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I want you to read about each subject that I have submitted and write me a short paragraph for each explaining the concept of doing those expirnments.

Nuclear Decay and Gamma-ray Spectroscopy This lab has two parts (one week each): I. Nuclear Decay and II. spectroscopy. Gamma-ray I. Nuclear Decay OBJECTIVE To study the radioactive decay process and to gain familiarization with some simple instrumentation and techniques of experimental nuclear physics. BACKGROUND READING 1. Melissinos, Experiments in Modern Physics, (Academic Press, Second Edition) 2. Boas, Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences, (John Wiley and Sons, Second Edition). PLOTTING THE GEIGER PLATEAU The detection of x-rays, -rays, -rays, -particles, and high energy particles depends upon the detection of the ionizing effects which they produce. Many different kinds of detectors have been invented to detect these ionizing radiations. Among these are the Geiger counter, proportional counter, cloud chamber, bubble chamber, scintillation counter, solid state detector, and multi-wire proportional counters. All of these detectors depend for their operation either on the detection of the ions produced by the particles themselves, such as is the case for high energy electrons, protons, etc., or on the detection of the ions produced by the secondary particles as is the case for -rays and x-rays. One of the most commonly used detectors used to detect nuclear radiation (alpha, beta, and gamma rays) is the Geiger counter or the Geiger-Muller (G-M) counter. The detection process in the Geiger tube is based on the ionizing effects of the radiation. All three types of nuclear radiation are capable of ionizing a gas. The degree of ionization depends on the energy of the radiation and the amount of radiation absorbed by the gas. Most G-M tubes are not sensitive to alpha particles unless they possess very thin windows. Beta particles (electrons and positrons) are detected quite easily while gamma rays, being more penetrating and non ionizing will often pass through the tube with little effect. G-M tubes will only detect about 2% of the gamma rays which pass through them. The G-M tube used in this lab consists of a thin wire (anode) suspended along the center axis of a metallic cylindrical tube (cathode). The probe has a potential difference applied between the anode and cathode and is filled with a gas at low pressure. When radiation enters the end window, it ionizes the gas producing ion pairs that are then attracted to the electrodes. The motion of the ions to the electrodes constitutes an electric current pulse which is subsequently detected and recorded. The characteristics of the current pulse depend strongly on the voltage applied across the electrodes of the tube. At low voltages, the pulses consist essentially of those ions produced by the radiation and are quite small. As you increase the voltage, the ions are accelerated sufficiently to produce additional ion pairs, causing an avalanche in the high electric field near the center wire. At such potentials, the size of the pulses are much larger, but proportional to the number of avalanches and thus to the original number of ion pairs formed. Since the radiation expends approximately 32 eV per ion pair, the tubes operating at such potential are known as proportional counters. Further increase in the high voltage leads to the Geiger - Muller region. In this region, a single avalanche produced by a single electron generates new avalanches so that the discharge spreads along the whole counter. This process will stop when an ion sheath develops around the central wire, reducing the field at the wire to such an extent that no further multiplication can occur. This is known as quenching, and the gas in the tube facilitates this action. At still higher voltages, the tube breaks down, developing arcs which destroy the tube. In this lab, the tube is operated in the Geiger - Muller region. After such a large pulse as is obtained in this region, the tube is inoperative for a short period of time (~ 100 - 500 microseconds). Any radiation passing through the tube during this time will not be counted. Corrections for this need to be made only when operating at very high counting rates. Now is a good time to read Melissinos, to get the details on gaseous ionization instruments. PROCEDURE: Geiger Plateau 1. The instructor will discuss the general radiation safety procedures. 2. Connect the Geiger tube to the counter by means of the medium high voltage coaxial cable. Before plugging in the counter to an ac outlet, familiarize yourself with the controls, particularly the high voltage control. Make sure the high voltage control is turned fully counter - clockwise (0 V or minimum voltage setting) and the counter is turned off. 3. Plug in and turn on the counter. Place the radioactive source (Cobalt 60) about two inches from the end of the Geiger tube with the source facing the tube. Allow it to warm up for about 5 minutes. 4. Slowly increase the tube voltage by means of the high voltage control until the first indication of counting is observed. Decrease the voltage about 50 volts. Observe and record the number of counts per unit time at various voltages by increasing the voltage in 25 or 50 volt steps. It is important that you plot your data as you go along. This procedure often saves a great deal of time in catching a poor procedure. Place error bars on each of the points. 5. In order to prevent continuous discharge and destruction of the tube, DO NOT increase the voltage beyond the point where the count rate is more than 10 percent above the plateau value. (It is better not to exceed 700 V.) For all future experiments, you must use this counter and Geiger tube. NUCLEAR DECAY Any individual radioactive nucleus has associated with it a definite probability per unit time that it will decay. This does not depend on measurable history of the nucleus or the nature of the surrounding atoms. Thus, the process is thought to be purely random. For a given sample of material, the total number of decays per unit time depends on the probability of decay of each nucleus times the total number of radioactive atoms present. This relationship is expressible as: dN (t )   N dt (1) where N is the number of atoms and  is the decay constant. The solution of this well known differential equation is N (t )  N o e t (2) where No is the number of radioactive atoms in the sample at t=0 and N(t) is the number at some later time t. What is usually measured is the number of decays per second or better known as the activity. It follows from Equation (2) that dN    N o e  t    N dt dN Activity    N  (N o ) e t dt (3) (4) The minus sign indicates that the number of unstable nuclei decreases with time. If a counting device is positioned adjacent to a radioactive sample, it will have some probability of detecting energetic particles produced in the radioactive decay process. Thus the count rate observed, if all physical parameters of the apparatus affecting the detection probability are held constant, will be proportional to N. In this way, N can be observed as a function of time and the decay constant, , can be determined. Another parameter commonly used to describe nuclear decay is the half life (t1/2). This is the time required for one half of all the radioactive atoms in the sample to decay. From equation (2), t1/2 can be found as follows: N0  N o e t1 / 2 2 N  ln  0   ln( N o )  t1 / 2  2  ln 2 Half life  t1 / 2  (5)  The mean life is given by  tmean   dN tdt dt , (6) 1 tdN , N (7) dN  dt dt which can be written as tmean   and from Equation 3 we have tmean   te t dt (8) Integrating this and using Equation 5 gives tmean  1   t1/ 2 0.692 (9) The strength of the radioactive sample used in this course is less than 1 micro curie. This is so weak that it is exempt from EPA licensing. You will observe a short lived isometric state of barium 137 in this nuclear decay experiment. The sample will be separated from a ‘radio nuclide cow’ by elution. The cow contains Cs137 which is insoluble in the solution used for separation. Cs137 decays by beta emission to Barium 137. 137 55 Cs13756mBa    (10) (m denotes a metastable state or isomeric state). The decay process leaves a substantial fraction of Barium 137 in an excited isomeric state which then decays by gamma ray emission to the ground state of Barium. 137 m 56 Ba137 56 Ba   (11) The half life of Ba137 is approximately 2.55 minutes. You will detect these gamma rays with a Geiger counter. PROCEDURE : Nuclear Decay 1. Set the voltage at the operating voltage as determined from Part A of the experiment. 2. With all radioactive sources removed from the vicinity of the apparatus, take a five minute background count and record your result. Determine the background count rate in counts per minute. This should be subtracted from subsequent measurements. What are the source(s) of this background radiation? 3. Read the Operating Instructions for the Cs/Ba-137m Isotope Generator. Place a watch glass under the radio nuclide cow and elute a few drops of radioactive barium 137 onto the filter paper. Place your sample under the Geiger tube immediately after elution. Any delay will result in loss of accuracy. Why? 4. Start taking measurements using one minute intervals. Continue taking data at regular intervals for at least 15 minutes. 5. Make a semilog plot of your data. Be sure to include error bars on your graph. What errors are associated with the process of radioactive decay? (See An Introduction to Error Analysis, John Taylor, University Science Books, 2nd Ed., 1997). By doing a weighted fit, determine the half life from the graph. Be sure to discuss the origin of the error bars and importance of weighted fit in your report. Compare this value with the handbook value. 6. How is the half life related to the decay constant of a radioactive source? 7. Ba137m is a nuclear isomer of Ba137. Explain what this means. II. Introduction to Gamma Ray Spectroscopy In this laboratory, you will have chances to explore the essentials of gamma ray spectroscopy using a Na I scintillation detector coupled to a multi-channel analyzer (MCA). Manual to this experiment is at your station. Read Introduction and familiarize yourself with health physics issues. You will perform the following experiments described in the separate handout posted on blackboard. Experiment #1 [Energy Calibration]: You will learn to calibrate the detector using a standard gamma source. [Note: First switch the power on, only then start the program. Set HV on. Sometimes the program does not communicate with the instrument. Try to do Autocalibrate first before doing actual calibration. It will bring HV on. The software in your lab is newer than the one described in the manual. However, all the essentials are the same. You will need to repeat calibration each time you switch the instrument o]. Experiment #2 [ Gamma Spectra of Common Sources & Identification of an Unknown source] : Using your calibration, you will obtain gamma ray spectra of several sources available in the laboratory (137Cs, 54Mn, and 60Co) and compare your results with available data on these sources. You may skip p. 11 of this experiment. Experiment #4: [ Compton Scattering]. You will study Compton Scattering as revealed in the gamma ray spectrum of Cs 137. Skip addition of the lead sheet and p. 16. Printouts of all experimental results including calibration should be included in your report. Optional: If time permits you are encouraged to do Experiments #3 ,#5 and #6 .
The Balmer Lines of Hydrogen Purpose: To measure and interpret the Balmer line spectra series of hydrogen and determine the mass of Deuterium atom. Apparatus: 1. Ocean Optics USB4000 & HR 4000 Fiber Optics Spectrometers 2. PC 3. Hydrogen/Deuterium spectrum tube 4. Mercury spectrum tube 5. Hydrogen Spectrum Tube Introduction: In 1885 Johann Balmer (a Swiss schoolteacher), succeeded in obtaining a simple relationship among the wavelengths of the lines in the visible region of the hydrogen spectra: 2  =   2n (1) where n = 3, 4, 5, . . .; n > 2 n -4 where λ = 364.25 nm is a constant which the series approaches as n -> . It is more convenient to express them in terms of wave number (1/λ) 1 1 1  = = R  2 - 2   2 n  where n = 3, 4, 5, . . .; n > 2 (2) where R is the Rydberg constant for hydrogen and . Twenty-three years later, other series of the hydrogen atom's spectral lines were discovered. By 1924 five series had been discovered, and they are Hydrogen Series of Spectral Lines Discoverer (year) Wavelength nf ni Lyman (1916) Ultraviolet 1 >1 Balmer (1885) Visible, ultraviolet 2 >2 Paschen (1908) Infrared 3 >3 Brackett (1922) Infrared 4 >4 Pfund (1924) Infrared 5 >5 Bohr theory of hydrogen atom, as well as quantum mechanics gives for the hydrogen lines,  1 1 = R  2 - 2    n f ni  1 where R = 2  2 me4 = 1.09737309 x 107 m-1 2 3 c h (4  0 ) (4) where m and e are the mass and charge of the electron, c is the velocity of light, h is Planck's constant, and nf and ni are integers with nf < ni. The Bohr formula given above was derived assuming that the nucleus had infinite mass and does not move as the electron "orbits" about it. Taking into account that the electron and proton move about the center of mass, we replace the mass m of the electron by the reduced mass μ of the atomic system: = m m 1+ MH (5) where MH is the hydrogen nuclear mass. This value for the Rydberg constant agrees extremely well with experiment and is given by RH = MH 7 -1 R = 1.09677576 10 m MH +m (6) It was discovered that many spectral lines possess an aggregate of very fine lines which could not explained This can be explained with existing theory based on electronic structure of the atom. Systematic studies reveled that there are two kinds of hyperfine structure. One kind arises from the presence of several isotopic nuclei for a given chemical element and this is known as isotope shift. For light atoms such as hydrogen, the isotope shift appears to arise from simple differences in the effects of nuclear motion. For heavy atom, the isotope shifts are found, in general, to be proportional to the differences in atomic mass. The second kind of hyperfine shift was first explained by Pauli in 1924 as due to the fact that nucleus possess an angular momentum and an associated magnetic moment and it interacts with the outer electrons. We are only interested in the isotope shift. In the case of hydrogen, the isotope shift was used as a guide by Urey and his collaborators in the discovery of heavy hydrogen H2 or deuterium, D. The Rydberg constant for deuterium is given by RD = MD R MD+m where MD is the deuterium mass. H-D Spectra 2 (7) Apparatus: Learn about USB4000 and HR 4000 Fiber Optics Spectrometers from Installation and Operation Manuals (Manuals are at your work station and on the BB site). The schematics and principle of operation of the spectrometers should be included in your lab report. The Geissler atomic hydrogen gas discharge tube has an atmosphere of pure water vapor which dissociates into hydrogen ions and atoms. The H2 molecules which are also formed during the discharge are continuously purged from the lamp and converted to water vapor by a special cartridge inside the electrodes. You will also use a special Geissler tube containing 50 % hydrogen and 50 % deuterium. The other apparatus used includes a mercury discharge tube, associated electronics and computer. UV LIGHT WARNING DO NOT STARE AT THE MERCURY OR HYDROGEN LIGHT! A. Determining the Wavelengths of Balmer Series (USB4000 Spectrometer) Before you begin, check the calibration coefficients of the USB400 spectrometer to make sure that these have the factory set values. If the values are different, please contact the instructor before beginning 1. Run the Ocean View software. Familiarize yourself with its operation. [Refer to the manual and understand the controls and settings. You will collect data in the QuickView mode]. 2. Set up a hydrogen tube. Record its spectrum using the USB 4000 spectrometer. Also, record the spectra of the Deuterium tube and the Hydrogen-Deuterium mix. Examine if there are any differences. [Steps 2 through 7 need to be carried out only for the hydrogen spectrum]. 2. Determine the wavelength of all the lines observed in the wavelength region from 380nm to 660nm. Compare your results with the accepted values listed in Handbook of chemistry and Physics. 3. Use Equation 2 to determine the Rydberg RH for each of the lines of the Balmer series. Take an average of your RH (air) values, and correct it to vacuum using the index of refraction of air (nair = 1.000292): (8) RH (vacuum)= nair RH (air) 4. Also plot the wave number versus n-2. From the slope determine the Rydberg constant. Compare wuth H-D Spectra 3 accepted value. 5. Calculate the Ionization Potential of hydrogen atom using your Ryderg constant value. Compare with the accepted value. 6. From the y-intercept determine the Balmer series limit. 7. Compare the calculated values with the accepted values. B. Calibration of USB 4000 Spectrometer using the Mercury-Argon source [ Important: do not calibrate the HR 4000 spectrometer]. 1. Set up the Mercury- Argon source and position the optical fiber for light collection and measurement using the USB4000 spectrometer. Note that there is a special optical fiber to be used for calibration. 3. Familiarize yourself with the calibration method and steps 4. Record the Mercury-Argon spectrum after optimizing the parameters 5. Record the spectrum of the pure Mercury source. Tabulate and compare the observed values and listed values in the CRC handbook. Estimate the error % 6. Record the spectrum of the hydrogen source. Tabulate and compare the observed values and listed values in the CRC handbook. Estimate the error %. 7. Record the spectrum of the Hydrogen-Deuterium source. 6. Calibrate the spectrometer using the listed values of spectral lines. Be sure to save your calibration coefficients and report these. 7. Repeat steps 5 and 6. Compare the Mercury and Hydrogen spectra before and after Calibration. Explain any differences or lack thereof. [The calibration procedure and results must be discussed in your report. Comment on any differences you observe between the two spectrometers including possible reasons]. 8. Restore the calibration coefficients to factory-set values. C. Mass of Deuterium Atom. [ You will use HR 4000 for this experiment]. 1. Remove the hydrogen tube and replace it with the Deuterium tube. Record its spectrum. To compare H spectrum and D spectrum, they should be plotted on the same graph (lines should have H-D Spectra 4 similar intensities). To determine the exact position of the lines, you should zoom on each line separately and include these data in your report. Do you observe the shift of the lines? 2. Repeat (1) with the tube containing Hydrogen-Deuterium mixture. 3. Compare results in (2) with spectra you obtained for Hydrogen-Deuterium mix with USB 4000. Explain any differences or lack thereof using your information on how the two spectrometers differ. 3. For any given line of the series, the isotope shift (λH. - λD) may be written as MD -1 H - D = M H M D +1 D m (9) where m, MH, MD are the masses of the electron, proton, and deuteron, respectively. From your data compute MD / MH, the ratio of Deuterium/Hydrogen masses. Compare with the expected value. Do this for both (1) and (2). [ Equation-9 must be derived in the theory section of your report]. 3. Show that if the atomic masses of H and D are known, then the mass of the electron is given by m= M H M D  D - H M D H - M H  D (10) where v are wave numbers (1/λ). From your data and known values of MD and MH compute the mass of the electron. Compare with the accepted value. H-D Spectra 5
THE SPEED OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION OBJECTIVES To measure the speed of microwaves using interferometry and harmonic mixing. BACKGROUND READING It is suggested that background readings be concentrated in four areas: (i) the history of EM waves and of the measurements of their speed, (ii) the Michelson interferometer, (iii) harmonic mixing, and (iv)the operation of very and super high radio signal generators. A list of references is given at the end of these instructions. Reference 3, especially, should be read before starting the experiment. INTRODUCTION Maxwell predicted the existence of electromagnetic (EM) radiation whose speed was the same as that of light. Hertz confirmed the existence of EM waves by detecting the radio frequency energy radiated from a spark gap. In this laboratory, 8.5 Gigahertz (GHz) waves are used and their speed is found from the independently measured wavelength and frequency. Many experiments have been performed to determine the speed of light. In early experiments, a rotating slotted disc or mirror was used to form a train of light pulses. By knowing the time between successive pulses, the time for a pulse of light to travel a known distance, and consequently its speed, could be determined. At the turn of the century, refinements of these methods made by Albert Michelson led to the first modern technique to measure the speed of light. In the last quarter of this century, it has become possible to measure the speed of microwave (EM) radiation to a high precision by measuring the wavelength and the frequency independently. Discussions of the history of EM waves and of their measurement can be found in the first two references1,2. Michelson's interferometer is described in the same references. The changes necessary for the adaptation of this instrument to microwaves and the basics of harmonic generation and mixing are described in Prof. Bates' AJP paper3. Numerous references4 describe the extension of these methods to visible light and the modern measurements of the speed of EM waves. Melissinos5 describes briefly some related microwave techniques; other useful references on the generation and use of radio and microwaves are numerous books on electronic communications. PROCEDURE General Comments: With the proper understanding of Michelson's interferometer, adaptation to microwaves is very nearly obvious. The variable beam splitter is made by placing the long faces of two 45 degree prisms (paraffin wax) close together, but not touching, as shown in Figure 1. The microwave from the source (Agilent MXG Analog Signal Generator N5183) is found to be partially transmitted, the transmitted fraction Speed of Light 1 depending on the separation, d, of the prism faces. A microwave corner reflector mounted an air track with a clock motor drive acts as the ‘moving mirror’. [There is no compensating plate in the fixed path as in the visible-light case]. Figure 2 (see also Figure 2 of reference 3) shows the details of the microwave Michelson interferometer. The horn mount (B) is attached internally to a crystal detector which is a non-linear element, Figure 1 whose output results from the interference fringes. These may be displayed on an oscilloscope. The horn drawn on the right side of the wax prism is the source of the microwave continuous wave (CW) signal. Only the beam splitter path toward the interferometer moveable arm is free of a microwave horn. The third horn receives the microwaves whose frequency is to be measured. It is also connected to a microwave crystal mixer, a three-port device. The two input ports are marked "VHF" (Very High Frequency 30 – 300 MHz) and "SHF" (Super High Frequency 3 – 30 GHz) respectively. Best results will be obtained when the VHF is provided at the marked input, since these ports have appropriately matched frequency dependent load impedances. The third port is for the output of the mixer which is to be displayed on an oscilloscope. Beats are produced in the mixer between the harmonics of the lower frequency and the fundamental of the higher frequency. Tuning the lower frequency signal to obtain the beats and further fine tuning the frequency to cause the envelope frequency of the beats to approach zero, allows one to calculate the unknown high frequency. Sections III and IV of reference three complete the details needed for the frequency measurements and calculations. The reference also give a brief description of the apparatus. [ Note that modern instruments exist for direct measurement of the SHF frequency without having to do the mixing. We don’t have such frequency monitors, which is a good thing because you learn the techniques of frequency measurement through harmonic missing which is a smarter and cheaper way to do the same thing]. Figure 2 Speed of Light 2 Specific Instructions 1. Turn the microwave generator on and set the frequency to ~ 8.5 GHZ. With the cable provided connect the microwave source output to the horn antenna (A) which supplies power to the input face of the beam splitter (BS), and position the horn at this surface. (ii) Set the sensitivity control on the general use metered detector horn (G) at about midrange, and while holding it near the face of the beam splitter opposite A, slowly increase the microwave power to obtain a reading on the meter (usually, the microwave power is set to maximum level in this experiment) (iii) Meter readings should now be obtained with horn G near each of the perpendicular faces. Vary the position of the corner reflector and note that the difference in the meter readings near these two faces depends on the position of the corner reflector. Estimate the relative power available at each surface. Note that since the power available at these surfaces can depend on other things, such as the air gap between the two halves of the splitter, some attention may be needed to optimize the output powers. 2. Following the satisfactory completion of the above steps, (i) turn on the blower and clock motor on the air track (ii) with horn G at the face where interference fringes are expected, look for the expected microwave interference. Measurement of Wavelength: 3. Having prepared the oscilloscope for observing a changing dc level, (i) place horn B at the face where regular fluctuations were observed with horn G, and connect its output to the oscilloscope. The trace level should rise and fall as the corner reflector is made to move over the length of the air track. At this stage, a record of these regular fringes may be made using LabView program. Instructions for the LabView Program Write a simple program to collects data and plots it on the computer screen. Use DAQ Assistant and Waveform Graph or Waveform Chart functions. Place them into a While loop. You would need to configure DAQ Assistant: Terminal Configuration should be Differential. Create controls on the front panel for Number of Samples and Rate. Usually the sampling rate should be 10 times larger than the number of samples. (Rate = number of samples per second. So, at Rate = 20 one data point will be collected each 0.05 sec.) Rate should be set according to frequency of the signal in order to have a sufficient, but not too large number of points per period. Since the frequency of oscillations of the signal in this experiment is low, Rate = 20 will be sufficient. Have the program also store the data into a data file suitable for analysis with Origin or Excel. (Use Write to Measurement File function). 4. The final steps in measuring the input wavelength will be to measure as carefully as possible the distance the reflector moves as the interference pattern is being recorded. Careful attention must be given to the measurement of this distance. Take several measurements for each record with enough data to obtain an average and standard deviation. This procedure will need to be repeated for a microwave Speed of Light 3 signal whose frequency has been measured by the method given below. Measurement of Frequency: 5. The first step is to become familiar with the counter used to measure the frequency of the VHF signal. (i) With the power output control set at zero CW level, turn on the VHF signal generator and the frequency counter. (ii) Turn on the power supply for VHF amplifier and set it to 15 V. Do not exceed 15 V! (iii) Set the VHF frequency at approximately one-tenth that of the SHF signal with 3dBm nominal power attenuation. (iv) The VHF frequency should be measured by connecting the VHF signal generator output to the "C" input of the frequency counter. Make the appropriate adjustments on the frequency counter and measure the frequency of the VHF oscillator, readjusting the power level as necessary. Record all the numbers on the counter showing the frequency. 6. Place the horn C opposite the fringe detector.(i) Using a BNC "tee" on the VHF output, supply power to the mixer on the designated port. (ii) Connect the output port of the mixer to the oscilloscope, and adjust the 'scope gain to show slight detector noise. The zero beat should be oscillation on the trace. If it does, optimize it by narrowing the swept band on the microwave oscillator and perhaps raising the power output. If it does not, slowly tune the VHF generator to find the beat. When the beat is found measure this frequency. (NOTE: It is not always easy to find the beat; - it should get easier as you become more familiar with the equipment). The final step is to combine these two procedures to measure both the wavelength and the frequency of the microwave signal and determine its speed. Speed of Light 4 APPARATUS For the Microwave Michelson interferometer: Air Track Assembly, (Track, Blower, Corner Reflector mounted on carrier, and Clock Motor attached to carrier,) Paraffin Wax Beam Splitter, Microwave Source Antenna, (Horn A), Microwave Signal Generator, with cable, Microwave Receiving Antenna, (Horn D, with internal Crystal), Fringe Monitor, Oscilloscope. For the zero-beat method of measuring the Microwave Frequency: Microwave Receiving Antenna, (Horn M, attached to a three port mixer crystal), VHF Radio Signal, with cable, Frequency Counter, Speed of Light 5 Oscilloscope for monitoring the zero beats. For general needs: Microwave Receiving Antenna, (Horn G with internal crystal and current meter.) Assorted Cables. Each person in your group should learn how to operate and interpret the data from the interferometer as well as measure the microwave frequency using the lower frequency (UHF) oscillator and harmonic mixing techniques. Experimental runs should be made regularly over your two week time period and the mean and standard deviation of your data determined. REFERENCES 1.. 2.. 3.. 4.. Paul A. Tippler, Physics, 3rd ed ext.(Worth, New York, 1991), Sec.30-1, p.977 & Sec. 33-1, p.1066. David Halliday and Robert Resnick, Physics, 3rd ed ext, (Wiley, New York, 1978), Sec. 42-3, p.922 & Sec.45-7, p.1011. Harry E. Bates, Am.J. Phys. 51, 1003 (1983). Connecting Time and Space, Selected Reprints, edited by Harry E. Bates, (Am. Assoc. Phys. Tea., College Park, Md, (1992). 5.. Adrian C. Melissinos, Experiments In Modern Physics, (Academic Press, New York, 1966), Sec. 5-2, p. 377. Speed of Light 6

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School: Duke University

see the attached, i will be available in case of any concerns.




The concept to this experiment is to investigate the process of radioactive decay as well
as to enhance understanding of some techniques and instrumentation in experimental
nuclear physics. Understanding and use of radioactive emissions such as the gamma,
alpha, beta radiation particles using detectors such as the Geiger counter in detection of
either ions produced by these particles themselves or from secondary particles is key to
plot the Geiger plateau. The detection ...

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