Eco House

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timer Asked: Dec 17th, 2017
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The attached file is about Eco-house I just want you to re-write the text in your own words so that there will be no plagiarism when I submit the file in Turnitin.

Architecture Contemporary living habits is now entirely focused on living pattern is fully air conditioned internal spaces and divorced itself from the responsive dialogue with the outdoor environment and lost the diurnal biorhythmic cycles. The design concept of this sustainable project house is to address the local climatic environment constrains through: massing configuration for mutual shading, maximizing natural ventilation at required periods, interacting PV panels with the shading panels, and the use of plants for improving the microclimate. Architecture typology Omani architecture typology is reflected on the design by the solidity of the house mass and small openings with traditional village limited color palette of natural earth tone with modifications required by Muscat municipality regulations. It also utilizes the features of long vertical windows with lower inlets and upper outlets. Regular rhythm surrounding of colonnades with contrast of main entrance, and profile of roof edges. Social habits are clearly manifested by separating male from female living patterns. Eco-house Identity The Eco-house identity is rooted in the context climatically and culturally. The family room is a central hub connects all rooms and strongly relate to the north and south courtyards. Its double volume design gives feeling of and perform main passive ventilation feature as explained later. Large interior flexible partition connects it to Majlis, and it can be opened when no guess is present in order to give feeling of spaciousness and to improve natural ventilation. Eco-house Form Eco house responded to Omani traditional dwelling by introducing a unique design innovation of combining traditional courtyard with the traditional air scope. The ecohouse form was given H-form with the north and south courtyard which are in direct contact with central family living room. Thus enhancing the interaction between the indoor and outdoor environment. This is an innovative design that combines traditional courtyard with the traditional air scope. 1. Materials 1.1. ACC Thermalite Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks The envelope of the building is constructed from a cavity wall compromising two layers of Thermalite Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) blocks. The construction of external walls is composed of (200 mm) inner wall, (50 mm) thermal insulation, and (100 mm) outer wall. These blocks provide a high insulation value, which is further increased by the use of additional cavity insulation. Fig. The ACC Blocks 1.2. Shading Panels Oman Eco-House’s secondary light-shell is placed outside the main building shell to intercept and dissipate most of the solar heat impact before it reaches the main shell of the building. The outer shell is constructed to host date palm tree wood Lattice panels, GRC screens, Vertical and horizontal of canvas strips, and Bio Skin Green walls which vary the amount of sunlight and heat entering the home, significantly lowering cooling costs. Fig 2. Shows the date palm screen Fig 3. Shows the Canvas Strips Fig 4. Shows the GRC Screens Fig 5. Shows the Bio Skin Green Walls 1.3. Windows all windows are composed of thermal break aluminum sections and double glazed windows to minimize thermal bridging among the external envelope. Fig 6. Shows the Thermal Break 2. Water conversation Numerous limited resources are used in our daily lives, from the gas that runs our cars to the water we use for drinking, bathing, cooking and more. Certainly a life without water is impossible, but there are ways to limit our consumption as to preserve this resource. With many appliances and amenities in the modern home hooked up to a water line, most of these tips surround those uses of water: showering, cleaning dishes, laundry and more. Below are some suggestions; not to stop drinking so much, but to save it for that! Bathrooms • • • About 40% of all water consumed in the home is used in the bathroom. A quarter of that water is flushed down the toilet. New fixtures that are installed at SQU Eco-house to decrease water usage include: Low-flow shower heads Dual flush toilets Faucet aerators; aerators for taps are inexpensive and can reduce water flow by 50% Kitchen The kitchen is a major consumer of water in the home, using around 10% of total household water consumption for cooking, cleaning, washing, or drinking. Using dishwashers and aerators will reduce water consumption in kitchens. Laundry 15-20% of all water consumed in the home is used in the laundry, making this room a high consumer of not only water but also energy and detergents. Conventional washing machines use between 35 to 50 gallons per load (gpl). The newer front-loading machines are more efficient and use between 18 to 20 gpl. Wastewater Treatment Using compact treatment unit from Kingspan Klargester which is one of the leading organization in developing wastewater treatment units for residential buildings worldwide. The compact unit selected to treat wastewater produced by the house is the Klargester BioDisc®. This unit will provide a reliable, efficient and environmentally safe solution to the sewage disposal needs of the house and will enable safe reuse of the produced effluents. For the Eco-House, the water from the treatment unit will be sent to a storage tank where the water will be pumped to the irrigation system. Both the treatment unit and the storage tank are placed underground. Fig 7. Shows the Wastewater Treatment unit Irrigation System The Eco-House has two irrigation systems. The system irrigation line which provides treated effluents to the all landscaping areas of the Eco-House. The second system is through the produced treated effluents from the in-situ treatment for the landscaping north, west and east of the Eco-House. The irrigation lines are controlled through manual valves. The arrangement is made to allow the utilization of the in-situ produced treated effluents first and then use house main irrigation line to cover the remaining irrigation requirements. Solar Energy Photovoltaic System The Eco house is equipped with a 20KW Photovoltaic system which generates free electricity by converting sunlight into electricity. The generated energy provides pollution-free power source that is expected to meet the energy demand of the house. To achieve this, two types of modules were installed and tilted at 23.5 for maximum annual yield from solar radiation. The rated power is 250W and 255W for the first and the second type. Every 20 modules are connected in series to form a PV array and each two arrays are connected in parallel in the combiner box. PV Array Layout A 3 phase inverter is used to convert DC to AC power compatible to local grid. The inverter is equipped with two maximum power point trackers. Each tracker is optimizing the output of two arrays. During the day some of the collected power is consumed in the house, and the surplus is exported to the grid, while at night it is imported from the grid. A bidirectional meter calculates the export-import quantities according to an agreement with Muscat Electricity Distribution Company that is being experimented for the first time. • Solar Water Heater Solar water heater supplies all the necessary hot water for the all house activities including washing, bathing, and cocking. Comfort System Passive systems include building form and geometry, courtyards on south and north sides, small and large windows opening for natural ventilation, mechanically assisted fans for hybrid ventilation, water fountain in the south courtyard for evaporation effect, double-shell wall and roof systems, shading systems that use canvas, date palm tree shading screens, bio-green wall, and the greenery landscape that modifies the microclimate of the house. The passive systems have largely helped in reducing the impact of the outside aggressive and harsh hot climate on indoor environment. Since they consume energy and require continuous maintenance, installations of complementary active systems were minimized at the SQU Eco-house. Minisplit air conditioning systems are provided in each space for extreme control flexibility. 1. Thermal 1.1. Mist Spray System Evaporative cooling using mist spray has been known for reducing the ambient air in hot climates. Although Muscat’s climate is known to be humid in summer, evaporative cooling can potentially be used in some summer months. Mist spray system is proposed and installed in the east and west cavity areas inside the double shell wall and in the south and north courtyards. This system is intended to reduce the ambient air temperature through evaporation process. 1.2. AC System The Eco-house is divided into 10 thermal zones based on many factors such as the occupant’s activity, orientation, the level of system control. Each zone is equipped with 1.0 Ton split system except the family room at ground floor where 1.5 tons of air conditioning is used. 1.3. Natural Ventilation Using the free outside cooled air has an impact on thermal comfort, energy consumption and indoor air quality. The SQU Eco-house provides a variety of passive and active means for full harvesting of outside cooled air for cooling purposes, maintaining the thermal comfort and providing an acceptable indoor air quality. The Eco-house, natural ventilation can be achieved using windows and doors that are located in strategic locations. Cross natural ventilation is promoted due to differential pressure between windward and leeward sides that can be created by closing and opening windows and doors at ground and first floor. Lessons are learned from traditional Omani architecture in which natural ventilation was achieved by long vertical windows that contained lower openings to inlet. Comfort is achieved by natural ventilation alone for four months of the year, this could be achieved through: • • • • Thermal and pressure differential was utilized by locating lower opening to inlet cool breeze, and upper opening expel hot air outlets. Wind pressure differential was utilized by flexible windows locations that respond to day and night variations in Muscat prevailing wind and sea breeze from NE/SW during the day and to SW/NE during night. Mechanical exhaust fans are located next to upper outlet windows to be used when wind breeze is very low. The family room is a central hub that connects all rooms and strongly relate to the North and South courtyards. It is a main passive design ventilation feature. Its double volume height is utilized to increase length of thermal stack effect to accelerate air buoyancy from lower inlets opening to upper outlet openings. Accelerated stack effect will suck air from adjacent rooms and improve their ventilation. 1.4. Mechanically Assisted Ventilation When the outside air can’t be driven naturally using passive means, the Eco-house has 5 ventilation fans on the first floor to promote air flow. These fans are mainly installed to drive the air flow in the family area located in the ground floor. 1.5. Water Fountain Heat Exchanger Heat exchanger water has a deep water reservoir that dissipates heat from water to deep soil. The cooled water is pumped up to the fountain to cool air that flows into lower inlets of the house. 1.6. Shading System External surfaces of buildings get heated due to the combination of air temperature and solar radiation. Conventional design concepts are to shade window to prevent sun rays from penetration through glass, while the concept double-shell system is to shade all the building. A secondary light shell wraps around the house providing full shade of all external surfaces (i.e., roof and walls). It intercepts solar radiation and removes its thermal load before it reaches the building. The outer shell must be of light weight material, and air currents in the interim space are maximized to avoid stagnation of hot air. Sustainable Landscape Landscaping is utilized to improve site microclimatic and the thermal performance of the EcoHouse by providing shading, controlling and cooling wind currents. It was designed to response to constrains of local environment fulfill the following criteria: Fast growing, Low water requirements, Water salinity, Drought and heat tolerance, and Low root invasiveness.

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Running head: ECO-HOUSE DESIGN FEATURES IN MUSCAT, OMAN

ECO-HOUSE DESIGN FEATURES IN MUSCAT, OMAN
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ECO-HOUSE DESIGN FEATURES IN MUSCAT, OMAN
Eco-House Design Features in Muscat, Oman
Architecture
Modern living conducts shifted focus entirely on living patterns whose internal spaces
are fully air-conditioned and moved away from the reactive dialogue with the external
surrounding and thus lost its diurnal biorhythmic cycles. The concept of designing housing
projects that are sustainable is embedded in concerns for the constrains brought up by the
local environment climate via mutual shading massed configuration, natural ventilation
maximization during required periods, interactive configuration of shading panels and PV
panels, and microclimate improvement by using plants.
Architecture typology
The typology of Omani architecture’s reflection is exhibited on the design by the
house mass solidity and openings that are small with the natural earth color palette tone
limited to the traditional village with alterations necessary as per the regulations of the
Muscat municipality. It also employs the structures of vertical windows that are long with
upper outlets and lower inlets. The roof edges profile, colonnades surroundings with main
entrance contrasts provide a regular rhythm. The separation of female from male living
patterns shows the social habits.
Eco-house Identity
The identity of Eco-house is built on the cultural and climatic context. The central hub
connecting all other rooms is the family room which is strongly related to the south and north
courtyards. A major feature of passive ventilation is depicted by the design of double volume;
this feature is explained in depth later. Connection to the Majlis is from the flexible partition
as a large interior feature; what’s more, it can be opened in the absence of guests to give a
spacious feeling and improve ventilation from the outward environment.

3
ECO-HOUSE DESIGN FEATURES IN MUSCAT, OMAN
Eco-house Form
The dwellings as per the Omani tradition are taken into consideration by Eco-house
through the introduction of innovative design that is unique through the combination of the
traditional courtyard with air scope. The form of Eco-house is that of H-form with the direct
contact between the central family living room and the south and north courtyard. Therefore,
it enhances the outdoor and indoor interaction.
Materials
ACC Thermalite Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks
The building envelope is constructed through a cavity wall of two Thermalite
Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks (AAC)...

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