Article Critique :Why did the authors use mediation in their multiple regression model

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The Assignment

Write a 2- to 3-page critique of the research article (ATTACHED) that includes responses to the following prompts:

  • Why did the authors use mediation in their multiple regression model?
  • Do you think mediation is the most appropriate choice? Why or why not?
  • Did the authors display the results in a figure or table?
  • Does the results table stand alone? In other words, are you able to interpret the study from it? Why or why not?
    • Use the template to write response (ATTACHED)

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Journal of Education and Learning; Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 E-ISSN 1927-5269 ISSN 1927-5250 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education The Role of Academic Self-Efficacy as a Mediator Variable between Perceived Academic Climate and Academic Performance Moustafa Abd-Elmotaleb1, 2 & Sudhir K. Saha1 1 Faculty of Business Administration, Memorial University, Newfoundland, Canada 2 Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Commerce, Assiut University, Egypt Correspondence: Moustafa Abd-Elmotaleb, Faculty of Business Administration, Memorial University, Newfoundland, Canada. E-mail: mama38@mun.ca Received: July 10, 2013 doi:10.5539/jel.v2n3p117 Accepted: July 26, 2013 Online Published: August 14, 2013 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jel.v2n3p117 Abstract This study examines the mediating influence of academic self-efficacy on the link between perceived academic climate and academic performance among university students. The participants in the study consist of 272 undergraduate students at the University of Assiut, Assiut, Egypt. A scale to measure perceived academic climate, was developed. To ensure this scale was both reliable and valid we used Crombach's alpha test. We relied on Landry's category "self-efficacy for academic achievement" from The College Student Self-Efficacy Scale (CSSES) to assess academic self-efficacy. Participants' GPAs were used as a measure of academic performance. Descriptive statistics, (Person Product Moment Correlation, T-test as well as simple and multiple regressions) were used to analyze the data. The results demonstrated that perceived academic climate and academic self-efficacy significantly correlated with students' academic performance. The mediating effect of academic self-efficacy on the relationship between perceived academic climate and students' academic performance was also established. It is worth mentioning that academic self-efficacy mediated the relationship between perceived academic climate and academic performance in the theoretical schools sample (full mediation), male and female samples (partial mediation). In contrast, it could not mediate this relationship in the practical schools sample. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that academic self-efficacy should be enhanced using counseling strategies. Keywords: academic climate, academic self-efficacy, performance, Egypt 1. Introduction Since the late 1950s, observers of educational and business organizations have garnered a rich array of research data from the study of organizational climate (Smith, 2002). Originally, "climate was used as a general notion to express the enduring quality of organizational life" (Hoy and Sabo, 1998). Organizational climate is descriptive of the total organization, and although measured, is gauged primarily by the perception of its members. In the educational setting, the organizational academic climate is the multidimensional social space conformed by a very complex net of social and psychological interactions among members of an academic community, where processes of educational institutions take place (Flories, Rodriguez and Franco, 2010). Research demonstrated that open and healthy educational institute's climate represents a vital role in the development of purposefully directed educational institute environment (Hoy and Feldman, 1987, 1999). Hoy and Miskel (1996) assert that educational climate is a relatively enduring quality of the entire educational institute that is experienced by members, describes their collective perceptions of routine behavior, and affects their attitudes and behavior in the educational institute. Investigating the concept of organizational academic climate in educational institutes has proven to be challenging. A closer look at the relationship of the educational institute climate to student learning and performance is needed, especially in Arab countries, as few studies have concentrated on the effects of the educational climate on student performance. It is worth mentioning, that the connection between academic climate and student academic performance has been well-established in research (Kober, 2001; Smith, 2002; Loukas and Robinson, 2004; Norton, 2008). On the other hand, self-efficacy has its root in the social cognitive theory proposed by Bandura (1986). Self-efficacy is concerned with a person's beliefs in his or her capabilities to learn or perform behavior at 117 www.ccsenet.org/jel Journal of Education and Learning Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 designated levels (Bandura, 1986, 1997). The burgeoning interest in self-efficacy could be attributed to the consistent claims by Bandura that judgments of capability a person brings to a specific task are strong predictors of the performance that results from that task and mediates the other determinants of that performance (Adeyemo, 2007). Self-efficacy is a multidimensional construct that varies according to the domain of demands (Zimmerman, 2000), and therefore it must be evaluated at a level that is specific to the outcome domain (Bandura, 1986; Pajares, 1996). Thus in academic settings, one should measure academic self-efficacy rather than generalized self-efficacy, where the academic self-efficacy refers to personal judgments of one's capabilities to organize and execute courses of action to attain designated types of educational performances. A large meta-analysis of studies of self-efficacy in academic environments concluded that the most specific academic self-efficacy indices had the strongest effect on academic outcomes, while the more generalized measures were less closely associated (Zajacova, Lynch, and Espenshade, 2005). Studies on perceived academic self-efficacy and student learning have confirmed that perceived self-efficacy impacts on students' aspirations, levels of interest in academic pursuit, academic accomplishments and how well they prepare themselves for different occupational careers (Bandura, 1995). A meta-analysis of 39 research works done by Multon, Brown, & Lent (1991), Bandura and others (Bandura, 1989; Zimmerman, Bandura, and Martinez, 1992) confirmed the influence of academic self-efficacy on academic success and persistence. Many previous studies examined the influence of academic climate and some individual variables, for example, academic self-efficacy in the educational institutes in order to determine what main factors may affect both students' performance and achievement level. Some of those studies concentrate on examining the relationship between academic climate and students academic performance (Smith, 2002; Hoy, Tarter and Hoy, 2006; Macneil, Prater and Busch, 2009), while other studies, have shown that academic self-efficacy is positively associated with grades in college (Chemers, Hu and Garcia, 2001; Greene, Miller, Crowson, Duke and Akey, 2004; Zajacova, Lynch, & Espenshade, 2005; Sharm and Silbereisen, 2007; Akomolafe, Ogunmakin and Fasooto, 2013). Some other studies have examined how individual variables such as, gender can influence student's perceptions of self-efficacy and academic performance. (Momanyi, Ogoma and Misigo, 2010) discovered that there was no significant difference between male and female in self-efficacy, but there was a significant difference between genders in academic performance. (Peters, 2013), however, indicated opposite findings, stating that males reported a higher level of mathematic self-efficacy than females, while no gender differences were found in measures of academic performance in mathematics. Most of the studies on the relationship between academic climate, academic self-efficacy and academic performance reviewed were carried out in Europe and Asia. Few studies on these variables have been reported in Egypt. This is one of the gaps that this study intends to fill, as student perceptions of climate as well as self-efficacy may vary from country to country. Student perceptions may vary because of differing value structures governed by different cultures. Thus, the same study conducted in a new environment may contribute different results. While many previous studies examined the direct relationships between all three variables, few studies investigated the interaction effect between those variables (e.g., Peters, 2013), the results of this study indicate that academic climate did not moderate the relationship between mathematics self-efficacy and academic performance. Another study (Canpolat, 2012) reported a mediating effect of self-efficacy in the relationship between academic climate and goal orientations. In this study, we aim to measure the role of academic self-efficacy as a mediator variable in the relationship between academic climate and academic performance. This research has both theoretical and practical significance. The concepts of academic climate, academic self-efficacy and students' academic performance provide fertile ground for an important line of inquiry about the nature of effective educational institutes. This is also important for university administrators interested in building a positive academic climate and raising the quality of the learning process, which in turn will affect students' achievement and their academic performance. That being said, Egyptian universities emphasize the complement of their educational mission while satisfying the students' needs. Because of their interest in quality education and competitiveness, they make every effort to ensure continuous improvements, not only in activities related to the services they offer, but in the academic climate in which the teaching and learning process takes place. Because related previous studies, such as (Entwistle, 1987) have shown that students' perception of the academic 118 www.ccsenet.org/jel Journal of Education and Learning Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 climate has a strong influence on their learning quality and student performance, it becomes the main factor of study in our research. We examine the academic climate as perceived by students in some of Assiut university faculties in Egypt. 2. Study Variables 2.1 Academic Climate Refers to, "a group of dimensions and characteristics that distinguish the academic work environment as perceived by students studying in this environment". A number of previous studies, conducted in similar environments – Arab countries – (e.g., Elmalky, 1997; Elmahbob, 1998) concluded that some aspects and dimensions have a great influence in determining the nature of academic climate at the educational institutions. These aspects have been modified and can be summarized as follows: Teachers: this dimension includes teaching skills, personal qualities, relationships with students and teacher knowledge. Physical environment and available facilities: includes buildings, rooms, wings, physical structures, halls, laboratories, foyers, recreation areas, athletic facilities and residences. Subjects: refers to the courses, the proportionality, coherence and substance of the courses contents with the time period of semesters. Managerial environment: refers to the level(s) of sufficiency with regard to student services offered by staff. Includes, admissions, financial support availability, support for students with special needs and so on. 2.2 Academic Self-Efficacy Refers to "personal judgments of one's capabilities to organize and execute courses of action to attain designated types of educational performances". 2.3 Academic Performance Refers to, "the extent to which students have achieved their educational goals". A cumulative grade point average (GPA) will calculate as an indicator of overall academic performance. In previous studies, GPA was identified as a strong predictor of college students' academic performance (Feldman, 1993; Garton, Ball and Dyer, (2002). 3. Research Questions The research questions central to this study are: 1) What is the effect of perceived academic climate on students' levels of academic performance? 2) What is the effect of students' levels of academic self-efficacy on students' levels of academic performance? 3) What is the effect of perceived academic climate on students' level of academic self-efficacy? 4) What is the mediating effect of perceived academic self-efficacy on the relationship between perceived academic climate and students' level of academic performance? 5) Do individual variables such as gender and faculty type, affect the mediating role of perceived academic self-efficacy on the relationship between perceived academic climate and the students' level of academic performance? 4. Hypotheses of the Study The current study analyzes the following hypotheses: 1) "There is a significant positive relationship between perceived academic climate and the students' level of academic performance." 2) "There is a significant positive relationship between the perceived academic climate and the students' level of academic self-efficacy." 3) "There a significant positive relationship between the students' level of academic self-efficacy and the students' level of academic performance." 4) "Students' academic self-efficacy as a mediator has a positive effect in the relationship between the perceived academic climate and the students' level of academic performance." This hypothesis is subdivided into the following minor hypotheses: a. "Students' academic self-efficacy as a mediator has a positive effect in the relationship between the perceived 119 www.ccsenet.org/jel Journal of Education and Learning Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 academic climate and the level of academic performance of students belonging to practical faculties." b. "Students' academic self-efficacy as a mediator has a positive effect in the relationship between the perceived academic climate and the level of academic performance of students belonging to theoretical faculties." c. "Students' academic self-efficacy as a mediator has a positive effect in the relationship between the perceived academic climate and the level of academic performance of male students." d. "Students' academic self-efficacy as a mediator has a positive effect in the relationship between the perceived academic climate and the level of academic performance of female students." Based on the above hypotheses, the following conceptual framework was developed: Figure 1. Conceptual model This model contains three direct relations and one mediating relation. The first direct relation is between academic climate and academic performance (H1). The second relation is between academic climate and academic self-efficacy (H2), and the last direct relation between academic self-efficacy and academic performance (H3). The mediating relation takes academic self-efficacy as a mediating variable on the relationship between it, and academic climate and performance (H4). 5. Study Population This present study aims to examine the effect of perceived academic climate and perceived academic self-efficacy on students' level of academic performance at Assiut University in Egypt which includes different faculties with a large number of students. Table 1. Total numbers of students enrolled at Assiut University Faculties for the academic year 2010/2011 Faculty Students *% Medicine 3316 4.7% Veterinary Medicine 1201 1.7% Pharmacy 3957 5.6% Engineering 5624 7.9% Computer Science 753 1.07% 120 www.ccsenet.org/jel Journal of Education and Learning Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 Science 1994 2.8% Agriculture 608 0.86% Nursing 612 0.87% Commerce 10469 14.8% Law 19509 27.7% Education 4555 6.47% Specific Education 1113 1.58% Education – ElWady ElGded 1439 2.04% Physical Education 1922 2.73% Social Work 5528 7.85% Arts 6305 8.96% Total 70340 100% * This percentage reflects number of faculty students to the total number of university students. Source. Office of students' affairs at Assiut University Based on the table above there are two kinds of faculties at Assiut University. Practical faculties: Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, Pharmacy, Engineering Computer Science, Agriculture, Science and Nursing, and theoretical faculties: Commerce, Education, Arts, Physical Education, Law, Education El-Wady, Specific-Education and Social Work. The following faculties: Pharmacy, Engineering and Computer Science will be selected to represent the practical fields and the following faculties: Commerce, Law and Education El-Wady to represent the theoretical fields. These faculties were selected as they represented more than 60% of the total number of students either enrolled in practical or theoretical faculties. For the purposes of the current research the study population will include all enrolled students in the final year (Graduation Year) at the faculties mentioned above due to their ability to understand and perceive the academic climate in a logical and complete way. Table 2. Numbers of enrolled students in the final year at the study population faculties Faculty Numbers of final year students Pharmacy 673 Engineering 927 Computer Science 116 Commerce 2622 Law 5171 Education El-Wady 508 Total 10017 Source. Office of student affairs at Assiut University. 6. Sample Description For the purposes of this study, sampling was adopted instead of surveying the whole population due to the high volume of the student population. We have relied on a Stratified Random Sample to ensure that all parts of the population (practical and theoretical faculties) are represented in the sample in order to increase the efficiency and decrease the error in the estimation. Statistical tables have been used to determine sample size. A 95 % confidence interval is desired. The appropriate sample size is 370. To allow for possibilities of non-respondents, we have increased this sample size from 370 to 400. 200 questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in the practical fields and same number for theoretical faculty students. 121 www.ccsenet.org/jel Journal of Education and Learning Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 Table 3. Distribution of the study sample % Practical faculties Sample students number Response Number percentage Commerce 32 Law Pharmacy 39 78 55 70.5 Engineering 54 108 64 60 Computer Science 7 14 10 71.5 100 200 129 65 Total % Theoretical faculties Sample students number Response Number percentage 64 51 79.5 62 124 71 57 EducationEl Wady 6 12 8 66.5 Total 100 200 143 71.5 Table 3. expresses that the response rate in the study sample is 65 % for practical faculties and 71.5 for theoretical faculties. The following table indicates sample characteristics. Table 4. Sample characteristics Individual Variables Students Number Percentage of the total sample size Male 191 70.2 % Female 81 29.8 % Practical 129 47.4 % Theoretical 143 52.6 % Gender Faculty 7. Measures and Data Analysis A questionnaire was designed for collecting data. This questionnaire included a group of designated scales for measuring the study variables and was divided into three parts. The first part was used to measure the independent variable (Academic Climate). We developed a 20-item questionnaire in Likert's scale, with five given values – 1. Totally agree, 2. Agree, 3. Not sure, 4. Disagree, 5. Totally disagree - that measures how students' perceived academic climate with regard to the determined dimensions: staff performance, physical environment and available facilities, subjects, and managerial environment. The second part was used to measure the mediating variable (students' level of academic self-efficacy) and is taken from (Landry, 2003). The third part of the questionnaire was used for obtaining personal data about the students included in the survey. This section asks the participants to record their faculty & gender. Respondents also reported their name or university ID number, which we used a month later to access students' academic records (GPA). Permission was obtained from the students' affairs office at Assiut University. It is worth mentioning that 70 questionnaires were distributed to a random sample of students prior to the actual study in order to test the Academic Climate section of the questionnaire's reliability and validity. The table below indicates validity and reliability coefficients by using Crombach's alpha test. The co-efficient of internal consistency by Crombach's alpha of the scale (α) = 0.70. The test-retest reliability coefficient obtained was 0.81. Data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics used were means and percentages, whereas, the inferential statistics used were t-test for individual variables and Pearson product moment correlation. Both simple regression analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used to examine the study hypotheses. 122 www.ccsenet.org/jel Journal of Education and Learning Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 8. Results Table 5. Means, Standard deviations and Correlations between study variables N M Academic climate SD Academic Self-efficacy Academic Performance 0.278* 0.404* ____ 0.586* (total) Academic climate (total) 272 3.49 0.546 Academic Self-efficacy 272 3.33 0.774 Academic Performance 272 70.35 0.915 ____ ____ * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) Mean from 1 to 100 (Independent variable) N refers to study sample The previous table shows the correlations between the variables. As demonstrated in the table, the mean scores for academic climate, academic self-efficacy and academic performance are 3.49, 3.33 and 70.35. The corresponding standard deviation for the three variables is: 0.546, 0.774 and 9.15. Significant relationships were found between the study variables: academic climate and academic self-efficacy (r = 0.278, p < 0.05); academic climate and academic performance (r = 0.404, p < 0.05); academic self-efficacy and academic performance (r = 0.586, p < 0.05). Table 6. T-test results of study individual variables Individual variables Perceived academic climate Academic self-efficacy Gender Faculty Gender Faculty Academic performance Gender Faculty Mean t-value Significance level Significance type Female 3.505 0.295 0.796 Male 3.485 Not significant Practical 3.570 2.330 0.021 Theoretical 3.413 Female 3.331 - 0.027 0.978 Male 3.334 Not significant Practical 3.292 0.856 0.395 Theoretical 3.374 Not significant Female 68.747 0.295 0.069 Male 71.034 Not significant Practical 70.172 2.330 0.710 Theoretical 69.158 Not significant Significant T-test results indicate that the only significant differences were within the students' perception of academic climate. For all other variables, neither gender nor faculty produced measurable differences. 123 www.ccsenet.org/jel Journal of Education and Learning Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 Table 7. Sample Regression Analysis showing the influence of Perceived Academic Climate on Academic Performance Independent variable Academic Climate 0.163 0.160 F Beta Significance Level 50.088 0.404 0.00** P < 0.01** Table 7 indicates the results of sample regression analysis. The results demonstrate that perceived academic climate was found to impact significantly and positively (β = 0.404, p < 0.01) on students' level of academic performance, as perceived academic climate explains 16 % of the variation in students' level of academic performance (GPA). Table 8. Sample Regression Analysis Showing the Influence of Perceived Academic Climate on Academic Self-Efficacy Independent variable Academic Climate 0.077 0.074 F Beta Significance Level 21.555 0.278 0.000** P < 0.05** Previous table results demonstrate that perceived academic climate was found to impact significantly and positively (β = 0.278, p < 0.05) on academic self-efficacy, as perceived academic climate explains 7.4% of the variance in the perceived academic self-efficacy. Table 9. Sample Regression Analysis Showing the Influence of Perceived Academic Self-Efficacy on Academic Performance Independent variable Academic Climate 0.344 0.341 F Beta Significance Level 135.276 0.586 0.000** P < 0.05** The results indicate that perceived academic self-efficacy is found to impact significantly and positively (β = 0.586, p < 0.05) on academic performance, as perceived academic climate explains 34% of the variance in academic performance (GPA). Baron & Kenny (1986), laid out several requirements that must be met to form a true mediation relationship. They are outlined below: Regress the dependent variable on the independent variable. In other words, confirm that the independent variable is a significant predictor of the dependent variable. Regress the mediator on the independent variable. In other words, confirm that the independent variable is a significant predictor of the mediator. Regress the dependent variable on both the mediator and independent variable. In other words, confirm that the mediator is a significant predictor of the dependent variable, while controlling for the independent variable. 124 www.ccsenet.org/jel Journal of Education and Learning Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 Table 10. Multiple Regression Analysis showing the mediating influence of academic self-efficacy on the relationship between perceived academic climate and academic performance Stage No. Input Variables 1 Academic self-efficacy 0.343 2 Academic climate 0.406 F Beta Significance Level ____ 134.317 0.513 0.000** 0.063 87.538 0.261 0.000** P < 0.05** Table 11. (R2) values before and after entering the mediator variable on the relationship between academic climate and academic performance Independent Variable Academic Climate before After 0.160 0.063 Change in 0.097 – Tables 10 and 11. indicate the results of multiple regression analysis. The results demonstrate that influence of perceived academic climate on academic performance decreased (from 0.160 to 0.063). In other words, before entering the mediator variable (academic self-efficacy) perceived academic climate explains 34% of the variance in academic performance. This percentage decreased to 6.3% after entering academic self-efficacy as a mediator variable on the relationship between perceived academic climate and academic performance. Thus, we accepted the following hypotheses: "Students' academic self-efficacy as a mediator has a positive effect in the relationship between the perceived academic climate and the students' level of academic performance." Table 12. (R2) Values before and after entering the mediator variable on relationship between academic climate and academic performance of practical and theoretical students, male and female students separately Independent variable Academic climate before After Change in Practical faculties sample 0.343 0.343 _____ Theoretical faculties sample 0.075 *zero - 0.075 Male students sample 0.066 0.032 - 0.034 Female students sample 0.194 0.077 - 0.117 *Full Mediation. As perceived academic climate is no longer significant when academic self-efficacy is controlled. Table 12 indicates that academic self-efficacy mediated the relationship between perceived academic climate and academic performance of theoretical faculties sample (full mediation), and male and female samples (partial mediation). In contrast it could not mediate this relationship in practical faculties sample as (R2) value has not changed after entering academic self-efficacy as a mediator variable. 9. Discussion The results found in this study have confirmed that perceived academic climate is a critical factor influencing academic performance and achievement. This has again strengthened previous findings concerning academic climate as a vital factor affecting academic performance (e.g., Peng and Wright, 1994; Pimparyon, Caleer, Pemba and Roff, 2000; Maslawski, 2001; Hoy et al. 1990, 2006). It should be noted that the linkage between academic climate and academic performance was found to be mediated by academic self-efficacy. The effect of academic self-efficacy on academic performance and achievement is well documented in literature (Brown, Lent, and Larkin, 1989; Zajacova, et al., 2005; Sharm and 125 www.ccsenet.org/jel Journal of Education and Learning Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 Silbereisen, 2007; Akomolafe, et al., 2013). The relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic performance can be understood from the perspective that students with high sense of efficacy have the capacity to accept more challenging tasks, high ability to organize their time, increased persistence in the face of obstacles, show lower anxiety levels, show flexibility in the use of learning strategies and have a high ability to adapt with different educational environments. According to the current study results, Academic Self-efficacy differs in their impacts on students' academic performance depending on faculties' nature (practical/theoretical), which has not been mentioned in the previous studies. In other words, academic self-efficacy influences academic performance of theoretical faculties' students more than those enrolled in practical faculties. Multiple regression analysis shows that academic self-efficacy has a strong positive effect (statistical analysis showed full mediation case) in the relationship between perceived academic climate and academic performance of students enrolled in theoretical faculties. We may attribute this to the nature of studying in these faculties which depends largely on lectures and reading some scientific references which in turn relate to some individual aspects as self-efficacy. In contrast, results indicate that academic self-efficacy could not mediate the relationship between academic climate and academic performance of students enrolled in practical faculties which can be understood from the perspective that practical faculties' students are largely influenced by physical environment and the available facilities (e.g., Laboratories, Workshops, Samples and Networks). Accordingly, lack of these facilities badly affects the educational process which in turn reflects negatively on students' performance, whatever the students' level of academic self-efficacy. 10. Implications and Recommendation The findings of the present study have important implications for improving both the educational process quality and its outputs. University administrators should realize that students' academic performance and achievement are affected by several situational and individual factors, of which academic climate and academic self-efficacy are critical components. Results demonstrated that perceived academic climate has a significant affect on students' academic performance. Administrators, therefore, would benefit from obtaining student opinions on this matter to ensure their institutions are better able to provide them with an appropriate environment tailored to students' needs. Administration should give attention to improve areas of the learning environment. Some suggestions are as follows: 1) Ensuring teachers have a wide knowledge base within their field and that they can effectively pass that knowledge on to students. 2) Maintaining physical structures and updating equipment to provide the highest possible level of productivity. 3) Keeping course material proportionate to the length of the subject term and ensuring all material is coherent and contains substance. 4) Ensuring that there is a high level of support for students, including student services, such as, financial support and availability. Moreover, conscious efforts should be made to raise the students' level of academic self efficacy, particularly for student's enrolled in theoretical faculties. Students' academic performance can also be enhanced by exposing them to academic self-efficacy intervention programs. This can be accomplished by counseling and having educational psychologists working in the university setting. This study sought to add a modest contribution to a growing body of educational institute's literature. This study also emphasized the important role that academic self-efficacy - as one of the individual variables - plays on the relationship between academic climate and students' academic performance. It is a beginning not an end. There are many other research questions that need to be addressed, namely which of the four dimensions (teachers, physical environment, subjects, and managerial environment) has the greatest effect on student performance? Is the relationship between academic climate and students' performance mediated by other individual variables such as self-esteem? Do all academic climate dimensions have the same influence on students' academic performance? If yes, does the personality type play a mediator role between these climate dimensions and students' performance? There are a host of research questions that can be addressed under the concept of academic climate in the educational process. This study is limited in that the student sample size was relatively small. Since student performance was 126 www.ccsenet.org/jel Journal of Education and Learning Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 measured by GPA, students who participated in the study were required to identify themselves by name. Some were not willing to do this, and this caused there to be a number of non-respondents in each group. This study examined only four dimensions within academic climate, as these dimensions play a vital role in the education system of Egypt. 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In Frieiberg, J. (Ed.), School Climate: Measuring. Sustaining, and Improving. Falmer Press, London. Hoy, W., Tarter, C., & Hoy, A. (2006). Academic optimism of schools: a force for student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 425-446. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312043003425 Kober, N. (2001). It takes more than testing: Closing the achievement gap. A report of the center on education policy. Washington D. C. Lane, J., & Lane, A. M. (2001). Self-efficacy and academic performance. Social Behavior and Personality, 29, 687-694. http://dx.doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2001.29.7.687 Landry, C. C. (2003). Self-efficacy, motivation and outcomes expectation correlates of college students' intention certainty. Ph D. Thesis. University of Louisiana. Retrieved from http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-0409103-084327/ Loukas, A., & Robinson, S. (2004). Examining the moderating role of perceived school climate in early adolescent adjustment. 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Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 30-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.38.1.30 Norton, M. S. (2008). Human resources administration for educational leaders. New York: Sage. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/books/Book231824 Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 543-578. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543066004543 Peng, S., & Wright, D. (1994). Explanation of academic achievement of Asian American students. Journal of Educational Research, 87(6), 346-369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1994.9941265 Peters, M. L. (2013). Examining the relationships among classroom climate, self-efficacy, and achievement in undergraduate mathematics: A multi-level analysis. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 11(2), 459-480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10763-012-9347-y Pimparyon, P., Caleer, S. M., Pemba, S., & Roff, S. (2000). Educational environment, student approaches to learning and academic achievement in a Thai nursing school. Medical Teacher, 22(4), 359-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014215900409456 Sharm, D., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2007). Revisiting an era in Germany from the perspective of adolescents in 128 www.ccsenet.org/jel Journal of Education and Learning mother-headed single-parent families. International http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207590600663299 Journal Vol. 2, No. 3; 2013 of Psychology, 42(1), 46-58. Smith, A. (2002). The organizational health of high schools and student proficiency in mathematics. The International Journal of Educational Management, 16(2), 98-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09513540210418421 Zajacova, A., Lynch, S. M., & Espenshade, T. J. (2005). Self-efficacy, stress, and academic success in college. Research in Higher Education, 46(6), 677-706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11162-004-4139-z Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational-Psychology, 25(1), 82-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1016 Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal-setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 663-676. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312029003663 Copyrights Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). 129
1 Article Critique Assignment: Week # Student Name Here XXXX University 2 Article Critique Assignment: Week # Write the APA formatted reference of this article here. Make sure it is completely APA formatted. Please note that the information in the announcement will not be APA. You need to learn how to put references in APA format. (Make sure you are using the article assigned for the week!!) Introduction Write a one paragraph summary of the article including why the research was done, what they found, and implications for social change (no more than 1 page). Critique of Article/Research Study In paragraph form, write a 2-3 page critique of the article you were assigned to read for the assignment. In this section you should consider the items asked in the directions for the assignment but do not copy and paste the questions into your paper and answer them one after another. A critique is not a summary (retelling) of the article and what the authors did. A critique is a combination of a short summary of what you are critiquing and then a critique of it (Was what they did appropriate? Why or why not? What would you have potentially done differently? Why? Did they follow best research practices? How do you know?). Here are some of the things you should consider when critiquing a research article (do not just copy and paste these questions into the critique—this is just to give you an idea of what types of things to address—you don’t have to address everything but should have 2-3 pages of critique in this section—double spaced): Critique of Literature Review 3 • • • • • • • Was the problem clearly articulated and was ample evidence provided to support the problem being addressed? Was the theoretical or conceptual framework present, was its relationship to the present study described, and was it appropriate to the problem being addressed? Was the literature cited appropriate to the topic? Was the literature primarily from current sources (within 5 years of the article publication date)? Did the author choose citations judiciously, or were did it appear that quantity of citations was emphasized over quality? Does the literature review present a clear and non-biased approach to the topic? Were the research questions and / or hypotheses clearly stated? Do they logically derive from the literature review? Critique of Methods/Research Design • • • • • • • • • • • Were the participants adequately described in terms of population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and sampling strategy? Is the sample representative of the population? Is there support that the sample size ensures adequate statistical power? Was there a statement indicating that IRB approval was obtained? Were procedures for protecting participant rights included? Were the procedures for executing the design carefully described in a way that you or other scientists could replicate the study? Is the role and activity of the researcher in the data collection setting/sites described? Were reliability and validity measures of questionnaires, scales, or other measurement instruments presented? Do measures exhibit adequate reliability and validity? Were instruments used in populations for which they may not have been normed? Was there effort made to ensure reliability and validity in the study sample? Was the design appropriate to test the hypothesis(es) or address the research questions? Was random assignment used? If not, what are the potential flaws to internal and external validity? Critique of Results Section • Are the important characteristics of the sample described? • Are participation rates (and attrition rates in longitudinal studies) described? For longitudinal studies, was differential attrition determined? • Were key descriptive statistics provided for all variables? • Do the results address the hypotheses under question? 4 • • Are tables and figures used effectively? Were tables not used when they would have been very helpful to the reader? Are effect sizes and p-values reported for all inferential findings? Were they appropriate? Critique of Discussion Section • Are the results discussed in the context of the research presented in the literature review section? • Are methodological limitations adequately addressed? Think in terms of sample representativeness, generalizability of results, and potential threats to internal and external validity. • Are implications for further research described? • Are implications for practitioners described? • Is the contribution/significance to the field in relation to the continuum of inquiry clear? You do not need to cite the article you are critiquing but you do need to cite any materials that you use in critiquing the article from other sources. If you do cite other resources you will need to add an APA formatted reference list on the last page of the paper. Make sure that you are not giving non-human things human characteristics in your paper. This means things like “this study concluded”. A study cannot conclude something but you can say things like “these authors concluded”. In addition, when you talk about research that has been done in the past or published materials you need to talk about them in the past tense. Conclusion In your conclusion write a paragraph about what your overall thoughts about the article were and if you found the article to be useful as well as why or why not. Also include if you think this article would be helpful to another researcher and why/why not. 5 References Include any references you used in your paper other than the article you critiqued in APA format.

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benwamonicah
School: University of Virginia

Attached.

Running Head: ARTICLE CRITIQUE

1

Article Critique
Name:
Institution Affiliation
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ARTICLE CRITIQUE

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Article Critique

The analysis of data can take various forms depending on the complexity or simplicity of
the variables. Mediation analysis has to take various interpretations which contribute to its
application depending on the type of model to be used. The variables that are appearing in this
regression are in multiple nature thus making it impossible to use the simple regression. The use
of the mediation is to accommodate all possibilities that are present in the model. Therefore, the
researchers used this model so that the three factors that affect the individual variables can gain
significance and be part of the main regression model.
Mediation is the most appropriate choice for this type of study....

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