Philosophy 110 What are Plato's and Aquinas's respective positions

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What are Plato's and Aquinas's respective positions on these three general questions: (1) Describe the relative reality of universals and particulars and describe how they are known (Plato, Republic, 476a-480a, 500b-d,505b-517d,540a-b; Aquinas, A Summary of Philosophy, pp. 26, par.3, 72-4, 80-5, 87-90; (2) what are their respective ethical theories and the reason for taking morally correct actions once known(Plato, Republic, 331b-368d, 419-421c, 433c-445b, 540a-b, 567d-592a, 608b-613e; Aquinas, On Law, Morality, and Politics, pp. 178, 183, pars. 2-5, 190-5); (3) What is the best political state and what are their respective views on private or communal property, marriage and the proper role of women, slaves, unbelievers, and treatment of the lower classes (Plato, Republic, 368c-541b-541b, & 590c-d; Aquinas, on kingship, in offprint of such and in Aquinas, On Law Morality, and Politics, pp. 102, par.7, 103-5, 115-6, 183, 190-5, 203, par.2, 207-9, 12-13; see also offprint from Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles, Summa Theologica, and On Kingship, pp. 152-3, 879-83, and 65-67, respectively).

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The attached word document contains the answer to Philosophy 110.


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1. Relative reality of universals and particulars

Philosophers are of the opinion that people think and talk about properties but they disagree
on the existence of universals as either a thought, speech or reality. Research has indicated
that there are two types of realism. First, Platonic realism which is of the opinion that
universals are real entities and they occur as entities independent of particulars. Secondly,
Aristotelian realism is of the opinion that even though universals are real entities, they are
entities dependent on their particulars. Therefore, according Plato universals are real...

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