Saudi Arabia is a sovereign country which occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula. The
capital city which is Riyadh which has a population of about 5.451 million with other large cities
including Makkah and Jeddah. Saudi Arabia borders the Red Sea and Gulf Aqaba on the western
side while to the east is the Persian Gulf. The world’s most extensive and continuous sand desert,
the Rub Al-Khali is found in the country. Until 1992, Saudi Arabia was an absolute monarchy
until the first constitution was introduced by the Saud royal family. Until today, the legal system
is based on the Islamic law which is known as Sharia. Apart from being the home to most Arabs,
the country is also the homeland of Islam which the second largest religion in the world with two
holy cities in Medina and Mecca.
The nation depends on oil production which was discovered in the year 1936 while
production began during the world war II. Oil production in the earned the country a lot of
wealth that enabled the provision of education and healthcare services without asking for tax
from the citizens. Until the end of the war, Saudi Arabia remained neutral but was allowed to
join the United Nations as a charter member (Gause, pg63). The nation later joined the Arab
League in the year 1945 where it engaged in a war against Israel. The subsequent political unrest
had a significant impact on the economy of Saudi which was mainly based on oil production.
Over the years, Saudi Arabia had established links with the West which were not successful due
to the attacks of September 11 which left many U.S citizens dead. The terrors who conducted the
attack were from Saudi, and this offense culminated the previous killings that had happened
In the year 2005, Saudi Arabia held its first elections where half of the new council was
chosen in Riyadh. The other half was appointed over time following the Saudi system. Since
then, the nation has continued to develop in all major sectors such as economic, political and
social aspects such as the steady rise in the rights of women. This change is regarded as a way in
which Saudi Arabia is struggling to move towards capitalism. Nations which are capitalist are
those in which the factors of production such as capital, labor, and natural resources are
controlled by private entities (Jahan et al pg44). The capitalists control the factors of production
and gain their income from owning these factors and balancing the expenditure and the income
Based on the theory of Karl Mark about capitalism, the economic life of a state goes
through four stages including slavery, feudalism, the state of capitalism and later socialism. The
development through the four distinct phases may take a duration of a thousand years or less
hundreds of years. Saudi Arabia which has a stinging distaste for communism has over time tried
to compress the third and the fourth steps of the process in just a few decades. The idea of the
nation is to be among the leading echelon of advanced industrial countries in capitalistic plans
despite the fact that the kingdom hesitantly eradicated slavery only 20 years ago (Hanieh, n.p).
The state has on that end been pouring billions of money into their development projects and
much on the private industry. These developments are being driven by various factors such as the
2030 vision, the change of women rights among others as discussed in this paper.
Saudi Arabia Vision 2030
The Saudi vision 2030 is termed as an achievable blueprint that expresses the goals of the
country in th...