Asia philosophy

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1st file attached: (GEAT)No question to do for this file. I send it in case you need more information in the lecture. (You can search online for information but please use your own word)

2nd file attached (GELO1): there are 5 + 1 extra question = 6 questions. 1 page for each question (can be little bit more or less based on the length of each question)

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THE GEAT (GE ASSESSMENT TEST) The Study Guide for the GELO1 01_ Two Parts of the Final Exam (100 Points) The Final Exam will contain one OT.F17 (Objective Test.F17) and one GEAT (GE Assessment Test). Both Final Exam tests shall be online tests. The OT.F17 will contain 25 objective questions and worth 50 points. The GEAT will contain one GEAOT (GE Assessment Objective Test) with the value of 30 points and one GELO1 Analysis with the value of 20 points. 02_ Two Components of The GEAT Of the 3 GELOs (GE Learning Outcomes), the GELO1 shall be assessed this semester according to the Philosophy Department GE Assessment Schedule. Please read the following quote about the GELO1 (GE Learning Outcome 1) and know it so as you can answer a GEAT question correctly if asked: GELO 1: Students shall be able to compare systematically the ideas, values, images, cultural artifacts, economic structures, technological developments, or attitudes of people from more than one culture outside the U.S. What the GELO1 means for the course of PHIL 104 is that students shall be able to compare systematically some important selected philosophical ideas and moral values of the 4 philosophical traditions of monsoon Asia (Buddhism <> Confucianism <> Daoism <> Hinduism). To partially satisfy the stated SJSU GELO1 requirement, the GE Assessment Test (GEAT) will be one of the main components of the Final Exam to assess your knowledge of the GE assessment materials for the GELO1. The GE assessment materials are given in the COMPARATIVE KNOWLEDGE AREA ONE for the GEAOT and the COMPARATIVE KNOWLEDGE AREA TWO for the GELO1 Analysis. The GEAT will be worth 50 points of the Final Exam (100 points) and will be given online on the Final Examination day. The GEAT for the GELO1 will contain the GEAOT (30 points) and the GELO1 Analysis (20 points). The GEAOT (GE Assessment Objective Test) will contain 60 objective questions and will be based on the basic information and ideas given in the COMPARATIVE KNOWLEDGE AREA ONE given below. The GELO1 Analysis (GE Learning Outcome 1 Essay) is worth 20 points. You should know the assessment materials by heart because you shall have 40 seconds to answer each GEAT question. Time your test-taking skills with these two sample test questions: 1) The name of the Buddhism founder is ____________________________. 2) Both Kong Zi and Lao Zi use the concept “dao” to convey the “way” of their basic teachings (Confucian Dao and Laoian Dao). a. True. b. False. 1 COMPARATIVE KNOWLEDGE AREA ONE The 4 Intellectual Traditions of Monsoon Asia Compared Instructions: You must know the answer for each assessment question and the answers for all assessment questions under Knowledge Area A (1-11). It is best to memorize the answer as I have memorized all things covered in class and beyond. 1_ What are the four intellectual traditions of monsoon Asia that have been most influential therein and in the contemporary Western world? a. Buddhism b. Confucianism c. Daoism d. Hinduism 2_ What are the four philosophical traditions of monsoon Asia that have been most influential therein and in the contemporary Western world? a) Buddhist philosophy b) Confucianist philosophy c) Daoist philosophy d) Hindu philosophy Notes: Most books on Chinese philosophy preferred the title “Confucian philosophy” or “Confucian thought” or “Confucian Dao.” I disagree with each designation because it is incapable of distinguishing the philosophy of Confucianism in general and that of each Confucianist philosopher. By “Confucianist philosophy,” I mean only the philosophy of Confucianism in general. 3_ What do you know about Buddhism? a) What is the name of the Buddhism founder? a. Siddhartha Gautama b) What is the date of the Buddhism founder? a. 563-483 BCE c) What is the nationality of the Buddhism founder? a. A Shakya thinker (born prince of the ancient South Asian and non-Hindu kingdom SHAKYA) d) What is the most famous honorific title of the Buddhism founder? a. The Buddha e) What are the 2 English translations of the honorific title Buddha? a. “The Awakened One” b. “The Enlightened One” f) What name of the sutra (text) that contains the Buddha’s early Dharma and its scriptural (canonized) title? a. “The First Sermon” (its original name) b. “The Sutra on Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dharma” (title) g) What are the “Three Jewels” of Buddhism? a. The Buddha as the Teacher b. The Dharma as the Teachings c. The Sangha as the Order (of monks and nuns) 2 4_ What do you know about Confucianism? a) Honorific title of the Confucianism founder? a. Confucius or Kong Zi (Master Kong [current Pinyin Romanization]) b) Date of its founder? a. 551-479 BCE c) Nationality of the Confucianism founder? a. A Lu thinker (a nobleman of the ancient East Asian and pre-Chinese kingdom LU [Việt Nho “Lỗ”]) d) Teachings of the Confucianism founder? a. The Dao of the Superior Man b. The Golden Rule (“What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others.” [Lun Yu XV.23]) e) Name of text containing the Confucian Dao (teachings) of its founder? a. The Analects (Sayings of Confucius [Lun Yu]) 5_ What do you know about Daoism? a) Honorific title of the Daoism founder? a. Lao Zi (current Pinyin) or Lao Tzu (old Wade-Giles Romanization) b) Date of the Daoism founder? a. Uncertain but assumed to be 6th century BCE (an older contemporary of Confucius) c) Nationality of the Daoism founder? a. A Chu philosopher (an ancient East Asian and pre-Chinese kingdom CHU [Việt Nho “Sở”]) d) Teachings of the Daoism founder? a. Mother Dao as “the beginning of Heaven and Earth” and “the mother of the ten thousand things” (DDJ, chapter 1) b. The Dao of Non-Action (Wu Wei Dao) i. “The Dao does nothing (wei wu wei) but nothing is left undone.” c. The way of soft power for action (you wei) and non-action (wu wei) i. “The softest thing in the world conquers the hardest thing in the world.” (DDJ, chapter 43) e) Name of text containing the Laoian Dao (teachings) of its founder? a. The Dao De Jing (Classic of the Way and Its Virtue) or The Tao Te Ching (old Wade-Giles) or The Đạo Đức Kinh (Việt Nho) 6_ What do you know about Hinduism? 1) Honorific title of the Hinduism founder? a. Hinduism has NO founder b. But many generations of Hindu Brahmins (high priests) 2) Name of scripture containing the basic teachings of Hinduism? a. The Vedas (there are 4 Vedas [Books of Knowledge]) 3 3) Name of philosophical texts containing the early philosophy of Hinduism? a. The Upanishads (there are over 200 Upanishads and are placed at the end of each Veda of the four Vedas). 4) Name of Upanishadic text used in PHIL 104? a. The Chandogya Upanishad. 5) What does Uddalaka teach in The Chandogya Upanishad? a. Sat (Being) is the Supreme Being (a special name Uddalaka uses instead of the common concept Atman or Brahman found in other Upanishads) b. Sat is universally immanent because Uddalaka claims that It is “the subtle essence” living inside each non-human thing (like a Nyagrodha seed) and It is the “Atman” living inside each human being. 6) Why should we interpret the Uddalaka’s view of Sat (Being) or the world or the Nyagrodha seed for that matter to be theoretically a metaphysical view rather than an ontological view? a. The Uddalaka view of the world in general or the Nyagrodha seed in particular can be interpreted to be metaphysical because: i. Uddalaka apparently divides the world or the Nyagrodha seed into two completely different realms, the physical realm, which is external and visible; and the metaphysical realm, which is internal and invisible, that is to say the world or a seed has two completely different aspects, forming a duality. ii. Uddalaka considers the metaphysical realm to be truly real but not the physical realm because the former is the eternal Sat but not the latter even though in the latter Sat lives. iii. It is therefore “beyond” (meta) the physical realm there is the metaphysical realm, which Uddalaka views as “the eternal reality” because it is the Supreme Being Sat Himself. iv. But his son Shevetaketu failed to perceive this “true” reality being inherently immanent in the Nyagrodha seed because he viewed it physically but not metaphysically. 1. Answer this IQ question: Why can Uddalaka’s view of Sat be judged to be also monotheistic in its religious nature? 7_ In what way can Buddhism be compared to Confucianism, Daoism, Hinduism? What can differentiate Buddhism from Confucianism, Daoism, and Hinduism is its psychological orientation, which means that Buddhism focuses on the 2 psychological aspects of human life (as expressed the first Noble Truth and the second Noble Truth), namely, the psychological problem of dukkha (suffering, misery, un-satisfactoriness), and the psychological problem of tanha (desire, craving), and their complete eliminations for the realization of nirvana (bliss and enlightenment). 4 8_ In what way can Confucianism be compared to Buddhism, Daoism, Hinduism? What can differentiate Confucianism from Buddhism, Daoism, and Hinduism is its social orientation, which means that Confucianism focuses on the social problem of luan (chaos) and its complete elimination through (1) moral self-cultivation (each person), (2) punishment, and (3) moral government for the realization of the “Five Good Fortunes” (like Happiness, Longevity, Serenity, and Security). 9_ In what way can Daoism be compared to Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism? What can differentiate Daoism from the other three intellectual traditions of monsoon Asia (Buddhism <> Confucianism <> Hinduism) is its natural orientation, which means that Daoism focuses on Nature (the natural world) and consider it to be the foundation of the human world and the good natural solution to all human problems. The way to solve human problems is NOT to develop more human culture and to transform Nature as advocated by Confucianism BUT to understand Nature, return to Nature, and live the good life in harmony with Nature. The Daoist approach is thus different from the Confucianist one. The cultural approach maintained and practiced by adherents of Confucianism, and the natural approach by adherents of Daoism can be traced to their ancient East Asian founders, Kong Zi 孔子 Khổng Tử and Lao Zi 老子 Lão Tử, who had both used the same ancient East Asian concept DAO/TAO (Chinese) 道 ĐẠO (Việtnamese) 道 DO (Japanese) had understood it differently. The first difference is that Kong Zi understands “Dao” to be inherently good (like the Dao of the Superior Man) but the “Dao” can be good (like the Mother Dao and the Dao of Heaven) and bad (like the Dao of Ren [the noblemen of the ruling nobility during the Lao Zi time]). The second difference is that Kong Zi only talks about the Dao of Man (like the Dao of ancient Kings and the Dao of the Superior Man) but Lao Zi talks about the Dao of Nature (like the Mother Dao and the Dao of Heaven) as the natural foundation of the Dao of Humanity (like the Dao of the Holy Sage, the Dao of Ren, the Dao of Action [you wei] and the Dao of Non-Action [wu wei]). Thus, the Confucian view of the Dao can be characterized to be fundamentally a cultural vision in contrast to the Laoian view of the (Mother) Dao to be a natural vision. This can be argued to have been the reason why in chapter 25 of his famous Dao De Jing (Đạo Đức Kinh), Lao Zi writes these words: Man models himself after Earth. Earth models itself after Heaven. Heaven models itself after [the] Tao. And [the] Tao models itself after Nature. (Phan 2002: 289, trans. Wing-tsit Chan 1963) The natural vision that Lao Zi expresses here can be interpreted to mean that there is a natural order that has made cosmic unity and harmony possible (by way of a cosmic system of successive dependencies and interdependences). 5 10_ In what way can Hinduism be compared to Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism? What can differentiate Hinduism from the other three intellectual traditions of monsoon Asia (Buddhism <> Confucianism <> Hinduism) is its spiritual or religious orientation, which means that Hinduism focuses on Brahman (God) rather than on Nature or Society because Brahman is the Ultimate Reality upon which all things depend and from Which all things had been generated and to Which all things have been returning. To know Brahman is to know Its “Three Forms” (which can be compared with the Christian Trinity [Father<>Son<>Holy Spirit]). The Three Forms of Brahman are called “Brahma” as the Creator, who had created the universe, “Vishnu” as the Preserver, who has been preserving the universe, and “Shiva” as the Destroyer, who will destroyed the universe when the current cosmic cycle comes to an end. The highest religious goal is to achieve religious moksha (religious salvation), which means to be near Brahman in the being of Vishnu or Shiva or Kali in relation to the highest philosophical goal is to achieve philosophic moksha (philosophic selfenlightenment), which means to be one with Brahman. Hindus in North India worship either Vishnu or Shiva but Hindus in South India prefer Kali (the black Goddess). To self-realize the state of being one with Brahman means that when one knows that one’s own soul Atman is Brahman, that is, knowing the Atman-Brahman identity (Atman = Brahman), and living the moral and free life in harmony with the essence of that philosophical vision. That is the highest form of existentially spiritual life grounded upon the highest form of philosophic self-enlightenment (philosophic moksha). 11_ What are the main similarities between Buddhism <> Confucianism <> Daoism <> Hinduism that one can find? Even though, their basic orientations are quite diverse and different, namely, Hinduism focuses on God, Daoism on Nature, Confucianism on Society, and Buddhism on (the suffering) Self, they all emphasize the supreme importance of Knowledge as one of the intellectual preconditions for the ultimate resolution of all the problems of humanity. That is to say, one should have the knowledge of God, the knowledge of Nature, the knowledge of Society, and the knowledge of Self (the suffering Individual). To free oneself from dukkha, the Buddha emphasizes that one should know that one is suffering (that also means that one must know “The First Noble Truth” [Life is dukkha]). Next, one should know the internal cause of one’s dukkha, that is, one’s own tanha. Why knowledge is essential to one’s own self-liberation according to the Buddha? If one does not know that one is suffering and does not know the true cause of one’s own dukkha, one has no urgent reason to do anything. The second general similarity between the Big 4 is that they all aim at creating the Good Life based on the pursuit of TRUTH, GOODNESS, AND BEAUTY, even though, their approaches and methods are greatly different. And the third general similarity between Buddhism <> Confucianism <> Daoism <> Hinduism is that they have all emphasized the supreme importance of Enlightenment Wisdom, even though, different terms are used and different meanings are given. For Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddhism founder, philosophical enlightenment is called “Buddhahood” (the state of becoming and being the Buddha), which means that, 6 by using his new method of meditation and relying upon his own Buddha-nature, he was able to discover the true natures of life and the true natures of reality on the one hand, and to work out the true solution for the realization of the good life of nirvana and bliss (enlightenment and supreme happiness) on the other hand. The true natures of life were expressed in his famous “Four Noble Truths” (the Buddha’s doctrine of life), the true natures of reality were given in his doctrine of reality called the “Three Marks of Existence” (better “Three Marks of Reality”), and the true solution called “The Noble Eightfold Path” (the Buddha’s method of existential practice). But for thinkers of the later development of the second branch of Buddhism called the “Big Vehicle Buddhism” (Mahayana Buddhism), the Mahayana Buddhism term for enlightenment, which is used in The Heart Sutra, is called “prajnaparamita” (“prajna” means “wisdom” and the whole word is translated differently as “self-transcending wisdom” or “perfect wisdom” or “enlightenment”). The famous Mahayana philosopher, Avalokiteshvara, who claims to have himself obtained his own prajnaparamita in The Heart Sutra because it is said therein that he is able to intuitively grasped the “emptiness” (shunyata) of all things that are. This act of philosophic self-realization came about after he had freed himself from his own “mental hindrances,” that is his own dualistic thinking habit, which had forced his mind to view and categorize all things into permanently fixed opposites like “emptiness” (shunyata) and “form” (rupa), which had prevented him from seeing things the way they truly are. To be philosophically self-enlightened for Avalokiteshvara is to know and grasp the ontological truth that everything is inherently “empty” (shunya) because, first, it is empty of its own sabhava, that is to say, it does not possess its “own nature” or its own “essence” or its self-existence; second, it is “impermanent” (n. anicca), that is to say, it is constantly changing (always in a state of constant flux); and third, it is “interdependent”/ “dependent”/“co-arising” (n. pratityasamutpada), that is to say, it depends on everything else in the whole universe in order for it to come into being and to exist and to pass out of existence. For example, you are not really conscious that your life right now depends on everything and all things, invisible like oxygen, and visible like the Milky Way. The Hindu term moksha means release. For philosophical enlightenment, it is called philosophic moksha; and for religious salvation, it is called religious moksha. Religious moksha means, first, to be released from samsara (the cycle of rebirth and suffering) or no more rebirth, and second, to be near Brahman in the being of the great God Vishnu or Shiva or the great Goddess Kali. Philosophical moksha means, first, the complete negation of ignorance; second, the complete knowledge of the true natures of reality; third, the supreme bliss that one lives one’s philosophically self-enlightened life; and fourth, the total freedom from all internal and external forces (like one’s desire and God). Thus, for Uddalaka, philosophic self-enlightenment (philosophic moksha) means that Sat is universally immanent, that is to say, the Supreme Being (“God”) lives inside every non-human living thing (like the Nyagrodha seed) as its “subtle essence” and inside each human being as one’s Atman. A review question: Why does Uddalaka use the philosophical concept “subtle essence” to represent Sat as It lives in every non-human living thing but the concept “Atman” to designate Sat as It lives inside a person like you? For Daoism, the philosophical concept “ming” 明 “minh” (means “brightness” of the sun and the moon combined) is used to indicate “enlightenment” (明). For Lao Zi, 7 enlightenment has many meanings. But ontologically and cosmologically speaking, philosophical self-enlightenment (明) means that when one realizes that the totality of Heaven<>Earth<>the Ten Thousand Things had come into cosmic being as the direct result of the self-evolution of the Mother Dao (DDJ, chapter 42), and that everything else or all things within this cosmic whole are the Mother Dao itself in its actuality. To put it differently, the Mother Dao is everything in its totality (not in) but is simultaneously not everything because the Mother Dao is also all other things. Thus, the One is the Many and the Many is the One. It is interesting to further notice the distinction between “wisdom” (智) and “enlightenment” (明) that Lao Zi makes. So Lao Zi 老子 Lão Tử says in his Dao De Jing/ Tao Te Ching (The Classic of the Way and Its Virtue): Knowing [other-ccp] men is wisdom (知人者智) Knowing oneself is enlightenment (自知者明) Note: During the time of Lao Zi 老子 Lão Tử (ca. 6th century BCE), the term “ren” 人 “nhân” (man) was understood to mean only those male members of the ruling nobility in each of the kingdoms in the Yellow River Valley. COMPARATIVE KNOWLEDGE AREA TWO The GEAT Topics for your one GELO1 Analysis Instructions Choose ONE of the two topics to do your GELO1 Analysis (#01-#02). But make ABSOLUTELY sure that you will NOT pick the SAME topic that one of your classmate friends has taken. Reproduce the topic of your choice exactly and completely as given below by copying it from the version in Word format and pasting it to your work. This Word version is called The GELO1 Analysis.docx (which contains topic for extra credits). Topic #01 > A Comparative Cosmogony Question (21 Points) How had all things come being? 01_ The Laoian Cosmogony Quote The Tao gave birth to the one. The one gave birth to the two. The two gave birth to the three, And the three gave birth to the Ten Thousand Things. (The Dao De Jing, chapter 42, trans. N. J. Girardot 1983, cited in Phan 2002: 206) 8 02_ The Student Hermeneutical Tasks (8 Points) 02.a (2.5 points): What are the key concepts used by Lao Zi/Lao Tzu? List them (in low cases – a rule of thumb: a concept is normally understood as a noun). 02.b (0.5 point): What does the word “tao/dao” (道) literally mean? 02.c (2 points): How many phases/stages of cosmogonic development of the Tao/Dao are there according to Lao Zi? Give the number. 02.d (3 points): Had the Tao/Dao created or had it evolved itself into the Ten Thousand Things? First, indicate the meaning of the biological concept “the Ten Thousand Things” (given in class lectures many times). Second, make your cosmogonic point in the form of a thesis-sentence to answer the question (#02.c) and argue to validate your point. Notes: The Việtnamese pronunciations: Đạo, Lão Tử, Đạo Đức Kinh. 03_ The Uddalaka Cosmogony Quote … in the beginning, only Sat (Being), without a second. “It thought, may I be many, may I grow forth. It sent forth Fire. “That Fire thought, may I be many, may I grow forth. It sent forth Water. ……………………………………………………….. “Water thought, may I be many, may I grow forth. It sent forth Earth. (The Chandogya Upanishad, Sixth Khanda, cited in Phan 2002: 264) Notes: Be known that during the Upanishadic time (ca. 800-200 BCE), Fire, Water, and Earth had been believed and worshiped by the ancient Hindu people as the powerful “Fire God” (still worshiped daily today as Agni), the powerful “Water God,” and the powerful “Earth God.” 04_ The Student Hermeneutical Tasks (7 Points) 04.a (3 points): What are the key concepts used by Uddalaka in the quote? List them in low cases (a rule of thumb: a concept is normally understood as a noun). 04.b (1.5 points): How many phases/stages of cosmogonic development of Sat are there according to Uddalaka? Give the number. 04.c (2 points): Had Sat created Itself or had it evolved Itself into the three creator gods (Fire > Water > Earth)? Make your cosmogonic point in the form of a thesis-sentence to answer the cosmogonic question (#04.c) and argue to validate your cosmogonic point. 9 04.d (0.5): What is one of the other two famous Upanishadic concepts that can be considered to be an equivalent of Sat? Identify it. 05_ General Comparative Analyses (6 Points) 05.a (2 points): Is the theoretical nature of the topic (#01) cosmogonic or cosmological? Make your claim in the form of a sentence and argue to validate your point. 05.b (2 points): Why can the Uddalaka view of Sat be argued to be monotheistic in its theoretical nature but the Laoian view of Tao/Dao to be rather non-monotheistic? Make your point in the form of a thesis-sentence and argue to validate your claim. 05.c (2 points): Why can the Uddalaka cosmogony be argued to be self-creationistic but the Laoian cosmogony to be self-evolutionary? Make your point in the form of a thesissentence and argue to validate your claim. Topic #02 > A Philosophical Method Question (20 points) How should the Nyagrodha seed be viewed? First, for the Uddalaka view and method, use the “Twelfth Khanda” of “The Chandogya Upanishad” as your textual basis (Phan 2002: 265) for your interpretation of the Uddalaka view of the Nyagrodha seed. For the Laoian view and method, use chapter 1 and chapter 16 of The Dao De Jing as your textual basis (Phan 2002: 73.[1], 73-74.[4]). 01_ The Uddalaka Metaphysics Quote The father said: “My son, that subtle essence which you do not perceive there, of that very essence this great Nyagrodha tree exists. “Believe it, my son. That which is the subtle essence, in it all that exists has its self. It is the True. It is the Self, and thou, O Svetaketu, art it.” (“The Chandogya Upanishad,” cited in Phan 2002: 265) 02_ The Student Hermeneutic Tasks (8 Points) 02.a (2 points): What are the key concepts used in the quote? List them. 02.b (2 points): Why can the method that Uddalaka used to teach his son about the metaphysics of Sat by means of the Nyagrodha seed be called an experiential method (Twelfth Khanda)? Make a point in the form of a sentence and argue for its validation. 02.c (4 points): Why can the method Uddalaka used to teach his son Svetaketu about how to view the Nyagrodha seed be called a metaphysical method (as revealed in the quote)? Make a point in the form of a sentence and argue to validate your point. 10 03_ The Laoian Ontology Quotes Therefore let there always be non-being [wu 無 vô-ccp] so we may see their subtlety. And let there always be being [you 有 hữu-ccp] so we may see their outcome [or manifestation-ccp]. (The Dao De Jing, chapter 1, trans. Wing-tsit Chan 1963, cited in Phan 2002: 73) Being empty to the utmost Maintaining complete tranquility The ten thousand things come forth I thereby observe their returns All things flourish luxuriantly Each one of them returns to its root Returning to the root is called tranquility It is the return to destiny (The Dao De Jing, chapter 16, trans. Chánh Công Phan 2012, for translation by Wing-tsit Chan 1963, see Phan 2002: 73) 04_ The Student Hermeneutical Tasks (10 Points) 04.a (5 points): What are the key concepts used in the two quotes? List them. 04.b (3 points): Given the way Lao Zi views the Mother Dao in chapter 1 and the ten thousand things in chaper 16 as the methodological basis, how would Lao Zi view the Nyagrodha seed if he were asked? Make your point in the form of a sentence and argue for your claim. 04.c (2 points): Why can the Laoin view of the Nyagrodha seed (as interpreted by you) be called an ontological view rather than a metaphysical view performed by Uddalaka? Make your point in the form of a sentence and argue for your claim. 05_ General Comparative Analyses (2 Points) 05.a (2 points): Why can the Uddalaka view of the Nyagrodha seed be called a monotheistic view but the Laoian view of the Nyagrodha seed a non-monotheistic view (or organic view)? Make your point in the form of a thesis-sentence and argue to validate your claim. Notes: Answers to all these questions had been addressed in my class lectures and given in my PowerPoint lectures (Canvas Modules). 11
The GELO1 Analysis.docx COMPARATIVE KNOWLEDGE AREA TWO The GEAT Topics for your one GELO1 Analysis Instructions Choose ONE of the two topics to do your GELO1 Analysis (#01-#02). But make ABSOLUTELY sure that you will NOT pick the SAME topic that one of your classmate friends has taken. Reproduce the topic of your choice exactly and completely as given below by copying it from the version in Word format and pasting it to your work. This Word version is called EX3.F17.GELO1 Analysis.docx. Where to write your answer? Write your answer in BOLD with green color after each sub-question (like 02.a). Notice the point value of each sub-question (like 2.5 points for 02.a). Topic #01 > A Comparative Cosmogony Question (21 Points) How had all things come being? 01_ The Laoian Cosmogony Quote The Tao gave birth to the one. The one gave birth to the two. The two gave birth to the three, And the three gave birth to the Ten Thousand Things. (The Dao De Jing, chapter 42, trans. N. J. Girardot 1983, cited in Phan 2002: 206) 02_ The Student Hermeneutical Tasks (8 Points) 02.a (2.5 points): What are the key concepts used by Lao Zi/Lao Tzu? List them (in low cases – a rule of thumb: a concept is normally understood as a noun). 02.b (0.5 point): What does the word “tao/dao” (道) literally mean? 02.c (2 points): How many phases/stages of cosmogonic development of the Tao/Dao are there according to Lao Zi? Give the number. 02.d (3 points): Had the Tao/Dao created or had it evolved itself into the Ten Thousand Things? First, indicate the meaning of the biological concept “the Ten Thousand Things” (given in class lectures many times). Second, make your cosmogonic point in the form of a thesis-sentence to answer the question (#02.c) and argue to validate your point. Notes: The Việtnamese pronunciations: Đạo, Lão Tử, Đạo Đức Kinh. 1 03_ The Uddalaka Cosmogony Quote … in the beginning, only Sat (Being), without a second. “It thought, may I be many, may I grow forth. It sent forth Fire. “That Fire thought, may I be many, may I grow forth. It sent forth Water. ……………………………………………………….. “Water thought, may I be many, may I grow forth. It sent forth Earth. (The Chandogya Upanishad, Sixth Khanda, cited in Phan 2002: 264) Notes: Be known that during the Upanishadic time (ca. 800-200 BCE), Fire, Water, and Earth had been believed and worshiped by the ancient Hindu people as the powerful “Fire God” (still worshiped daily today as Agni), the powerful “Water God,” and the powerful “Earth God.” 04_ The Student Hermeneutical Tasks (7 Points) 04.a (3 points): What are the key concepts used by Uddalaka in the quote? List them in low cases (a rule of thumb: a concept is normally understood as a noun). 04.b (1.5 points): How many phases/stages of cosmogonic development of Sat are there according to Uddalaka? Give the number. 04.c (2 points): Had Sat created Itself or had it evolved Itself into the three creator gods (Fire > Water > Earth)? Make your cosmogonic point in the form of a thesis-sentence to answer the cosmogonic question (#04.c) and argue to validate your cosmogonic point. 04.d (0.5): What is one of the other two famous Upanishadic concepts that can be considered to be an equivalent of Sat? Identify it. 05_ General Comparative Analyses (6 Points) 05.a (2 points): Is the theoretical nature of the topic (#01) cosmogonic or cosmological? Make your claim in the form of a sentence and argue to validate your point. 05.b (2 points): Why can the Uddalaka view of Sat be argued to be monotheistic in its theoretical nature but the Laoian view of Tao/Dao to be rather non-monotheistic? Make your point in the form of a thesis-sentence and argue to validate your claim. 05.c (2 points): Why can the Uddalaka cosmogony be argued to be self-creationistic but the Laoian cosmogony to be self-evolutionary? Make your point in the form of a thesissentence and argue to validate your claim. 2 Topic #02 > A Philosophical Method Question (20 points) How should the Nyagrodha seed be viewed? First, for the Uddalaka view and method, use the “Twelfth Khanda” of “The Chandogya Upanishad” as your textual basis (Phan 2002: 265) for your interpretation of the Uddalaka view of the Nyagrodha seed. For the Laoian view and method, use chapter 1 and chapter 16 of The Dao De Jing as your textual basis (Phan 2002: 73.[1], 73-74.[4]). 01_ The Uddalaka Metaphysics Quote The father said: “My son, that subtle essence which you do not perceive there, of that very essence this great Nyagrodha tree exists. “Believe it, my son. That which is the subtle essence, in it all that exists has its self. It is the True. It is the Self, and thou, O Svetaketu, art it.” (“The Chandogya Upanishad,” cited in Phan 2002: 265) 02_ The Student Hermeneutic Tasks (8 Points) 02.a (2 points): What are the key concepts used in the quote? List them. 02.b (2 points): Why can the method that Uddalaka used to teach his son about the metaphysics of Sat by means of the Nyagrodha seed be called an experiential method (Twelfth Khanda)? Make a point in the form of a sentence and argue to validate your point. 02.c (4 points): Why can the method Uddalaka used to teach his son Svetaketu about how to view the Nyagrodha seed be called a metaphysical method (as revealed in the quote)? Make a point in the form of a sentence and argue to validate your point. 03_ The Laoian Ontology Quotes Therefore let there always be non-being [wu 無 vô-ccp] so we may see their subtlety. And let there always be being [you 有 hữu-ccp] so we may see their outcome [or manifestation-ccp]. (The Dao De Jing, chapter 1, trans. Wing-tsit Chan 1963, cited in Phan 2002: 73) Being empty to the utmost Maintaining complete tranquility The ten thousand things come forth I thereby observe their returns All things flourish luxuriantly 3 Each one of them returns to its root Returning to the root is called tranquility It is the return to destiny (The Dao De Jing, chapter 16, trans. Chánh Công Phan 2012, for translation by Wing-tsit Chan 1963, see Phan 2002: 73) 04_ The Student Hermeneutical Tasks (10 Points) 04.a (5 points): What are the key concepts used in the two quotes? List them. 04.b (3 points): Given the way Lao Zi views the Mother Dao in chapter 1 and the ten thousand things in chaper 16 as the methodological basis, how would Lao Zi view the Nyagrodha seed if he were asked? Make your point in the form of a sentence and argue for your claim. 04.c (2 points): Why can the Laoin view of the Nyagrodha seed (as interpreted by you) be called an ontological view rather than a metaphysical view performed by Uddalaka? Make your point in the form of a sentence and argue for your claim. 05_ General Comparative Analyses (2 Points) 05.a (2 points): Why can the Uddalaka view of the Nyagrodha seed be called a monotheistic view but the Laoian view of the Nyagrodha seed a non-monotheistic view (or organic view)? Make your point in the form of a thesis-sentence and argue to validate your claim. The Short Essay for 5 Extra Credits Write a short essay addressing this existential philosophy question: Why do you think that a philosophically self-enlightened person would not admire or despise the other but a practically wise person would? Make at least two arguments. For each argument, you should follow the SIX-STEP PROCEDURE OF SCHOLARLY WRITING. 4

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Fridah G
School: New York University

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Topic #02 > A Philosophical Method Question
02.a) What are the key concepts used in the quote? List them.
Metaphysical concepts, methodological concept, the concept of fundamental unity in all
that exists
02.b) (2 points): Why can the method that Uddalaka used to teach his son about the
metaphysics of Sat by means of the Nyagrodha seed be called an experiential method
(Twelfth Khanda)? Make a point in the form of a sentence and argue to validate your
point.
The philosophical method used by Uddalaka can be categorized as experiential because it
places emphasis on the observation plus physical interactions with the nyagrodha fruit
plus its seed. The reference and description of the functions of (the determiners) "this"
and "that" refer to the one as well as the same reality. Nevertheless, they describe this
one reality in view of two dissimilar aspects of inquiry into this reality. It is this reference
to "this" world that entails an experiential way of inquest into the immeasurable diversity
of the prodigious facets of the world. This requires a clear description and narration by
pointing out to the specific phenomena of the world. The reference to "that" world,
entails a contemplative, and reflective approach of investigation into the non-observable
(the "inner,") world of ideas. That is, concepts and notions that helps us to understand the
order plus the ultimate unanimity in the manifold phenomena, without which we cannot
achieve meaningful as well as consistent explanations of the experiential biosphere. The
father teaches Śvetaketu using practical examples of life.

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02.c) (4 points): Why can the method Uddalaka used to teach his son Svetaketu about
how to view the Nyagrodha seed be called a metaphysical method (as revealed in the
quote)? Make a point in the form of a sentence and argue to validate your point.

Uddalaka claims that only the subtle core of the Nyagrodha seed is the true Self
without distinguishing the form of the seed as its material basis. This indicates the
implication of the metaphysical as well as dualistic distinction that one can interpret to be
inherent in the view of Uddalaka about the Nyagrodla seed in particular and of reality in
general. First, the method can be called "metaphysical" since the soul of a perso...

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Top quality work from this guy! I'll be back!

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