Microbiology

Anonymous
timer Asked: Dec 11th, 2017
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Question description

I would love some help! I have FIVE microbiology papers I could really use help writing. If references are used, it needs to be in MLA format and the questions that need to be addressed in the papers are listed below. There is no limit on the number of pages: the questions about the organisms, their disease and disease processes, etc, just need to be answered.

1.) Please discuss the mechanisms that Bordetella pertussis, Streptococcus pneumoniae,

Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis utilize to cause disease in the

respiratory tract. You must state what disease these microorganisms cause and what role does

transduction play in their disease causing process. In addition, please discuss the host immune

defenses the microbes would have to overcome to be successful at causing disease. Also, please

discuss what the microbe could contain that would allow them to overcome these host immune

responses, and the association between normal flora and respiratory tract infections. Include a

discussion what roles personal hygiene, quorum sensing and sequential timing play in microbial

respiratory tract diseases. What’s a receptor-mediated process? What’s the significance of SOD

and catalase to the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis? What’s an obligate aerobe? What’s

generalized and specialized transduction and their significance to the pathogenesis of

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Corynebacterium diphtheriae?

2.) Please discuss the mechanisms that Clostridium tetani and botulinum, Streptococcus

pneumoniae and Trypanosoma cruzi and brucei. utilize to cause disease in the nervous system.

You must state what disease these microorganisms cause. In addition, please discuss the host

immune defenses that the microbes would have to overcome to be successful at causing disease.

(Hint: A.) Include the three routes of entry to gain access to the nervous system and the role of the

blood brain barrier. B.) Explain what physical trauma has to do with microbial diseases of the

nervous system. C.) Include a discussion on quorum sensing, and its relationship to diseases in

the nervous system.) Include a discussion what roles personal hygiene and sequential timing play

in microbial nervous system diseases. Please include methods to prevent Clostridium tetani and

botulinum from causing disease. Also, include a section on whether or not we can eradicate

Trypanosoma spp.and why we probably cannot develop a vaccine for Trypanosoma

infections.Lastly, please include a section on the relationship between toxoids and Clostridiuim

tetani and botulinum.

3.) Please discuss the mechanisms that Neisseria gonorrheae, E. coli, Staphylococcus

saprophyticus and HIV utilize to cause disease in the urogenital tract. You must state what

disease these microorganisms cause. In addition, please list and explain the host immune defenses

that the microbe would have to overcome to be successful at causing disease. Include in your

discussion the basic differences between the female and male urogenital, which could play a role

in the success of these microbes to cause disease. Also, please discuss the association between

normal flora and urogential infections, and the role of the port of entry and exit for the microbes

to establish successful infections. Please include methods to prevent these microorganisms from

disease. In addition, please include on HIV’s ability to use reverse transcription and integration

into the host’s genome

4.) Please discuss the mechanisms that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus

aureus,Propionibacterium acnes and Streptococcus pyogenes utilize to cause disease on skin and

in the eyes. You must state what disease these microorganisms cause. In addition, please list and

explain the host immune defenses that the microbe would have to overcome to be successful at

causing disease (Include a discussion what role personal hygiene plays in microbial skin and eye

infections). Also, please list and explain what the microbes could contain that would allow them

to overcome these host immune responses. Please explain how these infections could lead to

more serious conditions such as endocarditis. (Hint: Discuss the relationship between local and

systemic infections and septicemia.) Include a discussion what roles quorum sensing and

sequential timing play in microbial skin and eye diseases.

5.) Please discuss the mechanisms that Streptococcus mutans, Helicobacter pylori, E. coli and

Staphylococcus aureus and Taenia solium utilize to cause disease in the digestive tract. In

addition, please list and explain the host immune defenses that microbes would have to overcome

to be successful at causing disease. As we have studied, some parasites can cause digestive tract

infections and some have the ability to form cysts. Please explain how a cyst may play a role in

the ability of the parasite to cause disease. In addition, please explain the difference between

excystation and encystation. Also, please discuss the association between normal flora and

digestive tract infections, and the role of the port of entry and exit for the microbes to establish

successful infections. Include a discussion what roles personal hygiene, quorum sensing and

sequential timing play in microbial digestive tract diseases. In addition, please state in your

answer the roles of proper food preparation and sanitation play in the decrease of microbial

digestive tract infections and the significance of a capsule on particular strains of E. coli that

causes digestive tract infection vs. strains of E. coli that cause urinary tract infections.

Tutor Answer

Thomas574
School: Purdue University

Done, all the five parts are well and fully answered. Thank you.

Surname 1

Surname
Professor Name
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Date
Question 1

Its entry mechanism is based on destruction of human body epithelial cell superficial
which results to remote contagion. It causes a disease known as intrusive pneumococcal. This
infection is explained as separation of bacteria from a usually sterile site, such as blood,
cerebrospinal fluid, or pleural space, and outcomes from attack of the respirational epithelium.
Often, infects the nasopharynx (Bacteria). The nasopharynx, pneumococci do transmit directly
through the air tract to the lower breathing tract, initiating pneumonia.

Diphtheria yields in diphtheria toxin when infestation with bacteriophage. The
bacteriophage assimilates the toxin into the bacteria. It is made up of two peptides. This
indicates the cell to assume the toxin inside an endosome through receptor-mediated
endocytosis. Inside the endosome, the toxin is divided by a trypsin-like protease into its distinct
A and B fragments (Bacteria). The acidity of the endosome results to fragment B creating pores
in the endosome membrane, thus catalyzing the discharge of fragment A into the cell's
cytoplasm.

M. tuberculosis is an extremely fruitful intracellular pathogen that has advanced

Surname 2

strategies to thrive even in the existence of high immune force. The normal site of access into
the human body is via the airways, starting with the gasp of infested droplets ejected from
another infected person through coughing (Baker, Nicklin and Griffiths). The bacilli are conveyed
into the respirational tract to be surrounded by alveolar macrophages, cells that are intended to
kill bacteria. Though being initiated by a simple microorganism, TB is a complicated disease
with a range of antimicrobial effector pathways at performance throughout dissimilar stages of
contagion, extending from initial innate to late adaptive immune reactions in acute and chronic
contamination. The contagious dose is very little; however, most vulnerable individuals uphold
the impurity in a latent condition. As the aptitude to regulate M. tuberculosis contagion is
strongly associated with unbroken immune purposes of the diseased human host, distinct
differences in the capability to mount a correct immune reaction delivers a clarification for the
small percentage of infection progresses.

B. pertussis has the capacity to hinder the normal function of the resident immune
system. Also recognized as pertussis toxin, prevents G protein pairing that controls an
adenylate cyclase-mediated alteration of ATP to cyclic AMP. The end outcome is phagocytes
transform too much ATP to cyclic AMP, which can result to disorders in cellular gesturing
mechanisms, and stop phagocytes from properly responding to a contagion (Baker, Nicklin and
Griffiths). PTx, previously termed as lymphocytosis-promoting factor, results to a decrease in

the access of lymphocytes into lymph nodes, which can lead to a state known as lymphocytosis,
with a whole lymphocyte sum of over 4000/μl in grown-ups or over 8000/μl in children.

Surname 3

A mutual system of veiling the surface of the bacteria prompts a carbohydrate capsule.
This device is used by numerous extracellular pathogens that flow in a systematic way inside
the body. In the same manner bacteria that results to meningitis count massively upon capsules
to encourage their external cell regime inside the residence organism by averting antibody and
match deposition and attachment (Marshall). Pathogen expressing surface capsules likewise
often entails filamentous adhesins that project through the surface that is capsular in nature,
permitting the adhesins to hold on to host receptors yet protecting the bacterial surface. These
comprise toxins (to kill host cells), molecules that umpire bacterial uptake (invasion). Although
Gram positive surfaces are more modest, there are proposals that even Gram-positive
organisms can create localized stomas in host cells to bring bacterial molecules into host cells.

Normal Flora Tract A has various bacterial types infect the upper respiratory surface
(nasopharynx). The nares (nostrils) are permanently heavily occupied, mainly with
Staphylococcus epidermidis and corynebacterial, and frequently with Staphylococcus aureus,
this being the key carrier site of this significant pathogen. The vigorous sinuses, in difference
are sterile. The pharynx (throat) is usually colonized by streptococci and numerous Gramnegative cocci(Marshall). The lower respiratory tract is practically free of microorganisms
primarily because of the effective cleansing act of the ciliated epithelium that lie along the tract.
Any bacteria getting to the lower respiratory tract are brushed upward by the act of the
mucociliary blanket that lines the bronchi, to be detached subsequently muscle activity. In a

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case where the respiratory tract epithelium is impaired the person may become vulnerable to
infection by pathogens such as H. influenzae or S. pneumonia moving downward from the
nasopharynx.

SOD transforms the precarious superoxide radical to hydrogen peroxide, which catalase
translates to mild ...

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Anonymous
Top quality work from this guy! I'll be back!

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