Criminal sanctions and victimization work to form a system of disadvantage that perpetuates stratification and poverty; Punishment impacts individuals convicted of felonies, as well as their families, peer groups, neighborhoods, and racial group; After controlling for population differences, African Americans are incarcerated approximately seven times as often as Whites; Variation in criminal punishment is linked to economic deprivation.Second, people examine how patterns of victimization vary across racial and ethnic subgroups and discuss their probable implications for stratification. Third, we consider how criminal punishment, and the associated formal and informal sanctions that it implies, affect future life chances. As the number of felons and former felons rises, collateral sanctions play an ever-larger role in racial and ethnic stratification, operating as an interconnected system of disadvantage. It is understood current trends in criminal punishment by race, ethnicity and poverty status and note the major social scientific explanations for the observed differences. any questions let me know
May 12th, 2015
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