Photoelectric Effect experiment

Anonymous
timer Asked: Dec 12th, 2017
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Hi, I would like you to finish up the calculation for the photoelectric effect experiment. I have attached all you need to finish the calculation and answer the questions in each part. you will see the steps in the file called "Photoelectric Effect -New" . Moreover, Stopping voltage excel file is for the 1st part. the 2nd part and third part has also, the excel files you will finish the question and the calculation and add them to the world document file called Photoelctric effect. remember I want you to organize everything. add graphs and table in the calculation section in the world file. I kind of started it but I did not finish the 1st part because I could find a good answers. you have to answer the questions and the analysis.

2 mm filter 2 mm filter Voltage (V) Current (A) -1.154 -6.10E-14 -0.208 7.94E-13 1.746 4.40E-12 3.113 7.81E-12 4.62 9.77E-12 6.134 1.07E-11 7.703 1.29E-11 8.838 1.44E-11 9.851 1.51E-11 10.956 1.65E-11 12.097 1.76E-11 13.373 1.86E-11 14.441 1.92E-11 16.284 2.04E-11 18.073 2.17E-11 19.678 2.26E-11 21.796 2.40E-11 23.657 2.54E-11 25.519 2.63E-11 27.216 2.64E-11 28.925 2.73E-11 30.713 2.83E-11 4 mm filter 4 mm filter Voltage (V) Current (A) -1.025 -1.22E-13 0.787 8.42E-12 2.643 2.24E-11 4.199 3.66E-11 5.603 4.11E-11 7.031 4.65E-11 8.545 5.64E-11 9.991 6.13E-11 11.572 6.96E-11 13.037 7.47E-11 14.594 7.86E-11 16.083 8.20E-11 17.627 8.64E-11 18.982 9.04E-11 20.697 9.67E-11 22.015 1.00E-10 23.566 1.04E-10 25.037 1.05E-10 26.44 1.07E-10 27.991 1.13E-10 29.37 1.14E-10 30.725 1.15E-10 8 mm filter 8 mm filter Voltage (V) Current (A) -0.555 0 1.044 2.34E-11 2.49 5.33E-11 4.016 8.88E-11 5.536 1.29E-10 7.025 1.54E-10 8.545 1.66E-10 10.059 1.97E-10 11.536 2.23E-10 13.141 2.48E-10 14.545 2.69E-10 16.095 2.88E-10 17.499 3.02E-10 19.012 3.17E-10 20.483 3.28E-10 22.021 3.44E-10 23.511 3.60E-10 25 3.69E-10 26.471 3.84E-10 27.997 4.00E-10 29.474 4.11E-10 30.707 4.19E-10 436 nm 4.50E-10 4.00E-10 3.50E-10 3.00E-10 2.50E-10 2.00E-10 1.50E-10 1.00E-10 5.00E-11 0.00E+00 -5-5.00E-11 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
365 365 Voltage (V) Current (A) -1.831 0 0.22 1.56E-11 1.929 3.84E-11 3.552 6.80E-11 4.919 9.04E-11 6.622 1.09E-10 8.105 1.35E-10 9.589 1.59E-10 11.072 1.80E-10 12.598 2.02E-10 14.081 2.23E-10 15.503 2.30E-10 17.084 2.41E-10 18.536 2.61E-10 19.91 2.73E-10 21.655 2.90E-10 23.047 3.00E-10 24.561 3.10E-10 25.983 3.22E-10 27.496 3.32E-10 28.979 3.40E-10 30.707 3.52E-10 405 405 Voltage (V) Current (A) -1.569 0 0.043 9.77E-13 1.678 7.63E-12 3.101 1.51E-11 4.572 2.47E-11 6.079 2.75E-11 7.617 3.42E-11 8.99 3.94E-11 10.547 4.41E-11 12.109 4.90E-11 13.55 5.24E-11 15.1 5.57E-11 16.559 5.81E-11 18.042 6.01E-11 19.58 6.40E-11 20.978 6.64E-11 22.54 6.86E-11 24.036 7.13E-11 25.58 7.38E-11 27.045 7.67E-11 28.467 7.78E-11 30.713 8.01E-11 436 436 Voltage (V) Current (A) -0.525 -1.83E-13 1.038 8.67E-12 2.527 2.20E-11 4.083 4.03E-11 5.524 5.26E-11 7.062 5.51E-11 8.545 6.67E-11 10.022 7.76E-11 11.584 8.44E-11 13.184 9.27E-11 14.734 9.96E-11 16.064 1.04E-10 17.523 1.09E-10 19.043 1.17E-10 20.587 1.23E-10 22.04 1.25E-10 23.468 1.32E-10 24.951 1.36E-10 26.52 1.40E-10 27.96 1.46E-10 29.462 1.51E-10 30.713 1.53E-10 -5 4E-10 3.5E-10 3E-10 2.5E-10 2E-10 1.5E-10 1E-10 5E-11 0 0 -5E-11 4E-10 3.5E-10 3E-10 2.5E-10 2E-10 1.5E-10 1E-10 5E-11 0 0 -5E-11 5 10 15 20 25 30 30 35
2 mm WavelengthVoltage (nm) (V) 365 -1.843 405 -1.465 436 -1.27 546 -0.757 577 -0.653 WavelengthStopping Voltage 365 -1.825 405 -1.465 436 -1.276 546 -0.757 577 -0.635 4 mm WavelengthVoltage (nm) (V) 365 -1.807 405 -1.465 436 -1.27 546 -0.745 577 -0.635 8 mm WavelengthVoltage (V) 365 -1.66 405 -1.324 436 -1.166 546 -0.708 577 -0.586 Frequency 8.213492 7.402283 6.875974 5.490704 5.19571
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT Objectives To determine Photoelectric effect theory To measure different voltages associated with different wavelengths of light To determine the value of Plank’s constant. Introduction In the year 1887, Hertz discovered that when a light of sufficient frequency is illuminated on a metallic surface, electricity may be emitted. In 1900 Lenard identified positively the liberated particles like electrons and their energies. He studied the fraction of the number and energy of electrons as a function of the wavelength of the incident light and its intensity. The results from this study were not able to be proved using the wave theory of light. The phenomenon was not explained until Einstein with the help of Planck’s idea of radiation comes in small quanta experimented. According to Einstein, the energy of the ejected electrons is proportional to the energy of the incident light with a constant called work function. As the intensity of light increases, the energy of the emitted electrons would increase. The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from the surface of the metal when electromagnetic radiation shines on the metal. The maximum electrons kinetic energy when they leave a metal surface due to radiation by light depend on the wavelength of the light and not the intensity of the light. The Einstein suggestions did not have enough evidence to confirm or disapprove the equations. Millikan comes up with precise measurements that proved that the theory was true and correct. Apparatus Mercury Lamp and Power Supply (in SE-6609) Photodiode (in SE-6609) Track (in SE-6609) DC Current Amplifier (BEM-5004) DC Power Supply I (BEM-5001) 850 Universal Interface (UI-5000) Procedure 1. Mercury lamp and photodiode case mounted on the track 2. Power cord connected to the Mercury Lamp Power Supply from the Mercury Light Source and the Mercury Lamp Power Supply was connected to an outlet. 3. Mercury Lamp turned on and left for 10 minutes to warm and cover placed. 4. DIN-plug connected to DIN-plug cable between channel A on the 850 interface and the DC Amplifier. DIN-plug connected to DIN-plug cable between channel B on the 850 interface and the DC Power Supply port. 5. The Current Ranges switch turned to 10^-13 amperes on the DC Current Amplifier. Calibration meter was activated and adjusted to read zero amperes. 6. Calibration was put in the out position for measuring. 7. On the DC Power Supply, -4.5 to 0 V range was selected. 8. Cables were connected to the photodiode: 9. BNC-plug was connected to BNC-plug cable between port K on the Photodiode and the BNC jack on the DC Current Amplifier. 10. The red banana-plug patch cord was connected between port A on the Photodiode and the red banana jack on the DC Power Supply. 11. The black banana-plug patch cord was connected to the black banana jack on the Photodiode and the blackjack on the DC Power Supply. 12. During the experiment, the aperture and the filters were changed. It was done by pulling out the Aperture Ring and rotating it. To change the filter, Filter Ring was rotated to the next position. Theory Electrons in metal have a small area of separation, and they form bands of energies. Fermi energy is the highest energy electrons inside a metal can have. The metal work function is the minimum energy needed by electrons to escape from the metal. Some electrons have energies below the Fermi level, and hence their binding energies are greater than the work function. The light photon energy is absorbed by electrons and converted into kinetic and potential energy. When the light photon has enough energy, the electrons leave the metal with kinetic energy. The kinetic energy (K) is equal to the difference between electron binding energy and photon energy (E). Electrons at the Fermi level are released with maximum kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is given by: 𝑲𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝑬 − The energy of the photon is proportional to its frequency: 𝑬 = 𝒉𝒗 = 𝒉𝒄  𝒚 Where h is Plank’s Constant, c is the velocity of light in vacuum and y is wavelength. 𝑲𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝒉𝒗 − When the photon energy is equal to the work function, the electrons in the Fermi level leave the well with no kinetic energy hence they cannot leave the metal surface. When the energy of the photon is greater than the work function, the electrons come out of the well with kinetic energy and leave the metal surface. When the photon energy is less than the work function, no electrons make it out of the well. The kinetic energy of the electrons is measured by applying a potential difference (V) across the photodiode to hinder electrons from reaching the collector plate. The voltage is adjusted to zero whereby the current becomes zero and is referred to as stopping voltage Vs. At this time the kinetic energy of electrons from the Fermi level is equal to the potential energy. It is given by potential difference times charge. 𝑲𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝒆𝑽𝒔 𝒆𝑽𝒔 = 𝒉𝒗 − Potential difference differs from one frequency to another, and the electrons are emitted with kinetic energies. A graph of potential differences and frequency will be a straight line with a gradient of 𝒉 𝒆 and y-intercept of /e Setting V to zero, the equation gives the x-intercept which is cutoff frequency. Above this frequency, the electrons are emitted from the metal 𝒉 𝑽 = (𝒆 ) 𝒇𝒄𝒖𝒕𝒐𝒇𝒇 − /e 𝐟𝐜𝐮𝐭𝐨𝐟𝐟= /h Slope =hc/e Calculations and Graphs: Experiment: Part A Table #1) Stopping Voltage 1 Wavelength (nm) Frequency (E14 Hz) 365 8.21 Stopping Voltage (V) -1.825 2 405 7.40 -1.465 3 436 6.88 -1.276 4 546 5.49 -0.757 5 577 520 -0.635 Graph #1: Stopping Voltage (v) vs. Frequency (E14 Hz) Table #2) 2 mm 1 Wavelength (nm) Frequency (E14 Hz) 365 8.21 Stopping Voltage (V) -1.843 2 405 7.40 -1.465 3 436 6.88 -1.27 4 546 5.49 -0.757 5 577 520 -0.653 Graph #2: Voltage (v) vs. Frequency (E14 Hz), for 2 mm Table #3) 8 mm 1 Wavelength (nm) Frequency (E14 Hz) 365 8.21 Stopping Voltage (V) -1.66 2 405 7.40 -1.324 3 436 6.88 4 546 5.49 5 577 520 -1.166 -0.708 -0.586 Graph #3: Voltage (v) vs. Frequency (E14 Hz), for 8 mm Slop, y, (m) Stopping voltage 2 mm 8 mm Experiment: Part B Experiment: Part C h, (J) %Difference Questions: Analysis Conclusion: Work cited Willett, Edward. The Basics of Quantum Physics: Understanding the Photoelectric Effect and Line Spectra. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 2005. Print. Tipler, Paul A, and Gene Mosca. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2008. Print. Knight, Randall D. Physics For Scientists And Engineers. Boston, Mass.: Pearson, 2017. Print.

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Prof.Voigt
School: Duke University

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The attached word document contains the answer to photoelectric effect experiment.


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PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
Objectives
To determine Photoelectric effect theory
To measure different voltages associated with different wavelengths of light
To determine the value of Plank’s constant.
Introduction
In the year 1887, Hertz discovered that when a light of sufficient frequency is illuminated on a
metallic surface, electricity may be emitted. In 1900 Lenard identified positively the liberated
particles like electrons and their energies. He studied the fraction of the number and energy of
electrons as a function of the wavelength of the incident light and its intensity. The results from
this study were not able to be proved using the wave theory of light.
The phenomenon was not explained until Einstein with the help of Planck’s idea of radiation
comes in small quanta experimented. According to Einstein, the energy of the ejected electrons is
proportional to the energy of the incident light with a constant called work function. As the
intensity of light increases, the energy of the emitted electrons would increase. The photoelectric

Surname 2
effect is the emission of electrons from the surface of the metal when electromagnetic radiation
shines on the metal.
The maximum electrons kinetic energy when they leave a metal surface due to radiation by light
depend on the wavelength of the light and not the intensity of the light. The Einstein suggestions
did not have enough evidence to confirm or disapprove the equations. Millikan comes up with
precise measurements that proved that the theory was true and correct.
Apparatus
Mercury Lamp and Power Supply (in SE-6609)
Photodiode (in SE-6609)
Track (in SE-6609)
DC Current Amplifier (BEM-5004)
DC Power Supply I (BEM-5001)
850 Universal Interface (UI-5000)
Procedure
1. Mercury lamp and photodiode case mounted on the track
2. Power cord connected to the Mercury Lamp Power Supply from the Mercury Light
Source and the Mercury Lamp Power Supply was connected to an outlet.
3. Mercury Lamp turned on and left for 10 minutes to warm and cover placed.

Surname 3
4. DIN-plug connected to DIN-plug cable between channel A on the 850 interfaces and the
DC Amplifier. DIN-plug connected to DIN-plug cable between channel B on the 850
interfaces and the DC Power Supply port.
5. The Current Ranges switch turned to 10^-13 amperes on the DC Current Amplifier.
Calibration meter was activated and adjusted to read zero amperes.
6. Calibration was put in the out position for measuring.
7. On the DC Power Supply, -4.5 to 0 V range was selected.
8. Cables were connected to the photodiode:
9. BNC-plug was connected to BNC-plug cable between port K on the Photodiode and the
BNC jack ...

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Anonymous
Goes above and beyond expectations !

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