Mechanisms of Bacteria in Causing G.I. Disease/Disorders

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Please discuss the mechanisms that Streptococcus mutans, Helicobacter pylori, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus and Taenia solium utilize to cause disease in the digestive tract. In addition, please list and explain the host immune defenses that microbes would have to overcome to be successful at causing disease. As we have studied, some parasites can cause digestive tract infections and some have the ability to form cysts. Please explain how a cyst may play a role in the ability of the parasite to cause disease. In addition, please explain the difference between excystation and encystation. Also, please discuss the association between normal flora and digestive tract infections, and the role of the port of entry and exit for the microbes to establish successful infections. Include a discussion what roles personal hygiene, quorum sensing and sequential timing play in microbial digestive tract diseases. In addition, please state in your answer the roles of proper food preparation and sanitation play in the decrease of microbial digestive tract infections and the significance of a capsule on particular strains of E. coli that causes digestive tract infection vs. strains of E. coli that cause urinary tract infections.

Minimum of 5 pages for content and response please. We use Cowan's- "microbiology: a systems approach" textbook for class. Please try to address host factors like PH, salt, oxygen toleration, etc. Thank you!

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Mercy K
School: Purdue University



Mechanism of Bacteria in Causing G.I Disease/Disorders
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Infections in the gastrointestinal tract are the second most common infections in the
human body. These infections are caused by the ingestion of microorganisms such as bacteria in
food and water. Each of these bacteria has its own mechanism once it is ingested into the body
that it utilizes to cause a disease or an infection. Streptococcus mutans is one such
microorganisms that is found in the mouth. Its mechanism is that it uses sucrose to form dextran
from glucose and lactic acid from fructose. The dextran is a sticky substance that adheres to the
teeth to form plaque. The tooth enamel is destroyed at the site of the plaque and causes tooth
decay to penetrate down to the dentin and pulp. On the other hand, Helicobacter pylori is a
bacteria that affects the lower digestive system especially the stomach. Once the bacteria has
been ingested into the stomach, it produces ammonia as a defensive mechanism from the
stomach acid. The ammonia is used to neutralize the PH in the stomach to be neutral since it
best survives at an average PH of 5.5. It is not tolerant to a lot of oxygen but can survive with
between 2% to 5% of oxygen levels. Once it has taken host it now attaches itself to the stomach
mucosa to cause a peptic ulcer on the walls of the stomach. E. Coli is also bacteria commonly
found in the lower digestive system. The bacteria once ingested into the body produces Shigalike toxins that cause the colon to become inflamed and to bleed. The bacteria does this by
attaching itself to the epithelial cells and forms pedestal- like projections. This in turn cause the
microvilli on the surface to be destroyed causing the inflammation and b...

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Thanks, good work

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