Hello, I have finished the work, I have done all the part, summary, Introduction, method (I have stated the hypothesis and prediction from the document you attached) procedure, results, discussion a brief conclusion. The referencing style is MLA. I have also plotted the sum of the words recalled by each subject of the Control and the experimental subject of the experiment vs the number of subjects (16). Kindly go through it and let me know what you think. The plag report is attached as well, I hope 8% is not bad, right?Thanks again
by George Rono
Submission date: 03-Dec-2017 06:43AM (UT C-0500)
Submission ID: 889066570
File name: T he_Ef f ects_of _Pace_on_Recall.docx (25.92K)
Word count: 1553
Character count: 7768
SIMILARIT Y INDEX
INT ERNET SOURCES
ST UDENT PAPERS
Submitted to Rutgers University, New
St udent Paper
3rd December 2017
The Effects of Pace on Recall
The ability to recall is an important factor in animals’ brain, particularly human
beings. A human should be able to recall to live healthily. To some people, the brain can
recall easily if a lot of things are presented immediately, yet others may recall things after a
while, after they have settled. This paper investigates phenomena that underlays the standard
principle, that allows a human to recall things better when spoken than presented to them to
see, and the effect that allows one to accurately recall things that are presented to them (what
is termed as modality congruency). More often, people tends to recall what they are told or
presented to them at last, that assumption is being investigated here as well.
Researches that have been carried out have lead to some acceptable hypotheses,
models, on the principle that a memory works. No accuracy is tested in this experiment on the
short or long-term memory model, but the hypothesis that regards the characteristics of a
short and long-term memory. Study shows that when things are organized and presented to a
person, they are entered into a short-term memory and after they get consolidated, they
information will now be held in the long-term memory (Haridy). The term consolidation is
used by psychologists to refers to movement of information/data from the short to the longterm memory. Short term memories are said to only be stored in 30 seconds, so that if new
information comes in, the previous information is transferred to the long-term memory. To
appreciate what consolidation process is, we have to know what synapses are (Cherry).
Synapses, like in electricity where current is passes, the synapses passes the signals from one
neuron to the other through the neurotransmitters. How strength of the synapses is, is
measured by how fast they pass, the process is called potentiation.
Hypothesis: Time is required for consolidation to occur, such that the more rime allowed for
processing information, the better the subject will be able to recall that information.
Prediction: if the amount of processing time is related to the ability to recall information,
then the slower the information is presented, the better the subject will be able to recall the
Sixteen students (subjects) were the participants who took part willingly and were without a
prior knowledge of the research’s nature.
The study was about the subjects’ design. There was an independent variable, which were the
objects to be recalled and the dependent variable which was the ability to recall by the subject
where “1” indicated the objects that could be recalled and “0” were the ones that could not be
recalled. The experiment was carried out in two sets, one where the subject was presented by
words at a rate of one word per second and another one word per five seconds.
The list of materials used were:
The subject (the students participating)
Data collector (the person reading and recording the data in the sheet)
A computer, which presents the words to be recalled
The students/subjects were seated individually in a quiet room by the person carrying out the
experiment, with a computer in front of them, and were made to sign a consent form. Since
this experiment involved the control and the experimental subjects, the subjects were split
into two (16 each sides). They were instructed verbally by the person carrying out the
experiment to look at the computer where words would emerge. They were then presented
with words, one at a time at an interval of a second, these were the control subjects and one
word per five seconds for the experimental subjects. When the last word is presented, the
computer is set to allow 45 seconds for the subjects to write down as many words from the
list as they can. The correct words will be circled by the data collector and recorded in the
attached spreadsheet. Where “1” shall be the words recalled and “0” shall be the words not
recalled. This is done by the two factions.
From the results, (see the attached spread sheet), the number of items recalled by the sixteen
individuals who were the control of the experiment were more than the experimental subjects.
The total words put together that were recalled by the experimental subjects of the
experiment were 147 out of 480, which is 30.6% and translates to an average of 9.2.
Whereas the control of the subject of the experiment had a total of 168 out of 480, giving us a
percentage of 35% and an average of 10.5. This means that each person at the control was
able to recall 11 words out of 30 and those of the experimental subjects were able to recall 9
words out of the 30 words.
This also means that the probability of a person recalling a word or something shown to them
in a second and a series of events follows is about 0.31 and when the time the event is
exposed to them for a longer time, say five seconds like we have here is 0.35
Graph 1: Representing the sum total of the words recalled by the Control and Experimental subjects
against the number of subjects. The orange line represents the control subject and the blue represents
the experimental subject
From the experiment we see that the pace at which someone recalls something is dependent
on the time taken for them to view the thing they are exposed to. We can further infer that,
the longer the person gets to see or experience an event or an action, the higher probability
for them to recall. The first five words on both experiments have a good score, this is because
the most recent told story or narration or report, is well recalled with somewhat a high level
of accuracy (Psyblog).
When recalling an information or an event, the brain does a “play-back” on a number of
neural activities that were generated originally in a rejoinder to a certain event, there’s a thin
line between remembering and thinking (Mastin). Another thing that could alter the accuracy
of the information recalled, is that the “playback/replay” sometimes comes out differently
from the original information.
When an information is transformed from a short-term into a long-term memory, this process
occurs over some time and it’s not instantaneous (Dudai, Karni and Born). This was observed
by a Roman orator Quintilian who said that “a one night is enough to increase the strength of
a memory…and that the power of recollection undergoes a maturing and ripening process”.
There’s an extensive research showing that sleep plays a vital role in consolidation of various
memory tasks, with the diverse stages of sleep exclusively giving more advantage to the
consolidation of different memory types (Payne). Consolidation process begins with first
encoding the message, after initial acquisition, then storage follows. The space between
encoding of a particular message depends on what follows that information and how long
whatever follows that information takes.
The hippocampus or hippocampal activity of the brain happens when the brain encodes
numerous pieces of events occurring in life into a singular memory, this normally happens
when the neocortext or neopallium part of the brain is triggered. (Bergland). Most
investigation on memory consolidation has narrowed down to the timeframe taken after a
learning process has taken place (Roester and McGaugh). The same research shows that there
are various stages of memory consolidation. These stages of consolidation are dependent on
several cellular mechanisms and systems of the bra...