Write a blog post summarizing your experience

timer Asked: Dec 12th, 2017
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Question description

Write a blog post summarizing your experience.

Please see the power point and write one page about the event and start with the location, time and Topic

please do your best!

Topic: War of Independence: Another Perspective.

When: Wed, December 6, 4:30pm – 7:30pm.

Location: The Institute of World Politics
1521 16th Street NW
Washington, D.C.

Slovenian War of Independence: Another Perspective Introduction • On December 26, 1990 the results of the plebiscite for Slovenian Independence became public: an overwhelming majority of 88.5%, and 95% of all eligible voters, voted for a Slovenian independence. • The Slovenian War of Independence did not start on June 27, 1991, as it is said in history books, but sooner. It started at least in May 1991, in Pekre, a settlement part of the Maribor administrative unit. • Historically, it is no wonder that again all started in Maribor. In 1918, General Rudolf Maister and his militants in Maribor preserved the northern part of Slovenia from the Austrian hegemony, or even occupation. In 1941, only three days after the visit of Adolf Hitler to the city, the first act of insurrection in Slovenia against the occupier was carried out. • The war that was carried out by the Yugoslav People’s Army, was a war against democracy, and it showed that the Yugoslav People’s Army had the real power in Yugoslavia. The Day When Dreams Were Allowed • On June 25, 1991, the Slovenian Parliament declared Slovenian independence. • The next morning Slovenia has started to replace signs saying that this is the territory of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with signs saying this is the territory of the Republic of Slovenia at international border crossings. • The same day first army corps, especially tanks from the Yugoslav People’s Army have started to move from Croatia to Slovenia; many more left their bases inside Slovenia, to move especially toward the boarders, the capital city Ljubljana, and toward Maribor. • In the evening of the same day, June 26, 1991, it was time for Slovenia to celebrate the declaration of an independent, autonomous, and sovereign Republic of Slovenia. President Milan Kucan started his speech by saying: “With birth a human gets the right to dream. With work he gets the right to connect life and dreams. Yesterday we connected both; for us, for many generations of Slovenes which long ago have dreamed the same dreams, and for future generations which will build a new world on these dreams. Since yesterday Slovenes have their own country. … Today dreams are allowed. Tomorrow is a new day.” First Shots Fired • On June 27, 1991, the war started according to an in advanced prepared plan by the Yugoslav People’s Army. • Yugoslav People’s Army tanks went on the streets toward strategically important points in Slovenia. • The first day of combat reached its height towards the evening when Slovenian territorial defense was fighting with the Yugoslav People’s Army on twenty locations across Slovenia with the help of the police and the civil population, and when many have fallen on both sides. • Already the first day of fighting has shown something the Yugoslav government and especially Yugoslav People’s Army was not expecting: the high resistance of the Slovenian population, Slovenian territorial defense, police, and especially the civil population. • President Milan Kucan summed the events of the first day when he said: “it came to an aggression against an independent and sovereign Republic of Slovenia, and we have to counter this aggression with all means at our disposal, including weapons.” • During the first day, Dimitrij Rupel, foreign minister of the Republic of Slovenia, talked with the foreign minister of Austria, Alois Mock, and asked him for international support. • Additionally, the Slovenian Parliament sent a letter to all European governments and the European parliament to inform them about the situation in Slovenia. The Situation Intensifies and Reaches its Peak • On June 28, 1991, the Yugoslav People’s Army increased its brutality, using planes to attack the civil airport Brnik. • The Slovenian government declared the attack on the civil airport as terrorism carried out by a foreign state. • Again the Yugoslav People’s Army was surprised by what eagerness the Slovenian territorial defense, the police, and the Slovenian population was willing to fight against the aggressor. • President Kucan and Yugoslav People’s Army admiral Stane Brovet agreed on a ceasefire by 9 P.M. However, during the night and the next day, the ceasefire agreement was not honored. • The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s aggression was also the main topic in Luxemburg, where a two-day summit of the European Community was taking place. • On this day, many Slovenian soldiers, officers, and generals of the Yugoslav People’s Army took the step to terminate their service and went to the Slovenian side. Most notably was colonel Drago Brencic, whose task in the Yugoslav People’s Army was the defense of Slovenian and part of Croatian airspace. He said that he cannot continue his duties, especially not if the Yugoslav People’s Army is making air strikes on Slovenia. • Serbian authorities and especially the Yugoslav People’s Army during June 29, 1991, and the following days of the war, played a dirty propaganda war. • Later that day Yugoslav People’s Army general Andrija Raseta talked to the Slovenian defense minister Janez Jansa and minister for interior Igor Bavcar, about how to realize a ceasefire. Both sides named their main points. • During the whole day representatives of the Slovenian government had many diplomatic appointments considered to be necessary for a successful resolution of the crisis. • On June 30, July 1, and 2, 1991, the fighting continued with high intensity. On July 1, 1991, Yugoslav People’s Army started threatening Slovenia even more with the help of false statements. • July 2, 1991, is marked as the day of the heaviest bombardment of the Yugoslav People’s Army air forces during the Slovenian war of independence. • It was in the afternoon of the same day when the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s government started to feel pressure from the population in Belgrade. • Internationally the Slovenian position strengthen, and Slovenia got more support. • In the afternoon the Slovenian parliament accepted suggestions of the Yugoslavian government. The acceptance of a four-point document later proved to be the first step in changing the situation in Slovenia. • Also the US commented on the situation in Yugoslavia. The US standpoint was clearly against the violence in Yugoslavia, but also saying that Yugoslavia needs to decide everything by itself, and that the US is supporting democratization and the will of the people. Relaxation and Ceasefire • On July 3, 1991, first signs of a ceasefire were visible. Later on the same day, Yugoslav People’s Army general Raseta informed Slovenia that military helicopters in cooperation with the Red Cross will fly over Slovenia to evacuate wounded and dead soldiers - ceasefire was officially confirmed. • During the day many responses from other governments reached Slovenia and the world. Almost everyone called for a suspension of the violence. • On July 4, 1991, all fighting stooped. However, the war was still not over, at least not on the diplomatic front. • In the afternoon of July 4, the Yugoslav presidency discussed the political and security issues in Slovenia, and among other things demanded, that Slovenia immediately, or at least no later than by July 7, 1991, at midday, returns the border control back to Yugoslavia. Of course Slovenia could not accept that. Consequently, new negotiations were needed. Despite this setback, all JLA military personnel returned to their bases, and fighting stooped completely. End of the War • Events happening between July 5, 1991, and July 7, 1991, mark the end of the war for Slovenia. • On July 5, many leaders, not just in Europe, but around the world, demanded that the Yugoslav People’s Army returns to its bases and is put under political supervision. • On July 6, the most important happening were the talks about the return of the Slovenian border to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Slovenia was under no circumstance willing to accept this, despite serious military threats from the Yugoslav People’s Army. But on the other hand, Slovenia was prepared to make some compromises. This compromises were the main subject of the Brioni Declaration the next day. • The Declaration among other things declared that Slovenian police will take control over the borders on Slovenian territory, that Slovenia will wait for three months before being fully independent and recognized state, and that ceasefire is most vital for successful denouement. • The Slovenian parliament passed the Brioni Declaration on July 10, 1991. Yugoslavia on the other hand, did not honor the Declaration at the beginning. • In the end, on July 18, 1991, the presidency of Yugoslavia passed a declaration about the complete withdrawal of the armed forces and other officials from Slovenia. The last soldiers left Slovenia in the night of October 25/26, 1991. Conclusion • Slovenia played a diplomatic game that was extremely successful. At the right moments its politicians and diplomats knew when to follow a strict line and not to give in on Yugoslav and international pressure, and they knew when they have to comply in order to achieve the goals they strived for in the future. • Slovenia also knew when and how to engage the media. • Slovenia knew how and when to engage mediators with good offices, and how to engage them at the right moments. Sometimes Slovenia even played to be helpless, just to get the international support it needed. • Yugoslavia and Yugoslav People’s Army were stunned by the resistance of all Slovenians; Slovenian territorial defense, police, and the civil population was willing to do everything to gain independence. By the time the aggressor realized that, it was already too late. The people of the small country, driven by the collective memory of oppression and hegemony, saw that this was the time when Slovenia could finally become a completely independent, autonomous, and sovereign state; there was no stopping them in achieving this goal. • Sending Slovenian soldiers, pilots, and officers to attack fellow Slovenians did not help Yugoslavia, they soon turned against the Yugoslav People’s Army. At the beginning of the war, the Yugoslav People’s Army also did the mistake of sending some inexperienced soldiers to the war. By the time the Yugoslavia and the Yugoslav People’s Army realized that, the war was basically over; Slovenia was too well organized, diplomatically successful, and everyone was prepared to fight. Thank you!

Tutor Answer

School: Rice University


Running Header: Political Science.
12th December 2017.
On Wednesday, December 6th, I visited The Institute of World Politics located at 1521 16th Street
NW Washington, D.C. My topic was War of independence: Another Perspective. My experience
at the institute was fulfilling, and I gained a lot of knowledge about the topic I chose. The main
points I learned about the topic include the following:
88.5%-95% of all voters voted for Slovenian Independence on December 26, 1990.Slovenia War
of Independence did not start on June 27, 1991, as stated in history books rather it began in May
1991, i...

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Outstanding Job!!!!

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