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Instruction: There is a part of snipping tool always saying ( sample1) I replaced it with ( Majeed ) which is my name. I don't want you to get confused.

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ASSIGNMENT 6 LINUX HANDS-ON PART 1 (FALL 2017) Contents Important - Assignment Snipping Tool Documentation ......................................................................................... 6 Do not chop off these important snipping tool documentation ........................................................................... 6 Copy and-paste can NOT be used for Assignment documentation..................................................................... 6 1.0 Linux Distributions, Open Source, zLinux and LinuxONE .............................................................................. 7 1.1 What is a Linux Distribution? ....................................................................................................................... 7 1.2 What is Open Source Software?.................................................................................................................... 7 1.3 Open Source vs. Free Software ..................................................................................................................... 7 1.3 Advantages of Open Source Software .......................................................................................................... 8 1.4 Disadvantages of Open Source Software ...................................................................................................... 9 1.5 Best Linux Distributions ............................................................................................................................. 10 1.6 zLinux: RHEL, SuSE and Ubuntu .............................................................................................................. 11 1.7 IBM LinuxONE: (Linux on a Mainframe) ................................................................................................. 12 1.8 zLinux, LPARS and Virtualization ............................................................................................................. 13 1.9 Kali Linux ................................................................................................................................................... 13 1.9 Questions – Linux Distributions, Open Source, and LinuxONE ................................................................ 15 2.0 Linux Command Cheat Sheet ......................................................................................................................... 18 3.0 Basic Linux Concepts and Commands............................................................................................................ 19 3.1 Default Login Directory .............................................................................................................................. 19 3.2 Default Command Prompt .......................................................................................................................... 19 3.3 Appearance of the Command Prompt ......................................................................................................... 19 3.4 The Current or Working Directory.............................................................................................................. 20 3.5 Difference between the Login Directory and the Current Directory ........................................................... 20 3.6 Linux's pwd command ................................................................................................................................ 20 3.7 Questions – Basic Concepts ........................................................................................................................ 20 3.8 Using Basic Linux commands..................................................................................................................... 21 3.8.1 Linux line command structure ............................................................................................... 22 3.8.2 Questions – Basic Linux commands...................................................................................... 22 3.8.3 finger command ..................................................................................................................... 27 3.8.4 who command ........................................................................................................................ 28 3.8.3 Questions - Linux commands ................................................................................................ 28 4.0 Introduction to Linux Directory Structure ...................................................................................................... 44 4.1 Linux Directories and Files ......................................................................................................................... 44 4.1.1 Naming Linux Subdirectories and Files ................................................................................ 44 4.1.2 Linux root directory ............................................................................................................... 44 4.1.3 What is directory.................................................................................................................... 44 P a g e 2 | 100 4.1.4 The . And .. Files ................................................................................................................... 45 4.1.5 Questions – Linux Directories and Files ............................................................................... 45 4.2 Overview of the Linux Directory Structure ................................................................................................ 47 4.3 Understanding the Design of Directory Structure ....................................................................................... 48 4.3.1 Store Programs (binaries) and Program Data in Different Subdirectories ............................ 48 4.3.2 Store Different Types (functions) of Programs in Different Subdirectories ......................... 48 4.3.3 Store Different Types of Programs and Data in Separate Subdirectories by Functional Purpose ........................................................................................................................................... 49 4.3.4 Store Different Users, Departments and Shared Data in Separate Subdirectories ................ 49 4.4 Questions – Linux Directory Structure ....................................................................................................... 50 5.0 Linux Kernel Initialization or Operating System Boot Process ...................................................................... 53 5.1 Kernel Initialization process........................................................................................................................ 53 5.2 What is the Kernel? ..................................................................................................................................... 54 5.3 Post-kernel initialization process ................................................................................................................ 55 5.4 Questions – Operating System Kernels ....................................................................................................... 56 The vi Cheat Sheet ................................................................................................................................................ 58 6.0 Creating text files using vi or vim Editor ........................................................................................................ 59 6.1 Starting the vi editor .................................................................................................................................... 59 6.1.1 Vi Editor Window.................................................................................................................. 61 6.2 Operation Modes ......................................................................................................................................... 61 6.2.1 Insert Mode ............................................................................................................................ 62 6.2.2 Command Mode .................................................................................................................... 63 6.3 Cursor Movement........................................................................................................................................ 63 6.3.1 Arrow Keys ............................................................................................................................ 63 6.3.2 Command Mode cursor movement ....................................................................................... 64 6.2.3 Does vi have redo and undo commands? .............................................................................. 64 6.2.4 Deleting Characters and Lines ............................................................................................... 64 6.4 Inserting or Spiting Lines ............................................................................................................................ 65 6.5 Correcting Typos ......................................................................................................................................... 66 6.5.1 Backspace Key, Insert key and Del key works as expected. ................................................. 66 6.6 Document sample1 ...................................................................................................................................... 67 6.7 Add additional text to sample1.................................................................................................................... 67 6.8 sample1 Documentation .............................................................................................................................. 69 6.9 Exiting and Saving the File ......................................................................................................................... 70 6.9.1 Exit and Save (ZZ or :wq) ..................................................................................................... 70 6.9.2 Exit, but don't Save any Changes (:q!) .................................................................................. 70 P a g e 3 | 100 6.9.3 Save, but don't Exit (:w) ........................................................................................................ 70 6.9.3 Save, but Rename the file (:w new_file_name) .................................................................... 70 6.10 vimtutor and searching text ....................................................................................................................... 70 6.10.1 Searching for text ................................................................................................................. 72 6.10.2 Moving the Cursor to a Line ................................................................................................ 73 6.10.3 Searching for text for the entire file ..................................................................................... 73 6.11 Getting Help in vi ...................................................................................................................................... 74 6.12 Display and Hide Line Numbers ............................................................................................................... 74 6.13 Inserting the System Date and Time in your document ............................................................................ 75 6.14 Copy and Paste lines or Characters ........................................................................................................... 77 6.15 sample2 - Save a Copy of the sample1 file ............................................................................................... 77 6.16 sample3 – Inserting another file: sample1................................................................................................. 79 Before you continue the next Requirement ........................................................................................................... 80 7.0 Linux File System, Files and File Permissions ............................................................................................... 81 7.1 Linux File Systems ...................................................................................................................................... 81 7.1.1 Linux Ext4 and BTRFs File system....................................................................................... 82 7.1.2 What Is Journaling? ............................................................................................................... 82 7.1.3 Linux Disk Drives, Partitions and Volumes .......................................................................... 83 7.1.4 Components of a Ext4 File System ....................................................................................... 83 7.1.5 Storing and Retrieving Files .................................................................................................. 84 7.1.6 Questions – File Systems ....................................................................................................... 84 7.2 Linux file types ........................................................................................................................................... 86 7.2.1 Questions - file command. ..................................................................................................... 86 7.3 Using the Linux ls – l command ................................................................................................................. 89 7.3.1 Linux file information............................................................................................................ 89 7.3.2 File Ownership and Primary Group ....................................................................................... 90 7.3.3 Questions – Using the ls - l command ................................................................................... 90 7.4 File and Directory Permissions ................................................................................................................... 92 7.4.1 Practical Considerations of Directory and File Permissions ................................................. 93 7.4.2 File Mode ............................................................................................................................... 94 7.4.3 Questions – Linux File and Directory Permissions ............................................................... 94 7.5 chmod command - Changing File Permissions ........................................................................................... 96 7.5.1 Text-based or Category Operator Permissions ...................................................................... 96 7.5.2 Numeric-based Permissions................................................................................................... 97 7.5.3 chmod File Mode Examples for Files .................................................................................... 97 7.5.4 chmod File Mode Examples for Directories .......................................................................... 98 P a g e 4 | 100 7.6 umask Environmental variable .................................................................................................................... 98 7.7 Questions - chmod and umask .................................................................................................................... 99 7.8 chown and chprp - Changing User and Group Ownership ....................................................................... 100 P a g e 5 | 100 Enter your Name Here  Important - Assignment Snipping Tool Documentation Every time you are required to and snipping tool you are required to include you Putty banner document and Linux prompt which includes your Linux account. After each execution of a Linux command type the clear command to erase the Putty Screen. Do not chop off these important snipping tool documentation Do not chop off these important documentation features, else you will receive no credit Use a Snipping tool to copy a screen image of your current session or assignment requirement. In above examples, the GUI dialog boxes are clearly displayed as a graphic. The text displayed in this snipping tool documentation and PuTTY Terminal Windows cannot be edited. Copy and-paste can NOT be used for Assignment documentation Your will be provide examples to make your Putty window documentation appear professional. After making your documentation appear professional you are REQUIRED to use the snipping tool for final; assignment documentation. At the Linux command prompt, e.g., rmui001@eptgl55 ~]$, prompt you cannot execute Linux commands. P a g e 6 | 100 1.0 Linux Distributions, Open Source, zLinux and LinuxONE 1.1 What is a Linux Distribution? What Is a Linux Distro, and How Are They Different from One Another? https://www.howtogeek.com/132624/htg-explains-whats-a-linux-distro-and-how-are-they-different/ Linux distribution - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_distribution Linux isn’t like Windows or Mac OS X. Microsoft combines all the bits of Windows internally to produce each new release of Windows and distributes it as a single package. If you want Windows, you’ll need to choose one of the versions Microsoft is offering. Linux works differently. The Linux operating system isn’t produced by a single organization. Different organizations and people work on different parts. There’s the Linux kernel (the core of the operating system), the GNU shell utilities (the terminal interface and many of the commands you use), the X server (which produces a graphical desktop), the desktop environment (which runs on the X server to provide a graphical desktop), and more. System services, graphical programs, terminal commands – many are developed independently from another. All Linux distributions contain open-source software. This means that source code for the operating system, utilities and middleware is distributed with source code. Linux distributions do the hard work for you, taking all the code from the open-source projects and compiling it for you, combining it into a single operating system you can boot up and install. They also make choices for you, such as choosing the default desktop environment, browser, and other software. Most distributions add their own finishing touches, such as themes and custom software – the Unity desktop environment Ubuntu provides, for example. 1.2 What is Open Source Software? What Is Open Source Software, and Why Does It Matter? - https://www.howtogeek.com/129967/htgexplains-what-is-open-source-software-and-why-you-should-care/ If a program is open-source, its source code is freely available to its users. Its users – and anyone else – have the ability to take this source code, modify it, and distribute their own versions of the program. The users also have the ability to distribute as many copies of the original program as they want. Anyone can use the program for any purpose; there are no licensing fees or other restrictions on the software. For example, Ubuntu Linux is an open-source operating system. You can download Ubuntu, create as many copies as you want, and give them to your friends. You can install Ubuntu on an unlimited amount of your computer 1.3 Open Source vs. Free Software Open source applications are generally freely available – although there’s nothing stopping the developer from charging for copies of the software if they allow redistribution of the application and its source code afterwards. However, that’s not what “free software” refers to. The “free” in free software P a g e 7 | 100 means “fre ...
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Tutor Answer

anamae12
School: Rice University

Please I need more time to execute this..
Here is the file :). The other one is to have followed okay, I just something to clarify :).

ASSIGNMENT 6 LINUX
HANDS-ON PART 1
(FALL 2017)

Contents
Important - Assignment Snipping Tool Documentation ......................................................................................... 6
Do not chop off these important snipping tool documentation ........................................................................... 6
Copy and-paste can NOT be used for Assignment documentation..................................................................... 6
1.0 Linux Distributions, Open Source, zLinux and LinuxONE .............................................................................. 7
1.1 What is a Linux Distribution? ....................................................................................................................... 7
1.2 What is Open Source Software?.................................................................................................................... 7
1.3 Open Source vs. Free Software ..................................................................................................................... 7
1.3 Advantages of Open Source Software .......................................................................................................... 8
1.4 Disadvantages of Open Source Software ...................................................................................................... 9
1.5 Best Linux Distributions ............................................................................................................................. 10
1.6 zLinux: RHEL, SuSE and Ubuntu .............................................................................................................. 11
1.7 IBM LinuxONE: (Linux on a Mainframe) ................................................................................................. 12
1.8 zLinux, LPARS and Virtualization ............................................................................................................. 13
1.9 Kali Linux ................................................................................................................................................... 13
1.9 Questions – Linux Distributions, Open Source, and LinuxONE ................................................................ 15
2.0 Linux Command Cheat Sheet ......................................................................................................................... 21
3.0 Basic Linux Concepts and Commands............................................................................................................ 22
3.1 Default Login Directory .............................................................................................................................. 22
3.2 Default Command Prompt .......................................................................................................................... 22
3.3 Appearance of the Command Prompt ......................................................................................................... 22
3.4 The Current or Working Directory.............................................................................................................. 23
3.5 Difference between the Login Directory and the Current Directory ........................................................... 23
3.6 Linux's pwd command ................................................................................................................................ 23
3.7 Questions – Basic Concepts ........................................................................................................................ 23
3.8 Using Basic Linux commands..................................................................................................................... 24

3.8.1 Linux line command structure ............................................................................................... 26
3.8.2 Questions – Basic Linux commands...................................................................................... 26
3.8.3 finger command ..................................................................................................................... 31
3.8.4 who command ........................................................................................................................ 32
3.8.3 Questions - Linux commands ................................................................................................ 32
4.0 Introduction to Linux Directory Structure ...................................................................................................... 48
4.1 Linux Directories and Files ......................................................................................................................... 48

4.1.1 Naming Linux Subdirectories and Files ................................................................................ 48
4.1.2 Linux root directory ............................................................................................................... 48
4.1.3 What is directory.................................................................................................................... 48
4.1.4 The . And .. Files ................................................................................................................... 49
P a g e 2 | 111

4.1.5 Questions – Linux Directories and Files ............................................................................... 49
4.2 Overview of the Linux Directory Structure ................................................................................................ 51
4.3 Understanding the Design of Directory Structure ....................................................................................... 52

4.3.1 Store Programs (binaries) and Program Data in Different Subdirectories ............................ 52
4.3.2 Store Different Types (functions) of Programs in Different Subdirectories ......................... 52
4.3.3 Store Different Types of Programs and Data in Separate Subdirectories by Functional
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................... 53
4.3.4 Store Different Users, Departments and Shared Data in Separate Subdirectories ................ 53
4.4 Questions – Linux Directory Structure ....................................................................................................... 54
5.0 Linux Kernel Initialization or Operating System Boot Process ...................................................................... 59
5.1 Kernel Initialization process........................................................................................................................ 59
5.2 What is the Kernel? ..................................................................................................................................... 60
5.3 Post-kernel initialization process ................................................................................................................ 61
5.4 Questions – Operating System Kernels ....................................................................................................... 61
The vi Cheat Sheet ................................................................................................................................................ 64
6.0 Creating text files using vi or vim Editor ........................................................................................................ 65
6.1 Starting the vi editor .................................................................................................................................... 65

6.1.1 Vi Editor Window.................................................................................................................. 67
6.2 Operation Modes ......................................................................................................................................... 67

6.2.1 Insert Mode ............................................................................................................................ 68
6.2.2 Command Mode .................................................................................................................... 69
6.3 Cursor Movement........................................................................................................................................ 69

6.3.1 Arrow Keys ............................................................................................................................ 69
6.3.2 Command Mode cursor movement ....................................................................................... 71
6.2.3 Does vi have redo and undo commands? .............................................................................. 71
6.2.4 Deleting Characters and Lines ............................................................................................... 71
6.4 Inserting or Spiting Lines ............................................................................................................................ 72
6.5 Correcting Typos ......................................................................................................................................... 73

6.5.1 Backspace Key, Insert key and Del key works as expected. ................................................. 73
6.6 Document sample1 ...................................................................................................................................... 74
6.7 Add additional text to sample1.................................................................................................................... 74
6.8 sample1 Documentation .............................................................................................................................. 76
6.9 Exiting and Saving the File ......................................................................................................................... 78

6.9.1 Exit and Save (ZZ or :wq) ..................................................................................................... 78
6.9.2 Exit, but don't Save any Changes (:q!) .................................................................................. 78
6.9.3 Save, but don't Exit (:w) ........................................................................................................ 78
6.9.3 Save, but Rename the file (:w new_file_name) .................................................................... 78
P a g e 3 | 111

6.10 vimtutor and searching text ....................................................................................................................... 78

6.10.1 Searching for text ................................................................................................................. 80
6.10.2 Moving the Cursor to a Line ................................................................................................ 81
6.10.3 Searching for text for the entire file ..................................................................................... 81
6.11 Getting Help in vi ...................................................................................................................................... 82
6.12 Display and Hide Line Numbers ............................................................................................................... 82
6.13 Inserting the System Date and Time in your document ............................................................................ 83
6.14 Copy and Paste lines or Characters ........................................................................................................... 85
6.15 sample2 - Save a Copy of the sample1 file ............................................................................................... 85
6.16 sample3 – Inserting another file: sample1................................................................................................. 87
Before you continue the next Requirement ........................................................................................................... 88
7.0 Linux File System, Files and File Permissions ............................................................................................... 89
7.1 Linux File Systems ...................................................................................................................................... 89

7.1.1 Linux Ext4 and BTRFs File system....................................................................................... 90
7.1.2 What Is Journaling? ............................................................................................................... 90
7.1.3 Linux Disk Drives, Partitions and Volumes .......................................................................... 91
7.1.4 Components of a Ext4 File System ....................................................................................... 91
7.1.5 Storing and Retrieving Files .................................................................................................. 92
7.1.6 Questions – File Systems ....................................................................................................... 92
7.2 Linux file types ........................................................................................................................................... 95

7.2.1 Questions - file command. ..................................................................................................... 95
7.3 Using the Linux ls – l command ................................................................................................................. 98

7.3.1 Linux file information............................................................................................................ 98
7.3.2 File Ownership and Primary Group ....................................................................................... 99
7.3.3 Questions – Using the ls - l command ................................................................................... 99
7.4 File and Directory Permissions ................................................................................................................. 102

7.4.1 Practical Considerations of Directory and File Permissions ............................................... 103
7.4.2 File Mode ............................................................................................................................. 104
7.4.3 Questions – Linux File and Directory Permissions ............................................................. 104
7.5 chmod command - Changing File Permissions ......................................................................................... 107

7.5.1 Text-based or Category Operator Permissions .................................................................... 107
7.5.2 Numeric-based Permissions................................................................................................. 108
7.5.3 chmod File Mode Examples for Files .................................................................................. 108
7.5.4 chmod File Mode Examples for Directories ........................................................................ 108
7.6 umask Environmental variable .................................................................................................................. 109
7.7 Questions - chmod and umask .................................................................................................................. 110
7.8 chown and chprp - Changing User and Group Ownership ....................................................................... 111

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P a g e 5 | 111

Enter your Name Here 

Important - Assignment Snipping Tool Documentation
Every time you are required to and snipping tool you are required to include you Putty banner
document and Linux prompt which includes your Linux account.
After each execution of a Linux command type the clear command to erase the Putty Screen.

Do not chop off these important snipping tool documentation
Do not chop off these important documentation features, else you will receive no credit

Use a Snipping tool to copy a screen image of your current session or assignment requirement. In
above examples, the GUI dialog boxes are clearly displayed as a graphic. The text displayed in this
snipping tool documentation and PuTTY Terminal Windows cannot be edited.

Copy and-paste can NOT be used for Assignment documentation
Your will be provide examples to make your Putty window documentation appear professional. After
making your documentation appear professional you are REQUIRED to use the snipping tool for final;
assignment documentation.

At the Linux command prompt, e.g., rmui001@eptgl55 ~]$, prompt you cannot execute
Linux commands.

P a g e 6 | 111

1.0 Linux Distributions, Open Source, zLinux and LinuxONE
1.1 What is a Linux Distribution?
What Is a Linux Distro, and How Are They Different from One Another? https://www.howtogeek.com/132624/htg-explains-whats-a-linux-distro-and-how-are-they-different/
Linux distribution - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_distribution
Linux isn’t like Windows or Mac OS X. Microsoft combines all the bits of Windows internally to
produce each new release of Windows and distributes it as a single package. If you want Windows,
you’ll need to choose one of the versions Microsoft is offering.
Linux works differently. The Linux operating system isn’t produced by a single organization. Different
organizations and people work on different parts. There’s the Linux kernel (the core of the operating
system), the GNU shell utilities (the terminal interface and many of the commands you use), the X
server (which produces a graphical desktop), the desktop environment (which runs on the X server to
provide a graphical desktop), and more. System services, graphical programs, terminal commands –
many are developed independently from another.
All Linux distributions contain open-source software. This means that source code for the operating
system, utilities and middleware is distributed with source code.Linux distributions do the hard work
for you, taking all the code from the open-source projects and compiling it for you, combining it into a
single operating system you can boot up and install. They also make choices for you, such as
choosing the default desktop environment, browser, and other software. Most distributions add their
own finishing touches, such as themes and custom software – the Unity desktop environment Ubuntu
provides, for example.

1.2 What is Open Source Software?
What Is Open Source Software, and Why Does It Matter? - https://www.howtogeek.com/129967/htgexplains-what-is-open-source-software-and-why-you-should-care/
If a program is open-source, its source code is freely available to its users. Its users – and anyone
else – have the ability to take this source code, modify it, and distribute their own versions of the
program. The users also have the ability to distribute as many copies of the original program as they
want. Anyone can use the program for any purpose; there are no licensing fees or other restrictions
on the software.
For example, Ubuntu Linux is an open-source operating system. You can download Ubuntu, create as
many copies as you want, and give them to your friends. You can install Ubuntu on an unlimited
amount of your computer

1.3 Open Source vs. Free Software
Open source applications are generally freely available – although there’s nothing stopping the
developer from charging for copies of the software if they allow redistribution of the application and its
source code afterwards.However, that’s not what “free software” refers to. The “free” in free software
means “free to distribute,” not “free as in beer.” If you modify, improve or customize software based-

P a g e 7 | 111

on an open-source foundation, anyone can charge a fee for the extra functionality, but cannot charge
for the open-source code which is included in the new software.

1.3 Advantages of Open SourceSoftware
7 Main Advantages and Disadvantages of Open Source Software - http://connectusfund.org/7-mainadvantages-and-disadvantages-of-open-source-software
1. Less expensive than commercially market products.Open-source products usually are offered
for free and don’t require you to pay for any additional copy you download. Since many of these
programs are created to work with almost any type of computer, they can also help you lengthen the
life of your old hardware and avoid the need to replace them every now and then.
2. Created by skillful and talented people. While the legend that many qualified and highly trained
software developers work on open source projects for free as an outlet for their ideas and creativity,
open-source developers benefit from 1) prestige and recognition in the software community, and 2)
increase opportunities for professional consulting.
Many believe that the open-source community is a collaboration of developers who use their “free
time” to design, code and test open-source projects. IBM, as well as Oracle, RedHat, SUSE, Goggle,
Ubuntu, Intel, Hewlett Packard, Dell, VMware, CISCO and AT&T are leaders in open-source
development. Open-source corporate sponsorships often include membership fees. However, many
major open-source sponsors will contribute internally developed program code to open-source
projects. Notice which major server, application developer, and middleware provider is missing from
the Open-source list - Microsoft!
IBM has supported or sponsored hundreds of open-source projects across many disciplines, e.g.,
J2EE, data science, data analytics, data management, security, Watson, Linux, XML, mobile,
virtualization, cloud, design, testing, and social networking. IBM has announced a new web portal
called DeveloperWorks Open, bringing together various projects they are open sourcing. The
following is a very short list of significant open source projects. See
https://developer.ibm.com/open/projects/ for more up-to-date information.
Open-source partners are motivated to create an open-source foundational platform or framework
using the benefits of open-source community collaboration and acceptance. Open-source sponsors
will benefit from a platform to develop a more advanced proprietary version. For example, Open
Mainframe Project - IBM LinuxONE, or Linux on a Mainframe, supports cloud-based Linux VMs on a z
System mainframe platform. The LinuxONE server runs the major distributions of Linux; SUSE, Red
Hat and Canonical’s Ubuntu. The server also runs open source databases like Mongo DB,
PostgreSQL and MariaDB.
3. Highly reliable. - While open-source is developed chiefly by skillful and talented experts who do
their best to create high-quality programs, they’re worked on by tens or hundreds of people, which
means there are numerous eyes that can monitor for the presence of bugs
4. Contributes to a more flexible infrastructure and application. Since you’re not tied to a proprietary
product, you don’t need to abide by a specific IT architecture that might require you to upgrade your
software and even hardware often. Rather, you can mix and match your software and create a unique
IT infrastructure that best suits your needs.

.

P a g e 8 | 111

1.4 Disadvantages of Open SourceSoftware
1. Vulnerable to malicious users. - Many people have access to the source code of open source
software, but not all of them have good intentions. While a lot of people utilize their access to spot
defects and make improvements to the program, others use this privilege to exploit the product’s
vulnerabilities and create bugs that can infect hardware, steal identities or just annoy other users.
2. Might not be as user-friendly or provides the features of commercial versions.This is not true for all
open source software since many of them (such as LibreOffice, Mozilla Firefox and the Android
operating system) are incredibly easy to use. However, many open-source Linux distributions often do
not provide the graphical or web based system and security management interfaces, advanced
diagnostics, system reporting and other features.
3. Don’t come with extensive support. Redhat supports three Linux distributions: Fedora, Redhat
Enterprise, and CentOS. (https://danielmiessler.com/study/fedora_redhat_centos/#gs.o2dD9lw)





Fedora is the main project, and it’s a community-based, tested, free distro focused on quick
releases of new features and functionality, but versions are rarely backward compatible for
more than 2 years.
RHEL is the corporate version based on the progress of that project, and it has slower, tested
and stable releases, versions are backward compatible up to seven years, comes with
support, and isn’t free.
CentOS is basically the community version of RedHat. So it’s pretty much identical, but it is
free and support comes from the community as opposed to RedHat itself.

Assume that one downloads and installs Fedora or CentOS and encounters a problem. It is like the
Ghost Buster's movies, "Who do you call?" In the case of Fedora or CentOS, you may hope that you
can find an easy-to-understand solution on Google. An alternative you may contact one of those
open-source consultants?
Should technical and troubleshooting knowledge be free? Just put yourself in the shoes of technical or
trouble shooting expert who has to support their home and family. Would it make sense for you to

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post your troubleshooting knowledge on Google for free? You can search for many types of
knowledge of Google, but are often frustrated by sales pitches, unclear or incomplete solutions.
Occasionally, you will get lucky and find low level knowledge.
My father operated a jewelry store for many decades. He often repaired watch bands by installing a
one cent watch pin that he charged $1.00 which could be installed in two minutes. As his son
questioned this repair model, my father replied, "It is isn't the cost of materials or my personal time
that customer is paying for, they are paying me for my knowledge."
4. Who do you hold responsible for bugs and failures? No matter how well a new update is tested
there may be an unexpected software failure. No matter how well software is designed and tested for
security breaches, there may be unexpected security breaches. Does it make sense to save on free
software and not have timely support for major service downtime or security losses?
It is true, Fortune 500 data center managers are very loyal to IBM z Systems for many factors such as
high performance, scalability, security and other technical features. In addition, for similar technical
reasons Fortune 500 data center managers are loyal to Oracle, EMC, NetApp, and Cisco. And when
many data centers may have an annual licensing budget starting at 30 million dollars per year, the
data center manager is often confident that they purchased the BEST! More importantly, when some
data center component fails, the vendor will be held responsible. This service level responsibility often
means that a vendor provides an experienced, technical support engineer located within the data
center. It is very common for IBM to provide experienced, technical IBM support engineers in their
customer data centers.
It is important for you to read vendor's End User or Service License Agreements. Some companies
may disclaim all liabilities and the responsibility for the product falls on you, the user. This may mean
that you won’t really receive any support (nor hear someone else take the blame) when your software
would incur problems and disrupt productivity. However, while the best computer technology
companies may at first appear as expensive, it may also mean "you get what you pay for." So before
you make a final decision on open-source or licensed: 1) read the End User or Service License
Agreements, and 2) perform a cost-benefit analysis.

1.5 Best Linux Distributions
10 of the Most Popular Linux Distributions Compared - https://www.howtogeek.com/191207/10-of-themost-popular-linux-distributions-compared/
How to choose the right Linux distro - http://www.infoworld.com/article/2687088/linux/how-to-choosea-linux-server-distribution.html
There are many ways that you may classify distributions: free versus licensed; hardware platform;
mobile, mainframe, desktop role: web developer, server, security, data analytics, etc.; package
management and updates. While all Linux distributions are based on the same operating system
kernel, the kernel can be compiled differently to improve performance, file systems, security, or other
functionalities. The base Linux distribution also includes many software packages developed by a
wide variety of open-source community.
Most of the differences among "enterprise" distributions are cosmetic. These differences are often
based concern details of their configuration and implementation rather than core functionality. File
system layouts, configuration settings, update mechanisms, and bundled configuration tools may
vary, but the similarities far outweigh the differences.

P a g e 10 | 111

Android is Linux distribution which is supported by Goggle and is designed for mobile devices. Why is
Android operating system different tha...

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Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

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