judged on the logic leading to your conclusion of
period placement in addition to the period placement itself. Include discussion
of the musical characteristics of the piece (see categories in Module 2), its
style, use of instruments and/or voices, form, etc. If you recognize the piece,
identifying the title or composer can be one of your reasons, but this
information alone is neither sufficient nor necessary for explaining your
1. Music excerpt A
2. Music excerpt B
3. Music excerpt C
4. Music excerpt D
5. Music excerpt E
1The Enlightenment dramatically
changed many aspects of Western society in the Classic period as compared to
that of the preceding Baroque period. To confirm your understanding of these
changes in the arts, combine responses to the following four questions into an
essay of 250–350 words. In your essay, please incorporate categories of musical
style such as melody, periodicity, musical rhetoric, harmony, Alberti bass,
form, emotional contrasts, and the notion of form and content.
What distinguishes the new classical styles (including
galant and empfindsam) from Baroque styles and from each other?
What was the Enlightenment? How did the wider cultural
climate of the eighteenth century affect music?
What distinguishes the aims of Baroque artists from those of
artists in the Classic period?
What circumstances encouraged the broadening audience for
and interest in music, and what were some of the results?
in vocal and instrumental music in the Classic period are evidenced by the
creation of new forms and genres. To confirm your understanding of these, list
specific characteristics of the following forms and genres, identifying one
example from NAWM for each:
2.Part 1: Haydn
To confirm your understanding of the structure of the symphony as standardized
by Haydn, complete the following questions, which analyze Haydn's Symphony no.
88 (NAWM 119).
1. In the exposition of the
first movement of Haydn’s Symphony no. 88 (NAWM 119a), how are the
following sections distinguished from one another? Mention these and other
features you find significant: harmonic stability or instability, key (when
stable), use of chromaticism, phrasing (clearly articulated or continuous and
overlapping), dynamics, orchestration, and melodic content.
a. First theme area
c. Second theme area
d. Closing theme
2. The recapitulation
repeats material from the exposition but with some changes. What is different
in the recapitulation in comparison to the exposition?
3. What happens in the
development in terms of harmony and key? How are orchestration and dynamics
used in the development? What ideas from the exposition are used in the
development, where do they appear, and how are they changed from the
4. Chart the form of the
slow movement of Haydn’s Symphony no. 88 (NAWM 119b), and give the key
of each section.
5. Chart the form of the
third movement (NAWM 119c). How does this relate to binary form? How is
dance style evident in this movement?
Part 2: Mozart
To confirm your understanding of some of the other formal developments during
the Classic period, complete the following questions, which explore
representative works by Mozart.
1. What is the form of the
first movement of Mozart’s Piano Sonata in F Major, K. 332 (NAWM 121)?
Chart the form and harmonic plan, indicating the major themes, sections, and
points of articulation with measure numbers.
2. Also for the Piano Sonata
in F Major, list the diverse musical styles used in the first movement. What
associations outside music does each of these styles carry? How do the changes
of style relate to the movement’s form? How do they highlight the harmonic plan
of the movement? Why do you think Mozart chose to use so many different styles?
How does knowing what those styles refer to affect your own understanding of
Mozart’s piano sonata?
3. In the first movement of Mozart’s
Piano Concerto in A Major (NAWM 122), which segments of the opening
orchestral ritornello return later in the work, and where does each return? How
is each segment varied on its return?
4. Compare Mozart’s melodic
style, as exemplified by the first movement of the Piano Concerto in A Major
and the first movement of the Piano Sonata in F Major with Haydn’s melodic
style in Symphony no. 88. What do they have in common? How are they different?
5. In a Classic period
concerto, what is a cadenza? Where does it fall in the form, and how is it
6. What instrumentation does
Mozart use in his Symphony no. 41 (NAWM 123)? What role do the woodwinds
and brass play in the texture?
7. What is the form of the
finale of Mozart’s Symphony no. 41? Provide a large-scale diagram that gives
measure numbers for the main parts of the form as well as the harmonic areas.
Also indicate the measure numbers where Mozart includes fugato, stretto, or imitation
in each of the main parts of the form.
8. In what ways are
Leporello’s opening aria in Don Giovanni (NAWM 124) similar to Uberto’s
aria from Pergolesi’s La serva padrona(NAWM 107)? Why is
this musical style appropriate for Leporello?
9. In what ways does Donna
Anna’s singing style resemble the style of opera seria? Why is this musical
style appropriate for her character?
10. How does Mozart use music
to convey information about the actions and feelings of Don Giovanni and the
Answer the following questions concerning Ludwig van Beethoven:
1. How did Beethoven make a
living in Vienna? How was his situation different from that of Haydn’s and
Mozart’s? How did Beethoven’s situation affect his choices of genres and the
number of total works he composed?
2. In what ways is the first
movement of Beethoven’s Pathétique Sonata (NAWM 125)
like an expected sonata form? In what ways is it different? What are some of
the effects Beethoven uses to make this sonata form dramatic?
3. What are some features of
the first movement of Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony (NAWM 126)
that his audiences would have found unusual? According to the textbook and NAWM,
the principal theme is treated as a person in a drama, struggling against other
players and triumphing in the end. How does Beethoven use changes in the
principal motive (mm. 3–8) to convey struggle and triumph?
Answer the following questions about compositions studied in Chapter 19:
1. What is a song cycle? In
“Gretchen am Spinnrade” (NAWM 128), how does Schubert use the piano to
depict the scene and Gretchen’s actions? How do these same devices suggest
2. Diagram the form of the
fifth movement of Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique (NAWM 138).
What eighteenth-century form or forms do you see traces of in your diagram?
3. Where does the idée
fixe (shown in NAWM, p. 487) appear in the fifth movement?
Where does the Dies irae chant appear? How are these themes used and
transformed to fulfill the program (see NAWM, pp. 485–486)
4. What special instruments
and instrumental effects does Berlioz use, and how do they suit the program?
What other aspects of the music help to support the program?
5. What features of Eusebius,
Florestan, and Coquette (NAWM 132) are typical of
character pieces as described in the textbook, page 413? How does Schumann
distinguish between the characters Eusebius, Florestan, and Coquette musically?
How do these pieces intersect with the composer’s personal life and literary
6. How does Chopin embellish
the melodic line of his Nocturne in D-flat Major, op. 27, no. 2 (NAWM 135)?
How do his melodies resemble the style of Italian opera? How does Chopin use
chromaticism in the nocturne?
7. Aside from being composed
in the nineteenth century, how is Stephen Foster’s “Jeanie with the Light Brown
Hair” (NAWM 131) representative of Romanticism? In what setting was the
song originally performed? Why do you think people found this song so appealing
8. What events does
Gottschalk’s Souvenir de Porto Rico (NAWM 137) depict,
and how are they suggested in the music? What elements are used to suggest the
locale, the people, and their actions? Who was the intended audience, and why
do you think this piece appealed to its audience?
are the characteristics of grand opera?
quoted the Lutheran chorale Ein feste Burg (NAWM 46c)
many times in Les Huguenots prior to its statement in the
conclusion of act 2 (NAWM 147), although you do not have excerpts
from all its statements. Why is the use of this particular hymn
appropriate dramatically for the entire opera? Why is it appropriate for
this scene in particular?
is opéra bouffe, when did it come into existence, and what
social roles did it serve?
makes Carmen an example of realism and exoticism? Refer
to the scene in NAWM 152 specifically to illustrate your
the form of the scene from Il barbiere di Siviglia in NAWM
145, including indications of instrumental and vocal sections, melodic
and thematic repetitions, and changes in tempo, style, and figuration. How
do the changes of style, tempo, and figuration help to convey what Rosina
is saying and feeling? What did audiences value in Rossini’s operatic
style? Refer to specific aspects of this scene from Il barbiere di
Siviglia to illustrate your general points.
the form of the scena and duet from act 3 of Verdi’s La traviata (NAWM
150), providing terms for each section. Describe the melodic styles of
the Andante section, “Parigi, o cara,” and the Allegro section, “Ah! Gran
Dio!” Why do you think Verdi used the melodic styles that he did? Do you
think his choices were effective? Explain your answer.
distinguishing characteristics of German Romantic opera plots in the early
nineteenth century are exemplified in Weber’s Der Freischütz as
a whole and in the Wolf’s Glen scene (NAWM 148) in particular?
is melodrama? Where and how is it used in the Wolf’s Glen scene of Der
Freischütz? Why do you think its use in this scene might be more
effective than using recitative?
- Look at the form diagram of the
conclusion to act 1 of Tristan und Isolde (NAWM, p.
787). How does Wagner use leitmotives to develop the plot in the conclusion
of act 1 (NAWM 149b)? How does the harmonic language used for the
sailors (e.g., at mm. 196–203), “Heil! König Marke Heil!”) differ from
that used for Tristan and Isolde after they have drunk the love potion?
Why is this contrast appropriate, and how does it heighten the drama?
1. What technical problem
for the player is the focus of Liszt’s étude Un sospiro (NAWM
136)? How is it addressed at the outset? How does the texture change over
the course of the piece, to raise new problems for the performer?
2. What elements of or
references to past music does Brahms incorporate into the fourth movement of
his Symphony no. 4 in E minor (NAWM 155)? How did Brahms learn about
this past music? What composers influenced his musical style?
3. Who gave Tchaikovsky’s
Sixth Symphony the subtitle Pathétique? Why is this subtitle
appropriate? This subtitle was not used at the symphony’s premiere performance.
Why do you think it was used for the second performance of the work?
4. What did Dvořák suggest
composers native to the United States do to write “truly national music”? How
are his ideas reflected in his own New World Symphony?
5. What elements of Dvořák’s Slavonic
Dances (NAWM 161) are from Czech traditional music?
1. How does Richard Strauss
characterize Don Quixote and Sancho Panza in the themes of his Don
Quixote (NAWM 158)? What musical devices does he use to depict
2. Why is Boris
Godunov an example of Russian nationalism, whereas Bizet’s Carmen,
which uses musical elements associated with Spain, is an example of exoticism?
3. In what ways is the plot
of Madama Butterfly an example of exoticism as well as
realism? What exotic musical elements did Puccini incorporate in the excerpt
from act 1 in NAWM 151?
1. Describe the rhythm of
Scriabin’s Vers la flamme, op. 72 (NAWM 170). Does it
suggest a strong forward motion or a static hovering? How is the effect
2. In Arnold Schoenberg’s Nacht (NAWM
172a), how is the opening motive (E–G–E-flat) used during the course of the
piece? Where does it not appear in some form? How does Schoenberg create a
sense of unity and form, without tonality, inEnthauptung (NAWM
3. What do the Prelude (NAWM
173a) and Menuet and Trio (NAWM 173b) from Schoenberg’s Piano
Suite, op. 25, have in common with Baroque pieces in the same genres? (See NAWM
88 and 97)
4. In act 3, scene 3, of Wozzeck (NAWM
174b), where does Berg imitate a polka? A folk song? How does he suggest
these types of tonal music, despite using an atonal language?
5. What is Klangfarbenmelodie?
In what way does the first movement of Anton Webern’s Symphony, op. 21 (NAWM
175), illustrate the concept of Klangfarbenmelodie?
6. In his Rite of
Spring (NAWM 176), how does Stravinsky create the effect of
building intensity toward the end of each excerpt? What makes the melodies
beginning at measures 43, 89, and 119 of Danse des adolescentes (NAWM
176a) sound like folk tunes?
7. What elements of
Stravinsky’s Symphony of Psalms, first movement (NAWM 177),
recall past music? What past style period does Stravinsky deliberately avoid?
8. What elements drawn from
east European folk music does Bartók use in the third movement of Music
for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (NAWM 179)?
9. What experimental
elements does Charles Ives use in General William Booth Enters into
Heaven (NAWM 180)? Describe them, indicating passages by
measure number. Which different musical styles does Ives use or allude to in
this song? How does he use contrasts of style and changes of figuration in the
piano to distinguish each phrase or section from the previous one?
1. In the second movement of
Hindemith’s Symphony Mathis der Maler (NAWM 187), where
do consonant harmonies (triads or open fifths) appear from measure 1 through
measure 16? How does Hindemith move between those consonances? Based on your
answers, how does Hindemith’s method of “harmonic fluctuation” create a sense
of harmonic conflict and resolution in a neotonal context?
2. In what ways does the
text of the fourth movement of Prokofiev’s cantata Alexander Nevsky (NAWM
188) exemplify the ideals of socialist realism?
is ragtime? From what traditions did it derive? How is Scott Joplin’s Maple
Leaf Rag (NAWM 164) typical of the style? Compare the
performances of Maple Leaf Rag by Scott Joplin and Jelly
Roll Morton (NRAWM 164a, b). How do they differ? In what ways is
Joplin’s performance typical of the ragtime tradition, and Morton’s
typical of early jazz?
to the standard twelve-bar blues form shown in the textbook, page 545. How
is Bessie Smith’s Back Water Blues(NAWM 182) typical of
the form? How is the performance of West End Blues by
Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five (NAWM 183b) typical of the New
Orleans jazz style? Which elements of the group’s performance are present
in and which are missing from the sheet music version (NAWM 183a)
the music for the verse of I Got Rhythm with its refrain
(NAWM 181). What harmonic, rhythmic, and melodic elements create a
contrast between the two sections? Why do you think Gershwin used these
aspects of Duke Ellington’s Cotton Tail (NAWM 184)
are typical of big band music? What elements did Ellington compose in
advance? What elements were left to improvisation? Cotton Tail is
a contrafact. Ellington composed a new tune over the harmonic progression
from I Got Rhythm. How does Ellington modify the harmonic
progression from I Got Rhythmin Cotton Tail?
is the social function of Anthropology (NAWM 197)?
Where and for whom would it be performed?
you listen to the recording of Edgard Varèse’s Hyperprism (NAWM
192), record your first impressions. What did Varèse mean by spatial
music and sound masses? Listening to Hyperprism again,
how did knowing about Varèse’s ideas about the music change your
understanding of the piece?
what ways does the Shaker tune Simple Gifts (shown in NAWM,
vol. 3, p. 526) convey simplicity? How does Aaron Copland reinforce that
simplicity in his use of the tune in Appalachian Spring (beginning
in m. 171)?
- The first movement of William
Grant Still’s Afro-American Symphony (NAWM 196)
unites symphonic and African-American traditions. What elements does it
draw from symphonic tradition? What elements does Still incorporate from
African-American traditions, including those illustrated in NAWM 164,
182, 183, and 184?
audio examples are attached. For each music excerpt, identify its historical
period and provide at least one-half, double-spaced page (minimum 125–150
words) giving your reasons for your choice. You'll be judged on the logic
leading to your conclusion of period placement in addition to the period
placement itself. Include discussion of the musical characteristics of the
piece (see categories in Module 2), its style, use of instruments and/or
voices, form, etc. If you recognize the piece, identifying the title or
composer can be one of your reasons, but this information alone is neither
sufficient nor necessary for explaining your conclusions.
- Music excerpt
- Music excerpt
- Music excerpt
- Music excerpt
- Music excerpt