I bolded the countries.
Explain the Cartel Party Thesis.
P1: The Cartel Party thesis is a concept introduced by Katz and Mair in the 1990's that concludes
that political parties will act much like cartels, to use their influence in the state to decrease
political competition and ensure their success.
How (and why) did the use of public money to fund political parties lead to ‘Cartel
P2: Parties have adapted to decreasing levels of political participation by citizens, funding this
with public funds and resources provided by the state. This leads to the competition between
parties based less on differences in policy. And since the parties are drawing closer to the state
and farther away from society they experience declining voter turnout and party participation.
Parties with less competition, seem to resemble each other more, leading to cartel-like behavior.
Because the parties chose to accept state resources, they now function as an extension of the state
and have restricted themselves.
Explain the two important dimensions in candidate selection procedures
(inclusiveness/exclusiveness in candidacy and the selectorate).
P1: Candidate selection is the process by which individuals are inducted into political roles.
When the nominations are controlled centrally (exclusive), the party maintains leadership and
members follow the party faithfully because the cost of challenging the leadership of the party is
so high. Allowing candidate selection to be more inclusive, lowers the cohesion and discipline of
Why are these two dimensions important?
P2: These two dimensions are important because a balance of central power and democracy must
be maintained in order for the party to be successful. Another reason is because candidacy
selection defines the party and its internal power struggle. The most important reason is because
the candidate selection methods determine the quality and responsiveness of political
participation. If the inclusiveness in the selectorate or the inclusiveness in candidacy becomes
too low, it is very likely that the party will become socialist and hardly resemble a democratic
Compare and contrast Two-Round Ballot System, PR systems (closed and open), SingleTransferable Vote, FPTP (also called SMP) systems.
Two round ballot system- (2RS) the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate. However, if no
candidate receives the required number of votes, then those candidates having less than a certain
proportion of the votes, or all but the two candidates receiving the most votes, are eliminated, and a
second round of voting is held.
France uses a two-round ballet system.
Pr system closed- In closed list systems, each party lists its candidates according to the party's candidate
selection process. This sets the order of candidates on the list and thus, in effect, their probability of being
elected. The first candidate on a list, for example, will get the first seat that party wins.
Open list PR systems are similar to closed list except voters have at least some influence on the order in
which a party's candidates are elected.
Most European countries use some form of PR. Germany uses a mixed-PR
In an SMP system Voters in a single member plurality election cast a vote for one candidate. This is
the system that the U.S uses. FPTP or SMP systems are the simplest systems for the voters to
participate in. Also, they tend to create single party governments.
Britain uses an SMP system.
The single-transferable vote system or alternative vote system is based on majority vote. It is
called instant runoff voting in the United States. The main distinction in this system is that the
voter puts a number by the candidates they are voting for in order. The counting process is
continued until a candidate has a majority, and if this is not achieved, the lowest candidate's
votes would be distributed elsewhere.
Currently Ireland and Malta use a STV system.
Two-round ballot systems have the major advantage that if the citizens favorite candidate loses
the first round, they have the ability to switch their second-round vote to a more serious
The PR system is the most widely used system in Europe. There are three types of PR systems
and list PR's are the most common. In PR's, their elements differ from each other in a number of
ways: Electoral formula, District size, electoral thresholds, and degree of choice.
Which systems are more efficient (little room for opposition), representative (more
proportionate results), and simple (for voters)?
The SMP system is the simplest system for voters to understand. The STV system has the most
proportionate results, and the PR system often leaves little room for opposition.
Which systems create a stronger link between the representative and the voter?
AV systems become more representative of their constituencies but not as representative as PR
Which systems favor larger parties?
The 2RS system and SMP systems generate the largest parties.
In which systems personal vote earning attributes (i.e., personal reputation) are
SMP systems minimize personal vote earning atributes.
Describe the history, functions and characteristics of the major EU institutions?
The EU was created because of the second world war and the failure of the league of nations.
The EU strives to ensure that Germany was successful...