Circut lab report

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Morgan State University School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Introduction to Electrical Laboratory EEGR 203.001 Dr. Gregory M. Wilkins Lab 0: Introduction to the Use of the Laboratory Equipment Lab Partners: Date Submitted: Name 1: Student 1 Name 2: Student 2 Name 3: Student 3 Date (Signature) (Signature) (Signature) Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to give the student an introduction to some of the measurement equipment that will be used in future experiments. . Theory During this laboratory session, students will formulate basic relations obtained from configurations of resistors in both series connections and parallel connections. Essential to the efficient completion of the laboratory is the correct use of the breadboard for temporary mounting of the resistors. The breadboard is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Bread Board Equipment The following pieces of equipment are used for this laboratory assignment:  HP 6236B Triple Output Power Supply  Fluke 45 Dual Display Multimeter  Breadboard  Wires  Alligator Clips Design Procedure This laboratory assignment does not require any student designs. Experimental Procedure Part 1: Resistors in Series 1. Obtain the following resistors and measure their resistances: R1 = 2.7 kΩ R2 = 3.9 kΩ R3 = 4.7 kΩ Record the measured values in Table 1. 2. Construct the series connection of resistors as shown in Figure 2. Record the value of resistance measured between terminals a and b, i.e. Rab. Record Rab in Table 1 as well. a A R1 2.7kΩ B R2 3.9kΩ C R3 4.7kΩ b D Figure 2: Resistors Connected in Series 3. Construct the series network with source voltage Vs = 5 V shown in Figure 3. a A R1 2.7kΩ B Vs 5V R2 3.9kΩ C R3 4.7kΩ D b Figure 3: Series network connection with source voltage Vs = 5V 4. Measure the following voltage differences: VA-B, VB-C, VC-D, VA-D. Record the measured values in Table 2. 5. Calculate the total voltage, i.e. VTOTAL = VA-B + VB-C + VC-D . Record this value in Table 2 as well. 6. Calculate the ratio VTOTAL / Rab. . Record in Table 2. 7. Use proper placement of the ammeter and measure the current I through the series connection, as shown in Figure 4. Record this value in Table 2. 8. Calculate the following results and record in Table 2: I R1, I R2, I R3 a A R1 2.7kΩ B Vs 5V R2 3.9kΩ I C R3 4.7kΩ + - 0.000 A U1 DC 1e-009Ohm D b Figure 4: Configuration to measure current in series resistors Part 2: Resistors in Parallel 1. Obtain the following resistors and measure their resistances: R1 = 2.7 kΩ R2 = 3.9 kΩ R3 = 4.7 kΩ Record the measured values in Table 1 (from earlier in the experiment). 2. Construct the parallel connection of resistors as shown in Figure5. Record the value of resistance measured between terminals a and b, i.e. Rab. Record Rab in Table 1 as well. a R1 2.7kΩ R2 3.9kΩ R3 4.7kΩ b Figure 5: Resistors Connected in Parallel 3. Construct the series network with source voltage Vs = 5 V shown in Figure 6. a A1 A2 R1 2.7kΩ Vs 5V b A3 R2 3.9kΩ B1 R3 4.7kΩ B2 B3 Figure 4: Parallel network connection with source voltage Vs = 5V 4. Measure the following voltage differences: Vab, VA1-B1, VA2-B2, VA3-B3. Record the measured values in Table 3. 5. Calculate the following ratios: Vab /Rab ; VA1-B1 /R1 ;VA2-B2 /R2 ;VA3-B3 /R3 . Record in Table 3. 6. Use proper placement of the ammeter and measure the currents I1 – I4 through the respective resistors, as shown in Figures 7a – 7d. Record these values in Table 3. U1 + 0.000 A1 a A A2 A3 a A1 A2 A3 DC 1e-009Ohm I R1 2.7kΩ Vs 5V R2 3.9kΩ R3 4.7kΩ I1 R1 2.7kΩ Vs 5V + 0.000 A R2 3.9kΩ R3 4.7kΩ U1 DC 1e-009Ohm - b B1 B2 B3 Figure 7a: Measure current I a A1 A2 b R1 2.7kΩ I2 R2 3.9kΩ + - b B1 0.000 B2 B3 A3 a Vs 5V B1 Figure 7b: Measure current I1 A R3 4.7kΩ A1 R1 2.7kΩ Vs 5V A2 R2 3.9kΩ U1 DC 1e-009Ohm B2 Figure 7c: Measure current I2 A3 I3 R3 4.7kΩ + 0.000 - B3 b B1 B2 B3 Figure 7d: Measure current I3 A U1 DC 1e-009Ohm Results Table 1: Nominal and Measured Values of Resistances Used in Lab 0 Resistances R1 R2 R3 Rab (series) Rab (parallel) Nominal Values (kΩ) 2.7 3.9 4.7 Measured Values (kΩ) 2.65 3.86 4.67 11.18 1.18 Table 2: Results from Series Resistor Configuration Measured / Calculated Quantity VA-B VB-C VC-D VA-D VTOTAL VTOTAL/Rab I I R1 I R2 I R3 1.17 V 1.71 V 2.07 V 4.95V 4.95 V 0.443 mA 0.442 mA 1.17 V 1.71 V 2.06 V Table 3: Results from Parallel Resistor Configuration Measured / Calculated Quantity Va-b VA1-B1 VA2-B2 VA3-B3 Va-b / Rab VA1-B1 / R1 VA2-B2 / R2 VA3-B3 / R3 I I1 I2 I3 5V 5V 5V 5V 4.24 mA 1.89 mA 1.29 mA 1.07 mA 4.195 mA 1.852 mA 1.282 mA 1.064 mA Calculations From Part 1: Resistors in Series VTOTAL = VA-B + VB-C + VC-D = 1.17 V + 1.71 V + 2.07 V = 4.95 V VTOTAL / Rab = 4.95 V / 11.18 kΩ = 0.443 mA I R1 = 0.442 mA * 2.65 kΩ = 1.17 V I R2 = 0.442 mA * 3.86 kΩ = 1.71 V I R1 = 0.442 mA * 4.67 kΩ = 2.06 V From Part 2: Resistors in Parallel Va-b / Rab = 5 V / 1.18 kΩ = 4.195 mA VA1-B1 / R1 = 5 V / 2.65 kΩ = 1.852 mA VA2-B2 / R2 = 5 V / 3.86 kΩ = 1.282 mA VA3-B3 / R3 = 5 V / 4.67 kΩ = 1.064 mA Discussion From Part 1: Resistors in Series, we may see that the total resistance at the terminals a-b may be determined by adding the resistance values of the individual resistors, i.e. Rab = R1 + R2 + R3 and that the total voltage is the sum of the individual voltages across each resistor, i.e. VTOTAL = VA-D = VA-B + VB-C + VC-D. The current through each resistor is the same. From Part 2: Resistors in Parallel, we may see that the total resistance at the terminals a-b may be determined by adding the inverse of the resistance values of the individual resistors and inverting the result, i.e. Rab = (1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3)-1 and that the total current is the sum of the individual currents through each resistor, i.e. I = I1 + I2 + I3. The voltage across each resistor is the same. Conclusion The purpose of this lab was to become familiar with the fundamental aspects of making voltage, resistance, and current measurements using basic pieces of equipment. We became familiar with principles of circuit theory and measurements which will be essential throughout the semester. It is clear that students must practice consistent measurement procedures in order to complete the lab assignments meaningfully and successfully. Morgan State University School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Introduction to Electrical Laboratory EEGR 203.001 Dr. Gregory M. Wilkins Lab (Number): Lab Title Lab Partners: Date Submitted: Name 1: Student 1 Name 2: Student 2 Name 3: Student 3 Date (Signature) (Signature) (Signature) Introduction A brief outline of the overall purpose of the experiment including techniques being used and goals. Techniques used may be optional depending on the lab being performed. Theory This section should include information needed in order to derive the theoretical features of the experiment. All sources of information from which expressions and definitions are obtained are to be included here. If equations are used, be sure that they are numbered sequentially, beginning with Equation (1) Equipment List the model and make of equipment being used in the experiment, including the components used, such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, etc. Design Procedure If the experiment is one of a design nature (i.e., the experiment is developed by you), then this section should show the development of your circuit. The actual calculations used by you to determine the values used in your circuit must be shown. Experimental Procedure This describes all measurement techniques, the procedural steps and the test equipment used. The manufacturer’s name and the model number of each piece of test equipment should be given. This section should also include a schematic showing the circuit and how the test equipment is connected to the circuit. List ALL schematic diagrams for the circuits analyzed. Be sure to label the values of the components used and indicate the nodes at which measurements may have been made. Label schematics sequentially, beginning with the Figure 1 as listed in YOUR report. Be sure to provide a caption for the figure. For example, Figure 1: Series Resistive Network Results This section would include all theoretical and experimental data obtained by you. These can be shown in tabular form or in graph form. In either case it is necessary to clearly identify the various data obtained by you. If graphs are used the axis must be labeled showing the type of information (current, voltage, etc) as well as the units (milli amps, volts etc). If more than one plot is shown on a graph then each plot should be individually identified with captions. For example, Figure 1: Series Resistive Network OR Table 1: Voltages Measure at Node A Discussion Discuss your results in relation to how well it matched the theoretical results and any errors that may be determined by you. Conclusion Summarize your report. Briefly state what you set out to do, what you did and any conclusions that can be drawn from your results. ...
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yassersayed93
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Morgan State University
School of Engineering
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
EEGR 203: Introduction to Electrical Laboratory
Instructor: Dr. Gregory M. Wilkins

Lab (5): V-I Relationships of Diodes and Resistor Networks

Lab Partners:
Name 1: Student 1__________________________
Name 2: Student 2__________________________
Name 3: Student 3__________________________

Date Submitted: _______________________________

Introduction
The purpose of this lab is to make use of constant voltage and
constant current sources, as well as digital multi-meters to
measure voltage and current. Voltage (V) vs. Current (I)
characterization of a resistor, a forward-biased diode, and various
series resistor-diode configuration will also be performed. Ohm's
Law and Kirchhoff's Law will also be verified.
Theory
The behavior of elements of an electrical circuit effects on the
relation between the Voltage and Current. This effect may be
grouped in two categories: Linear and Nonlinear.
The Linear elements will be most concerned in the network
analysis. The Linear element means that the voltage across an
element is proportional to the current flowing through an element
(Ohm's Law). The change in voltage whether increase (decrease)
retaliate increase (decrease) on the current and vice versa. The
study of Linear and Nonlinear elements at network analysis will be
on the most common element Resistor for Linear elements.
Resistor
It is one of the most common linear elements. The resistor is used
to limit the current that flow in the branches of the circuit or divide
voltages or currents in the circuit. In the linear elements, the
polarity of the applied voltage does not affect the magnitude of the
current that flow through it. The symbol foe a resistor is illustrated
in figure (1) blow.

Figure (1) illustration of Ohm's Law

In the nonlinear, the voltage dose not increases very greatly as
the current the current increase and vice versa. Diode is the most
common nonlinear element.

Diode
It is one of the most common nonlinear circuit elements. Diode has
two connection modes. First mode is forward biased when a
positive voltage is applied between the anode and cathode, the
current flows through the diode. Second mode is revers biased
when the voltage applied is reversed, no current flows through the
diode. The diode is commonly used in power supply circuits to
convert the Ac voltage to Dc voltage.
Because of the diode is nonlinear element, the voltage across a
diode that is forward-biased dose not increase very greatly as the
current increase and vice versa. It is another property of a diode.
Thus, diode may be used as constant voltage reference. The
voltage a forward-biased diode is from 0.6 to 0.9 volts. The symbol
for the diode is illustrated in figure (2). Diode is forward biased
when the anode is more positive terminal.

Figure (2) schematic representation of Diode

Equipment
• Variable power supply
• Multi-meter
• Diode
• 1.5 kΩ Resistor

Procedure:
Part (I): V vs. I Characteristic – Resistor
- Connecting the circuit as illustrated in figure (3).
- Connecting the voltmeter in the multi-meter in parallel with
the resistor and depressing it in DC volts key. The ammeter
in the multi-meter is connected in series with the resistor and
depressing it in DC mA key.
- Increasing the output of the power supply from 0 to 10 volts,
with one volt increments. Taking the voltage and current from
the multi-meter and record the data in Table 1A.
- Reverse the polarity of the power supply by interchanging its
terminal, and repeat the last step. Recording the data in
Table 1B

Figure (3) V-I characteristic of Resistor
Part (II): V vs. I Characteristic – Diode
- Connecting the circuit as illustrated in figure (4)....

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