Leadership

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Question description

Task: finish essay with third example studied by Plutarch.

There is file "Essay Plutarch" in addition.

Essay 1 TOPIC:

Of the many examples studied by Plutarch, which two did you find most helpful in understanding the challenges and tasks of leadership faced by leaders and the role character plays in it? Justify your choice with at least three arguments, using the material assigned for this class.

This essay had already done but task was changed....so we have to add one more example.

Title page:

The title page should meet the criteria set up in the “IRES Essay Writing Standards” 2.1, p. 3 as well as in Appendix A. on p. 7 Please note that you need to develop your own title that illustrates your hypothesis just like a title of a real scholarly article. An essay topic (see above) is not a proper title, it is a merely a research question you start with.

Structure of the essay:

The essay should be not longer than 3500-4000 words.

The structure of the essay should meet the criteria set up in the “IRES Essay Writing Standards” (Appendix B).

Failure to include paragraphs will lower your grade.

Papers with no references will be rejected. Fore referencing see 2.4, p. 4 of the “IRES Essay Writing Standards.”

No plagiarism!

And one more sagnificant thing is this essay should be written by harvard reference style !

LAZARSKI UNIVERSITY ESSAY WRITING STANDARD A Guide for Students and Lecturers (Updated October 2014) TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Essay Format 2.1. Title Page 2.2. Font, Spacing, Margins, and Page Numbers 2.3. Essay Length 2.4. Referencing System 3. Essay Submission and Grading 3.1. Submission 3.2. Grading Appendix A – Sample Title Page Appendix B – Page Format 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 8 9 1: INTRODUCTION Essay writing assignments are an important element of course assessment. They not only allow lecturers and professors to check if students have understood the material in a given course, but they also allow them to assess the students’ critical thinking and analytical skills. More importantly, essays are a good way for students to learn about a given subject, and a good means for them to test their own investigative and diagnostic abilities. There is no one way that an essay should be structured, and no one way that an argument should be presented. Essays, like novels, can be as long and convoluted as a Dostoyevsky epic, or as short and straightforward as a Hemingway novella, and still retain the same literary or academic value. Nevertheless, in order to train strong writers and successful researchers, Lazarski University has developed this “Essay Writing Standard” to be used by all students in all courses in its English-language programs. The Standard is not intended to constrain the creativity of students, but rather to enforce basic habits such as proper citation, quotation, and paraphrasing, which are essential for good academic writing. Like in any trade, whether it be painting, carpentry, or architecture, once students master the basic rules and tools required to be good academics, they will be free to experiment and demonstrate their full creative abilities. But before they can do this, they must learn the fundamentals. 2: ESSAY FORMAT As stated earlier, there is no set style for writing an essay. However, in order to ease the grading process, as well as to help students focus on the content of their essay without worrying about its format, Lazarski University has adopted uniform rules concerning title pages, font and line spacing, page numbers, bibliography, and citation, which are to be used by all students for all essay-writing assignments. 2.1 Title Page All essays should have a precise title. For long essays, the title is to be typed in capital letters on the first page. Below this comes the student’s name, their student number, the course for which the essay is submitted, the name of the course coordinator, and the date of submission. There should be no page number on the title page. An example of a proper title page is given in Appendix A. For shorter essays (below 2500 words), students may forgo the title page and simply write the title above the text of their essay, along with their name, student number, and date of submission. However, it is up to the course coordinator to designate whether or not a proper title page is required. 2.2 Font, Spacing, Margins, and Page Numbers The essay text should be double spaced, and the font ought to be in Times New Roman, size 12. A larger size and different font style may be used for headings or section titles at the student’s discretion. 3 The margins of the essay should be 2.5 cm all around and all pages in the essay must have page numbers, except for the title page. Page numbers must be written at the bottom of each page and should be centred. The text of the essay should also be ‘justified’, and the first line of each new paragraph must begin with an indentation. However, the first line at the beginning of a new section and below a section heading should not be indented, see Appendix B. 2.3 Essay Length The length of the essay assignment is dependent on the amount of coursework in a given course, as well as the year in which the course is taught. The length is also determined by the course coordinator and shall be given in terms of word-count (e.g. 3000 words). Given that the Essay Standard requires that all papers be double-spaced, with 2.5 cm margins all around, one page should fit approximately 350 words. Bibliographies are not counted in the word/page count. 2.4 Referencing System Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that are used while writing the essay. In that regard, students should do their best to cite all of their sources properly and avoid plagiarism. Proper referencing also helps readers to verify quotations, allows readers to follow up on what the authors have written, and lets them locate the cited works easily. There are many different citation styles, such as the American Psychological Association (APA) style, or the Chicago Manual of Style. For essays written at Lazarski University however, the preferred referencing system is the ‘Harvard Style’. Harvard style is often referred to as an “author-date”, or “parenthetical” system. It is widely accepted in academic publications, although there are several variations in the way that it is used. The Harvard style uses parentheses instead of footnotes as a way to cite sources. In their essays, students may also use footnotes but only as a way to clarify or expand on a given point and NOT as a way to reference. For good examples of how to use and apply the Harvard style, check the following links: http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/harvard.html http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm http://www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citation/harvard_6.pdf Students may also refer to the BA Thesis Manual, as well as the MA/MSc Dissertation Manual, for more details. Moreover, they may refer to the Coventry University Harvard Reference Style Quick Guide. The Quick Guide and the Manuals are available on the student resource page (zasoby) under the codes “course1-Econ”, “course1-IR”, “course2-Econ” and “course2-IR”. 4 3: ESSAY SUBMISSION AND GRADING 3.1 Submission All essays are to be submitted before or on the day specified by the course coordinator. Late submissions may result in penalties and lower grades. Each student MUST submit a paper copy of their essay AND an electronic copy either on disc or via email. The electronic copy will be used by the course coordinator to verify that the work has not been plagiarized by using the antiplagiarism programs Turn-it-in-UK, as well as www.plagiat.pl. 3.2 Grading Essay grades will be given in percents ranging from 0 to 100, although students should not expect to be given perfect scores because, after all, it is impossible to define what exactly constitutes a “perfect” essay. To receive an “A” on their essays, students should aim to achieve 70 percent or above. Scores below 40 percent constitute a failing grade. The table below details the different grade scales in terms of percents, British-letter grades, and Polish grades. Percent 76-100%* 70-75% 63-69% 54-62% 49-53% 40-48% 0-39% British letter scale A+ A B C D E F Polish scale 5,5* 5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5 3,0 2 * a grade of A+ or in Polish “celujący”, is to be given only for truly exceptional work The following table specifies the characteristics of excellent, mediocre, and poor essays. BA level Class Mark range 90 – 100% Class I 80 – 89% 70 – 79% Guidelines In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, an outstanding answer that could hardly be bettered. High degree of understanding, critical/analytic skills and original research, where specified. Outstanding in all respects. In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, the answer will demonstrate an excellent level of understanding, presence of clear description, critical/analytical skills or research, as appropriate. Answer entirely relevant to the assignment set. Answer will demonstrate clear understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. There will be evidence of wide-ranging reading and/or research, as appropriate, beyond the minimum recommended. Answers will be written/presented in a clear, well-structured way with clarity of expression. At level 3, evidence of independent, critical thought would normally be expected. 5 65 – 69% Class II : I 60 – 64% 55 – 59% Class II : II 50 – 54% Marginal fail 35 – 39% Answer demonstrating a very good understanding of the requirements of the assignment. Answer will demonstrate very good understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. Answer will be mostly accurate/appropriate, with few errors. Little, if any, irrelevant material may be present. Reading beyond the recommended minimum will be present where appropriate. Well organised and clearly written/presented. A good understanding, with few errors. Some irrelevant material may be present. Well organised and clearly written/presented. Some reading/research beyond recommended in evidence. Answer demonstrating a good understanding of relevant theories, concepts, issues and methodology. Some reading/research beyond that recommended may be present. Some errors may be present and inclusion of irrelevant material. May not be particularly well-structured, and/or clearly presented. Answer demonstrating a reasonable understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology. Answer likely to show some errors of understanding. May be significant amount of irrelevant material. May not be well-structured and expression/presentation may be unclear at times. Some relevant material will be present. Understanding will be poor with little evidence of reading/research on the topic. Fundamental errors and misunderstanding likely to be present. Poor structure and poor expression/presentation. Much material may not be relevant to the assignment. Inadequate answer with little relevant material and poor understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. Fundamental errors and misunderstandings will be present. Material may be largely irrelevant. Poorly structured and poorly expressed/presented. 30 – 34% Fail 20 – 29% 0 – 19% Clear failure to provide answer to the assignment. Little understanding and only a vague knowledge of the area. Serious and fundamental errors and lack of understanding. Virtually no evidence of relevant reading/research. Poorly structured and inadequately expressed/presented. Complete failure, virtually no understanding of requirements of the assignment. Material may be entirely irrelevant. Answer may be extremely short, and in note form only. Answer may be fundamentally wrong, or trivial. Not a serious attempt. MA/MSc level INDICATIVE GRADE A UK % MARKS 70% and above CHARACTERISTICS Very high standard of critical analysis using appropriate conceptual frameworks. Excellent understanding and exposition of relevant issues. Clearly structured and logically developed arguments. Good awareness of nuances and complexities. Substantial evidence of well-executed independent research. Excellent evaluation and synthesis of source material. Relevant data and examples, all properly referenced. Distinction 70% and above B C D 69-60% High standard of critical analysis using appropriate conceptual frameworks. Clear awareness and exposition of relevant issues. Clearly structured and logically developed arguments. Awareness of nuances and complexities. Evidence of independent research. Good evaluation and synthesis of source material. Relevant data and examples, all properly referenced. 59-50% Uses appropriate conceptual frameworks. Attempts analysis but includes some errors and/or omissions. Shows awareness of issues but no more than to be expected from attendance at classes. Arguments reasonably clear but underdeveloped. Insufficient evidence of independent research. Insufficient evaluation of source material. Some good use of relevant data and examples, but incompletely referenced. 49-40% Adequate understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks. Answer too descriptive and/or any attempt at analysis is superficial, containing errors and/or omissions. Shows limited awareness of issues but also some confusion. Arguments not particularly clear. Limited evidence of independent research and reliance on a superficial repeat of class notes. Relatively superficial use of relevant data, sources and examples and poorly referenced. Pass Mark = 40% E 39-30% F 29% and below Weak understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks. Weak analysis and several errors and omissions. Establishes a few relevant points but superficial and confused exposition of issues. No evidence of independent research and reliance on a superficial repeat of class notes. Relatively superficial use of relevant data, sources and examples and poorly referenced. Very weak or no understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks. Very weak or no grasp of analysis and may errors and omissions. Very little or no understanding of the issues raised by the question. No appropriate references to data, sources, examples or even class notes. 7 APPENDIX A – SAMPLE TITLE PAGE The Role of Intellectuals in Contemporary Politics By: John F. Awesome Student Number: 100 500 Course: Advanced Political Theory Course Coordinator: Prof. Knows-A-Lot Date of Submission: February 31, 2052 8 APPENDIX B – PAGE FORMAT 9
Leadership from the Ancients to the Moderns 1st Essay Requirements, Fall 2017 Course coordinator: Michal Kuz, Ph.D. Student’s essay’s constitute 50% of the final grade. The essay have to be submitted both in paper and in the electronic form. To submit them in paper please leave in the Dean’s Office on the 3rd floor in my document box. To complete the submission process by midnight on December 14 please go to: http://turnitin.com/ Click create account, go through the steps of creating an account and log in (unless you already have an account). Then in menu that appears after you log in click: “Join Account” Class ID: 14043355 Enrollment Password: Washington Please submit you papers by selecting ”Essay 1 2017 F” then “More actions” and then “Submit”. Fill in the data and upload your paper. Should you have any problems with the submission please contact Mr Joshua Walcott (j.walcott@lazarski.edu.pl). The essay Please be informed that the IRES ESSAY WRITING STADARDS have been uploaded in a separate file on your “zasoby” and attached to this information which will also be available on “zasoby”. Site: https://www.zasoby.lazarski.pl/ Code: Washington Essay 1 TOPIC: Of the many examples studied by Plutarch, which did you find most helpful in understanding the challenges and tasks of leadership faced by leaders and the role character plays in it? Justify your choice using the material assigned for this class. Focus on three characters. Title page: The title page should meet the criteria set up in the “IRES Essay Writing Standards” 2.1, p. 3 as well as in Appendix A. on p. 7 Please note that you need to develop your own title that illustrates your hypothesis just like a title of a real scholarly article. An essay topic (see above) is not a proper title, it is a merely a research question you start with. Structure of the essay: The essay should be 3500-4000 words. The structure of the essay should meet the criteria set up in the “IRES Essay Writing Standards” (Appendix B). Failure to include paragraphs will lower your grade. Papers with no references will be rejected. Fore referencing see 2.4, p. 4 of the “IRES Essay Writing Standards.” END
: Leadership Name: Instructor LEADERSHIP 1 Introduction Plutarch is the old Greek student of history and instructor. He comprehended that people are extraordinarily social animals, who continually watch the general population around them and emulate them. Sadly, individuals frequently grow up encompassed by terrible examples (Russell 2014, p88). Be that as it may, we can direct individuals, by furnishing them with better examples to mirror. That is the thing that Plutarch attempted to do with his renowned work. In authoritative terms, that implies what you say to your representatives is less imperative than what you do. They will observe how you carry on, treat others, adapt to pressure and whether you fulfil on your guarantees. What's more, they will impersonate you. In the event that you discuss morals and after that cut corners at the principal opportunity, they will take after your lead. Set a decent case and they will follow suit (Arrian & Hammond). Plutarch would likewise caution that your best youthful representatives will utilize you as a bar to go for and surpass. That is common. Give them a chance to contend with you and urge them to go further. Plutarch underscored and gave a depiction of the political, individual and military accomplishments for each driving political figure, incorporating his consideration in transit those characters roused and utilized initiative systems to control and impact their adherents. Plato and Plutarch were both endeavoring to give a meaning of good and bad, plunging into a moralistic perspective regarding this matter and applying their perceptual definitions on various pioneers and political pioneers at an antiquated period to break down their style of administration and sort them as terrible or great (Bankston 2014, p. 23). Curiously, the different profiles are infamous for their blend of actuality and fiction, history and myth, verity and chatter. Plutarch was an admirer of custom, and his prime concern LEADERSHIP 2 was to both memorialize past glories and to reassert them as living beliefs (Rice 2011 p.55). Along these lines, regardless of whether an occasion really happened was of little result to him, what made a difference was the means by which the lessons from those occasions had gone into the social awareness. In every one of his endeavors, however academic, it is the moral issues that stay fundamental. Plutarch was subsequently going about as an ethical defender. He needed Greeks and Romans alike to perceive the gigantic heritage which they had acquired from the colossal men of the past and the considerable city-conditions of the past (Plutarch 2016, p62). His point is hence plainly instructive. There is a good to his story. What's more, that reveals to us more than practically whatever else we think about him. Leadership Authority is a gathering of ideas, capabilities, and standards which has advanced after some time portraying what a pioneer must be, know and do to achieve an undertaking or mission (Russell 2014, p19). The effective pioneer is one who chooses the correct standards for the correct mission at the opportune time to finish the destinations and deal with the troops. On the off chance that warriors are focused on a reason and see duty and ability in their pioneers, if officers see confirm that their pioneers truly look after their welfare, they will finish their missions if humanly conceivable and deal with each other and their pioneers all the while. Honing self-administration skills gives a proving ground to learning and creating authority capabilities (Rice 2011, p112). Watching compelling pioneers is a fantastic approach to create authority abilities. Following or "shadowing" regarded pioneers after some time enables one to witness firsthand how pioneers apply their abilities in different circumstances. Permitting LEADERSHIP 3 time for afterward reflection and talk is essential. Apprenticeship or regulatory assistantship is as yet another approach to create initiative skills. Lives is an asset however which understudies can go into a beneficial exchange about critical verifiable illustrations, uncovering facts about initiative that assistance understudies to ponder indispensable inquiries (Bury 2015 p.94). Discourse has since quite a while ago filled in as a vital instrument in instruction. Longstanding and methodical models hold that training can't happen without strong discourse. Venturing into the antiquated past for the first and great case of such a model, one sees Socrates touch the souls of his numerous understudies through discussion. Audiences experience Socrates in the works of Plato and Xenophon (Plutarch 2016 p64). He is also one pundit who has been portrayed as the very supporter holy person of liberal education, draws in his understudies utilizing a strategy known as persuasion. In this model of instruction, persuasion is a discussion in which two distinct perspectives are communicated and subjected to balanced examination close by each other, the motivation behind which is to demonstrate the outlandish or differentiating parts of these points of view all things considered, consequently demonstrating reality all the more unmistakably. As needs be, the educator has the best effect on understudies by methods for discourse, turning their souls, so to speak, toward truth and essentially changing their lives for the great. This unique model of persuasive training continues to the present day (Russell 2014, p84). Protecting a thought of training that bears the reasonable stamp of Socrates, has commented pithily that a purported instruction without live discourse amongst instructor and understudy ought to energize nobody. LEADERSHIP 4 Here pioneers recognize and after that place potential pioneers in positions as understudies or clerical specialists. The pioneers guide and model while the understudy really performs authority undertakings and increases handy experience (Arrian 2013). In this part, pioneers support, motivate, mentor, and form their races into future pioneers. Julius Ceasar Julius Caesar was the history’s greatest military leader (Blackburn, 2013). Past his unquestionable capacity for strategy, the Roman general stood out due to his own initiative lessons over his armed force, to which he knew how to convey his vision and intelligence. Caesar’s forces gave him back the trust he required for his numerous triumphs. From him, people can learn several lessons from his leadership style. Caesar was constantly near his forces. Notwithstanding the peril, the Roman general needed to discuss specifically with his armed force since he realized that implied a lift to his warrior's good. He ate with them, lay down next to them, and strived with them (Duff, 2012). Being near his men likewise enabled him to recognize shortcomings and settle on brisk choices to remedy botches. Like Julius Caesar, a great pioneer must be prepared for whatever may come, to offer help to the subjects and make urgent decision but thoughtful as well. A leader should be open to the subject and guide them towards the completion of the procedure. Julius Caesar, the same number of different legislators and fighters in the Roman era, was likewise a decent speaker. He used to show up, immaculately dressed, at the Roman Senate, and tended to his officers with energetic discourses (Duff, 2012). A decent pioneer thinks about learning correspondence strategies that will help him effectively pass on messages and draw in the group. There are test systems to enhance these abilities through training, which guarantees a strong and effective learning. LEADERSHIP 5 An awesome piece of the accomplishment of the roman armies was the information. troops had accessible on the front line (Blackburn, 2013). Each centurion had as much data on the fight design as the very Julius Caesar did. In the present day office, centurions would speak to group or division chiefs. As a pioneer, he or she should ensure that these individuals are all around educated and comprehend the point of view, so they can impart to whatever remains of the group what should be finished. As a pioneer, Caesar had a standout amongst the most essential qualities, the capacity to take risks. It was apparent in his reign to cross the Rubicon River with his armed force, which around then was deserving of death in Rome (Duff, 2012). This goes to demonstrate that taking risks is worthy, on the off chance that they are very much ascertained. Challenges In Plutarch's records it is said that once youthful Caesar was abducted by privateers where he emancipated himself to freedom. Later he assembled an armada, followed the abductors and slaughtered them, much the same as he had guaranteed while recovering himself. This demonstrates the certainty he had in himself and his capacities. In Roman regime, it was regular to rebuff miscreants, never disapproving of whether they were companions or family. Caesar himself was by and by responsible for this tough assignment, one of the hardest a warrior can confront. Clearly, this one is a fairly outrageous illustration, yet from it we can discover that, as Julius Caesar, a great pioneer must not relax and wait for others to do hard errands for him; rather, he should get serious straight away (Blackburn, 2013). As it were, leaders should be exemplary to others and go up against the hardest assignments. In the time only preceding the season of Julius Caesar the Roman Republic was encountering issues of corruption and administration. Pioneers of the Roman Republic perceived LEADERSHIP 6 that changes should have been made yet were undecided with respect to what the changes must be and how real changes could be done. Julius Caesar was a Roman general and legislator who ousted the Roman Republic and set up the system of the rulers. Caesar utilized the issues and hardships of the period to make his own particular preeminent political and military power (Duff, 2012). Roman Emperor Julius Caesar is viewed as prominent amongst the most effective and fruitful pioneers ever. In Rome disappointment was developing in the Senate over the undeniably perpetual nature of Caesar's run the show. A scheme was planned to expel Caesar and reestablish the administration to the Senate. The schemers trusted that, with Caesar's death, government would be reestablished to its old republican frame and the greater part of the components that had delivered Caesar would end (Duff, 2012). The conspiracy advanced with Caesar either uninformed of it or not perceiving the alert signs. He was wounded to death in the Senate place of Pompey by a gathering of men that included old companions and partners. With Caesar's murder, Rome dove into thirteen years of common war (Blackburn, 2013). People maintained Caesar as an image of a great pioneer, and for others the author of the Roman Empire whose phantom has frequented Europe from that point forward. For all, he is a figure of virtuoso and strength. Alexander the Great Plutarch dedicates a lot of room to Alexander's drive and want, and endeavors to decide its amount was forecasted in his childhood. He additionally draws widely on crafted by Lysippus, Alexander's most loved artist, to give what is presumably the fullest and most precise portrayal of the victor's physical appearance (Bankston 2014, p43). With regards to his character, Plutarch underlines his irregular level of discretion. As the story advances, in any case, the LEADERSHIP 7 subject brings about less reverence from his biographer and the deeds that it relates turn out to be less appetizing. The murder of Cleitus, which Alexander immediately and profoundly lamented, is normally referred to this end. The identity of Alexander the Great was an oddity. He had awesome allure and power of identity however his character was loaded with inconsistencies, particularly in his later years, his mid thirties. Be that as it may, he had the capacity to inspire his armed force to do what appeared to be inconceivable. Abernethy said that Alexander was a visionary (Plutarch 2016. P 60). His capacity to dream, design and strategize on an expansive scale enabled him to win many fights, notwithstanding when he was dwarfed. It additionally roused his men, who knew they were a piece of one of the best successes ever. Correspondingly, a director must have the capacity to perceive social contrasts inside an association. He should have the capacity to acknowledge these distinctions, figure out how to oblige and tackle them further bolstering his good fortune when required. Alexander was genuinely a man of technique as he spread the Hellenic culture (Bury 2015. P76). He comprehended that the main way he could genuinely vanquish the world was whether he injected it with his own particular Greek culture. Truth be told, in vital administration, three sorts of aptitudes are fundamental for progress: great administration, working viably with individuals and making what's to come. Alexander demonstrated that he was to be sure a decent chieftain by building a realm that resisted creative ability, making and encouraging solid work associations with his men as prove by their faithfulness, and joining many societies and spreading the impact of Hellenic culture (Rice, 2011, p54). LEADERSHIP 8 Alexander's victories took him and his armed force a large number of miles far from home. All things considered, coordinations should have been dealt with; that is, keeping the armed force sustained and provided (Russell 2014, p29). To comprehend this, Alexander thought of two approaches: First, he strongly restricted the quantity of camp adherents voyaging and eating with the armed force; and second, Alexander set up an insight and conciliatory administration to scout the course that the armed force would take, and make game plans to buy nourishment from local people. Leaders ought to subsequently figure out how to dependably be readied. Constantly, the chief must have the capacity to recognize conceivable results of a choice or strategy and properly get ready for such possibilities. Alexander enlisted the best and the brightest for his armed force, utilizing very taught Greeks for specialized and conciliatory errands (Russell, 2014 p.59). Likewise, when he was compelled to rearrange his partner rangers, he picked his best and most trusted companion Hephaistion to lead one and another, Cleitus, to bridle the knowledge of a more seasoned man. Chiefs should enlist individuals that they accept can do the activity. It might likewise be insightful to put individuals you confide in basic positions. Alexander enrolled the best and the brightest for his armed force, utilizing exceptionally taught Greeks for specialized and conciliatory errands. Additionally, when he was compelled to revamp his buddy mounted force, he picked his best and most trusted companion Hephaistion to lead one and another, Cleitus, to bridle the insight of a more established man. Alexander plainly showed how he enabled his officers, along these lines picking up their steadfastness and trust. Alexander's officers showed high confidence and responsibility (Plutarch 2016, p77). Moreover, keeping in accordance with his vision of joining many societies, Alexander even enabled some of his vanquished rivals. LEADERSHIP 9 Additionally, in an administration setting, a chief must have the capacity to practice engaged appointment to accomplish the coveted results of profitability, mental and physical wellbeing, proactivity and inventiveness, perseverance in work, reliability, relational viability, characteristic inspiration, and high confidence and responsibility (Bankston 2014,p54). The Macedonian structure unmistakably demonstrates how Alexander is in charge of the armed force's levels of leadership. His show of physical fearlessness, as he drove his men in fight, picked up for him their dedication and regard. Did he have the physical bravery as well as mental ability as showed through his strategies in fighting (Arrian, 2013 p 20). Alexander knew that such show of fearlessness would rouse his whole armed force. In like way, a supervisor should show others how its done. His subordinates must witness his devotion first before they would tail him to the closures of the earth. Authority requires something other than individual attributes; it must be remotely arranged, giving the two objectives and motivation to those being driven. The present pioneers must learn, despite any projection, that progression and readiness are important to support the undertaking. In the contemporary business world, a pioneer's rule closes, contingent on the term set by the organization/association or by the nation's law, without the previous (Bury, 2015, p93). For the most part, in any case, regardless of whether the control on retirement age is taken after involves administration privilege. The achievement of a pioneer is enormously affected by the way the change is taken care of. Much like the instance of Alexander's realm, a vacuum in the seat of energy in associations because of a pioneer's sudden demise could prompt emergency. In our contemporary associations, issues and worries about progression are similarly as convoluted. A standout amongst the most well-known issues is the occupant's trouble of giving up and giving up nimbly. LEADERSHIP 10 There could be a great deal of different reasons, yet what John P. Kotter wishes to underline is that effective powers can exist to shield individuals from needing to resign (Russell 2014 p.66). Furthermore, when weight starts to create to constrain them to resign, as it quite often does, these same powers once in a while lead men of honesty to take activities that can have an exceedingly ruinous effect on their organizations or particular individuals or both. Alexander the Great roused and impacted numerous administration and initiative ideas that have turned into the directing mainstays of effective business pioneers and prosperous associations. The present keen administrators would do well to regard his lessons, and take a page from his example of overcoming adversity. An effective pioneer dependably assumes liability for weaknesses regardless of the possibility that they were botches dedicated by others. The pioneer realizes that he or she could have done any number of things to keep them from happening. In the war zone, Alexander did not have the advantage of time (Plutarch, 2016). His strategy included a progression of little choices that would either prompt triumph or annihilation. Due to Alexander's broad experience and present for fighting, the Macedonian armed force regularly turned out triumphant. For the individuals who show administration both formally in class and in preparing works out, or casually by obligation execution and illustration, it must be perceived that authority improvement does not end with advancement (Russell, 2014, p 60). The test for most pioneers is to perform three capacities all the while: to finish doled out missions and errands with greatness, to create administration capacity in subordinates, and to deal with their officers and their own particular prosperity. Alexander of Macedon had driven his troops effectively with the greater part of the aptitudes present day initiative tenet epitomizes. He subdued his wild stallion, roused his LEADERSHIP 11 fighters, brought together his nation, and vanquished his adversaries, yet he couldn't tame the wild interests of his own tendency (Bankston, 2014). For pioneers at each level, in the present and additionally later on, Alexander's test remains we should educate, persuade, create and lead, yet we should not overlook likewise to learn and to deal with ourselves and each other. Challenges Alexander the Great confronted a few of these difficulties in amid his rule. One of the difficulties is failure to control his awful temper and his mind-boggling aspiration. A decent pioneer ought to be reasonable and legit towards his subjects however Alexander flopped in this occasionally. His awful temper influenced him to do things that were unrespectable like savoring wine extreme sums (Russell 2014, p.27). A case of this is the passing of Cleitus the Black. He was killed by Alexander after he had smashed a ton of wine. Following this, a significant number of his subject Greeks profoundly detested him. A decent pioneer ought to dependably show others how it’s done. Be that as it may, Alexander the Great flopped in such manner. A case of such disappointment is the point at which he fell behind his armed force since Lysimachus, his educator, did not keep up (Bury 2011 p, 53). The night got up to speed with him and he did not have the insurance of his armed force nor any fire to enable him to keep the icy away. Another test that was looked by Alexander the Great was absence of fair input from his warriors. This is a major test since a pioneer depends a great deal on the input that is given by his fighters. This will empower him settle on legitimate choices and think of appropriate plans that will help in the accomplishments of the set objectives and accomplishments. What's more, he didn't have dedication to the two his companions and his subjects (Russell, 2014 p.114 ). This is LEADERSHIP 12 an awful attribute and a decent pioneer ought to dependably attempt and trust the data given to him by his subjects. Because of him being unroyal, King Alexander the Great lost his life. A decent pioneer ought to dependably acknowledge revisions and in addition reactions. Be that as it may, Alexander the Great dependably wound up noticeably unforgiving and angry to individuals who talked rude about him. This was because of his retention with his great name consequently he overlooked he can likewise commit errors or that he has shortcomings quite recently like every other person (Russell, 2014, p.143). Furthermore, Alexander would judge individuals contrarily on the off chance that they adjusted him or scrutinized his choices regardless of the possibility that the consultant was doing it because of cooperative attitude. This influenced even his subjects who challenged not speak sick about their ruler because of a paranoid fear of being murdered or hurt in any capacity. Alexander did not utilize a decent method for decision like a decent pioneer should. His statesmanship did comprise of significant imperfections as well as it was not perfect too. Alexander the Great utilized satrapy arrangement of administration which was neither viable nor perfect. This framework had turned out to be perfect already yet Alexander still utilized it. Subsequently, there was debasement, complication, and inconsistencies in his administration (Arrian 2013, p.95). Rather than the lord embracing another method for administration, he proceeded with a similar one and even assigned new satraps. This demonstrates he couldn't have cared less much about the subjects since they were the ones who endured the negative impacts of his awful administration. A decent leader ought to not overrate his laborers. Be that as it may, Alexander the Great overvalued his troops' readiness to accomplish more and in addition to go the extent that he needed to. This influenced the troops to go far than they needed to yet they couldn't address they LEADERSHIP 13 ruler since they dreaded him and needed to take after all that he requested them. Furthermore, he was egotistical to the extent the states in Greek were concerned. In such manner, Alexander the Great rode roughshod regardless of the terms of the Corinthian League. This made the territory Greece turn out to be less steady. Conclusion Plutarch was a thinker who wrote biographies about other philosophers. He also wrote widely about leadership. Alexander Great is among the thinkers that Plutarch as written. He is a good personality for studying leadership. People with authorities require certain leadership qualities. They will guide you to enhance the public. Strengths come with weaknesses as well. Alexander Great expressed weaknesses as a leader. LEADERSHIP 14 References: Arrian, ., & Hammond, M. 2013. Alexander the Great. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bankston, J. 2014. Alexander, the Great. Delaware : Mitchell Lane Publishers. Blackburn, S. (2013). Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bury, J. B. 2015. A history of Greece: To the death of Alexander the Great. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Duff, T. (2012). Plutarch's Lives: Exploring Virtue and Vice. UK: Oxford University Press. Plutarch. 2016. Plutarch's Morals. Dinslaken: Anboco. Rice, E. E. 2011. Alexander the Great. New York: History Press. Russell, D. A. 2014. Plutarch. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press.
Plutarch I Lawgivers and Examples LEADERSHIP FROM THE ANCIENTS TO THE MODERNS Who was the author?  Plutarch (Πλούταρχος), c. AD 46 – AD 120), after becoming a Roman citizen: Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. Influenced by Plato and Aristotle (Middle Platonist). His works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers. (Wiki)  Prof. Judith Mossman of the University of Nottingham  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w4a wT9lx-oY Lycurgus  Lycurgus (Λυκοῦργος; c. 700 BC) the quasilegendary lawgiver of Sparta who established the military-oriented reforms of the Spartan society.  Who was he, why did he (reportedly) leave Sparta (to return later, p. 68)?  Can you name some of his reforms? (education, war, economy, sexuality)  What was his chief aim as a leader? (p. 91)  What is the nature of leadership in Sparta? Why do people obey? (p. 96) Numa Pompilius  Numa Pompilius (reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus. He was of Sabine origin, and many of Rome's most important religious and political institutions are attributed to him.  Why was chosen king? (p. 100)  What were the traits that made Numa Pompilius an effective leader? (p. 100-101)  Did Pompilus try to make Romans more belligerent? (p. 110)  Was he different from Lycurgus? Why? In what were they similar? (p. 122 – 123) Poplicola (Publius)  Publius Valerius Poplicola or Publicola (d. 503 BC) One of the leaders who overthrew the Roman monarchy.  What was the most severe law he instituted? (See the trail of conspirators including two Lucius Janius Brutus’s sons, p. 160)  Why do you think the author of the American “Federalist Papers” used his name (Publius) as the collective pen name?  What according to Plutarch is the conduct of a wise Politician? How did Poplicola display it in his clash with the Etruscan king Lars Porsena (p. 171)  When does a body politics need a leader who is also a lawgiver (two situations)? Cato the Elder  Cato the Elder; 234 BC – 149 BC), Marcus Porcius Cato. Known as Cato the Censor (Cato Censorius), Cato the Wise (Cato Sapiens), and Cato the Ancient (Cato Priscus). A Roman senator and historian.  What his virtues and vices? (p. 530-531)  Why might Plutarch dislike some his personal features?  Why did the Romans choose him as censor? (p. 540-541)  What were his politics? (p. 543)  What was his manner of expressing himself, why was it politically effective? (p. 534)  What was his approach to Carthage? Why? (p.551)

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Leadership

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LEADERSHIP

1
Introduction

Plutarch is the old Greek student of history and instructor. He comprehended that people
are extraordinarily social animals, who continually watch the general population around them
and emulate them. Sadly, individuals frequently grow up encompassed by terrible examples
(Russell 2014, p88). Be that as it may, we can direct individuals, by furnishing them with better
examples to mirror. That is the thing that Plutarch attempted to do with his renowned work. In
authoritative terms, that implies what you say to your representatives is less imperative than what
you do.
They will observe how you carry on, treat others, adapt to pressure and whether you fulfil
on your guarantees. What's more, they will impersonate you. In the event that you discuss morals
and after that cut corners at the principal opportunity, they will take after your lead. Set a decent
case and they will follow suit (Arrian & Hammond). Plutarch would likewise caution that your
best youthful representatives will utilize you as a bar to go for and surpass. That is common.
Give them a chance to contend with you and urge them to go further.
Plutarch underscored and gave a depiction of the political, individual and military
accomplishments for each driving political figure, incorporating his consideration in transit those
characters roused and utilized initiative systems to control and impact their adherents. Plato and
Plutarch were both endeavoring to give a meaning of good and bad, plunging into a moralistic
perspective regarding this matter and applying their perceptual definitions on various pioneers
and political pioneers at an antiquated period to break down their style of administration and sort
them as terrible or great (Bankston 2014, p. 23).
Curiously, the different profiles are infamous for their blend of actuality and fiction,
history and myth, verity and chatter. Plutarch was an admirer of custom, and his prime concern

LEADERSHIP

2

was to both memorialize past glories and to reassert them as living beliefs (Rice 2011 p.55).
Along these lines, regardless of whether an occasion really happened was of little result to him,
what made a difference was the means by which the lessons from those occasions had gone into
the social awareness.
In every one of his endeavors, however academic, it is the moral issues that stay
fundamental. Plutarch was subsequently going about as an ethical defender. He needed Greeks
and Romans alike to perceive the gigantic heritage which they had acquired from the colossal
men of the past and the considerable city-conditions of the past (Plutarch 2016, p62). His point is
hence plainly instructive. There is a good to his story. What's more, that reveals to us more than
practically whatever else we think about him.
Leadership
Authority is a gathering of ideas, capabilities, and standards which has advanced after
some time portraying what a pioneer must be, know and do to achieve an undertaking or mission
(Russell 2014, p19). The effective pioneer is one who chooses the correct standards for the
correct mission at the opportune time to finish the destinations and deal with the troops. On the
off chance that warriors are focused on a reason and see duty and ability in their pioneers, if
officers see confirm that their pioneers truly look after their welfare, they will finish their
missions if humanly conceivable and deal with each other and their pioneers all the while.
Honing self-administration skills gives a proving ground to learning and creating
authority capabilities (Rice 2011, p112). Watching compelling pioneers is a fantastic approach to
create authority abilities. Following or "shadowing" regarded pioneers after some time enables
one to witness firsthand how pioneers apply their abilities in different circumstances. Permitting

LEADERSHIP

3

time for afterward reflection and talk is essential. Apprenticeship or regulatory assistantship is as
yet another approach to create initiative skills.
Lives is an asset however which understudies can go into a beneficial exchange about
critical verifiable illustrations, uncovering facts about initiative that assistance understudies to
ponder indispensable inquiries (Bury 2015 p.94). Longstanding and methodical models hold that
training can't happen without strong discourse. Venturing into the antiquated past for the first and
great case of such a model, one sees Socrates touch the souls of his numerous understudies
through discussion.
Audiences experience Socrates in the works of Plato and Xenophon (Plutarch 2016 p64).
He is also one pundit who has been portrayed as the very supporter holy person of liberal
education, draws in his understudies utilizing a strategy known as persuasion. In this model of
instruction, persuasion is a discussion in which two distinct perspectives are communicated and
subjected to balanced examination close by each other, the motivation behind which is to
demonstrate the outlandish or differentiating parts of these points of view all things considered,
consequently demonstrating reality all the more unmistakably.
As needs be, the educator has the best effect on understudies by methods for discourse,
turning their souls, so to speak, toward truth and essentially changing their lives for the great.
This unique model of persuasive training continues to the present da...

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