Rephrased Construction Essay

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please i need you to paraphrase the full assignment its not to much check the attached file

paraphrase all the paragraphs

Department of Civil engineering Course Work. Submitted by: Nael Munib Othman 14f12347 Submitted to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Fall 2015 Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Page 0 Content Page Title page 0 Table of contents 1 Acknowledgment 2 Introduction 3 Literature review 3-4 Methodology 4-12 Conclusion 12-13 References 14 Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Page 1 Acknowledgment: Special thanks to the company Caterpillar for helping by giving the date needed for making this study as well another thanks to Majid Bin Ramadhan Al Musafer Trading, El Balad El Tayeb Trading LLC, and Mohammed Nour Khan Trading for giving the needed information to continue with the study. Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Page 2 1. Introduction: In any construction project there is heavy construction equipment that is used for earthwork operations. And for the best results in any construction project the construction equipment should be chosen with care as not any machinery is suitable for any kind of projects and can be chosen by many different kinds of factors such as the cost as the price of the machineries is different than the other as it varies from one company to another, and another factor is the speed as every project has a deadline so the project should have construction equipment that is compatible with project timeline, and also another factor that will considered is the capacity of each machine chosen for the study as each machine model capacity will be different from the other (for example the company Caterpillar produce many different models of mining trucks and each model has its own capacity), and the factor of maintenance will reviewed for the earthwork machines that were selected. The objective of this case study is to choose five different earthwork equipment that are used in Oman and review each machine by major factors that are mentioned above (Cost, Speed, Capacity, and Maintenance), as well this case study will review the purchasing and also the hiring rate of the machines selected and consider what is the average hiring cost in Oman. And this study will also review and compare between two machines by the factors that were mentioned above As well discussing the problems that the buyers / hires had with machines during the project timeline and how they fixed it and the project that was chosen for this case study is located in Samail in Oman near Nizwa. 2. Literature review: Heavy construction equipment is routinely used in construction projects that entail earthmoving operations. (R. Aziz , Y. Abouel-magd 2015). Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Page 3 The right selection of equipment for construction projects is inherently a multifaceted cost and benefits evaluation process that is further compounded by the complexity building project of todays and the systematic tools lack for consideration of soft factors. ( R. Aziz , Y. Abouel-magd 2015). For the selection of the earthwork equipment by optimization of earthwork operations is an important and critical key of success in any construction projects. (R. Aziz , Y. Abouel-magd 2015) The difficulties of today’s construction project make it harder for the selection of the earthwork machineries and finding alternatives of the equipment. (R. Aziz , Y. Abouelmagd 2015). Equipment selection is critical factor in the execution of many construction project as they must be selected carefully and with care according to the type of the project they will work on for some time.(A.Jrade, N.Markiz, and N. Albelwi 2013). Successful construction managers and contractors understand the substantial impacts on their project when equipment selection and management decisions are not made in a proper and timely manner. Since equipment selection is highly influenced by myriad factors.(A.Jrade, N.Markiz, and N. Albelwi 2013). Other approaches such as expert systems could be useful of only integrated with a database of historical data. .(A.Jrade, N.Markiz, and N. Albelwi 2013). Economic analysis for selecting equipment type is described as essential for developing the optimization model. (R. Aziz , Y. Abouel-magd 2015). Rational selection of earthwork equipment’s will lead to a profitable project for construction contractors and managers. (R. Aziz , Y. Abouel-magd 2015). For any project there is a deadline date and it should be a main consideration in any project so the equipment that will be used will get the job done before the deadline. (R. Aziz , Y. Abouel-magd 2015). Construction equipment’s now had a great importance to engineers in the today earthwork and construction operations (such as: dams, highways, pavements, runways) and the use of these equipment are increasing rapidly and fast. (G. AJ, T. Peter, Okoya (2014) ). Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Page 4 3. Methodology: There are many factors that are considered essential for selecting equipment in a specific project and in this paper 4 major factors will be considered for earthwork machineries that are produced by the company Caterpillar and the models that were chosen are: • Back loader model number 434F. (See figure 1) • Medium wheel loader model number 966H.(See figure 2) • Hydraulic excavator model number 320D2 L. (See figure 3) • Dozer (waste handler) model number D8R WH STD/LGP. (See figure 4) • Motor grader model number 140H. (See figure 5) 3.1 Economic factor (Cost): The economic factor is important for any construction/excavation project because every project has a budget and from the budget we can choose which machineries to hire (as it also depends on the size of the project). And the selling price and the hiring price in Oman for the machineries that were chosen are as follows: Equipment Selling price Hiring price (Renting) Back loader model number 37,000 Omani Rial 1,300 Omani Rial 120,000 Omani Rial 2.600 Omani Rial 62,000 Omani Rial 2,600 Omani Rial 200,000 Omani Rial 4,420 Omani Rial 120,000 Omani Rial 3380 Omani Rial 434F Medium wheel loader model number 966H Hydraulic excavator model number 320D2 L Dozer (waste handler) model number D8R WH STD/LGP Motor grader model number Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Table (2): Cost/Hiring price for machineries. Page 5 140H 3.2 Speed of the machineries: For every project there is always a timeline that the engineers tend to finish the project before the deadline and to finish any project as fast as possible before the deadline the machineries that will work in the project should be fast and has suitable speed for the project intended. Below is the difference in speed for the machineries that were mentioned above: Equipment Back loader model number Net power Top speed HP KW Forward Reverse 93 68.5 40 km per hour 40 km per hour 260 194 37.4 km per 37.4 km per hour hour 434F Medium wheel loader model number 966H Hydraulic excavator model 131 98 305 228 5.4 km per hour number 320D2 L Dozer (waste handler) 6.7 km per hour model number D8R WH 4.6 km per hour STD/LGP Motor grader model number 185 138 41.1 km per 32.4 km per hour hour 140H Table (3): Speed and Power of the machineries 3.3 Capacity (Operating weight): Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Page 6 For every machine there is a specific operating weight that the equipment can work with and cannot go beyond that weight or else failure will happen. Below is the operating weight of the above mentioned machineries: Equipment Back loader Operating Maximum weight Reach 9,498 kg -- Maximum Depth Standard Extendable Bucket Blade Capacity Length 1.15 𝑚3 -- 3.40 𝑚3 - -- model number 4379 mm 5360 mm 434F Medium 23,125 kg -- No bucket wheel - loader 4.60 𝑚3 model number 966H Hydraulic 20,900 kg 9.9 m 6.7 m Dozer 37,630 kg -- -- (waste – handler) 37,960 kg -- -- excavator model number 320D2 L -- model number D8R WH STD/LGP Motor 21261 kg -- Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S 2.561 m Page 7 grader model number 140H Table (4): Capacity (Operating Weight) of the machineries 3.4 Maintenance: For every machine there certain requirements for it to stay suitable for working properly it needs maintenance regularly for continuing without breaking down. And for some of the problems that the machineries mentioned above are below: Equipment Problem • Back loader model number 434F Oil leaks and engine problems when pushed to over limit. Medium wheel loader model number 966H • Easy / hard to fix? = Easy to fix. • Hydraulics problems in the bucket. • Easy / hard to fix? = Replacing the hydraulic pipes. Hydraulic excavator model number 320D2 • Hydraulic pipes problems and oil L leaks but are easy to fix and not much expensive. Dozer (waste handler) model number D8R • Problems in the blade as it could WH STD/LGP corrode from salty lands and continue to bend. • Motor grader model number 140H • Fixing by changing the blade. Blade problems that it could bend from the kind of road that it works on from the hard rocks. • Easy to maintain. Table (5): Equipment Problems. Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Page 8 3.5 Average cost of hiring or purchasing in Oman: For telling the average data was taken from 3 different equipment hiring companies. Below is the prices of that were taken from the companies and the average of each machine which is per hour: Equipment Small Excavators Medium Excavators Medium Wheel Loaders Medium Dozers Small Back Loaders Graders Majid bin Ramadhan Trading 7.5 Omani Rial Per hour 9 Omani Rial Per hour 6 Omani Rial Per hour 14 Omani Rial Per hour 5 Omani Rial Per hour 13 Omani Rial Per hour AL Balad El Tayeb United LLC 8 Omani Rial Per hour 9 Omani Rial Per hour 5 Omani Rial Per hour 15 Omani Rial Per hour 5 Omani Rial Per hour 0 Omani Rial Mohammed Nour Khan Trading 8 Omani Rial Per hour 9 Omani Rial Per hour 6 Omani Rial Per hour 15 Omani Rial Per hour 4 Omani Rial Per hour 0 Omani Rial Average Hiring Price 7.833 Omani Rial Per hour 9 Omani Rial Per hour 5.666 Omani Rial Per hour 14.666 Omani Rial Per hour 4.666 Omani Rial Per hour 13 Omani Rial Per hour Table (6): prices comparison 3.6 Comparing two earthwork machinery: The machineries that were chosen to be compared between are Hydraulic excavator model number 320D2 L (Caterpillar production) and Hydraulic excavator model number 323F also a Caterpillar production. The comparison will be in speed, capacity, and the cost in the below table: Comparison Hydraulic excavator Hydraulic excavator model number 320D2 model number 323F Speed Engine type Engine power Swing speed Cat® C7.1 112.5 kW 10.6 RPM Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Cat® C7.1 120.0 kW 11.0 rpm Page 9 Swing torque Maximum drawbar pull Maximum travel speed 61.8 kN·m 205.0 kN 5.2 km per hour 61.8 kN·m 205.0 kN 5.5 km per hour Capacity Operating weight Maximum operating weight Minimum operating weight Fuel tank capacity Cooling system Engine oil Hydraulic system (including tank) 21185.0 kg 21185.0 kg 20610.0 kg 410.0 L 25.0 L 22.0 L 260.0 L 23100.0 kg 23100.0 kg 23100.0 kg 410.0 L 30.0 L 25.0 L 159.0 L Cost Selling price Hiring price 37,000 Omani Rial 1,300 Omani Rial 42,000 Omani Rial 1,500 Omani Rial Table (7): Comparison between two earthwork equipment 3.7 Site visit: The site that was chosen to visit is located in Samail near Nizwa in Oman and is currently working between the mountains for excavating chromite and is currently using (4) excavators and (1) wheel loader. Below are some photos of the site while in the works: Table (8): Photos from the site visit Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Page 10 During the site visit there was a series of questions that was asked to the engineers on the site and got answers from them and the questions are as follows: 1/ What is the purpose of this site? Answer: The purpose is to excavate chromite in the mountains which is a very tough material and hard to break. 2/ What are the main problems that you had with the machineries during the project timeline? Answer: The main problem that we had is because the earth is so hard and tough the machineries always had problems with hydraulic because too much pressure was applied to them and other problems are simple such oil leaks and electricity problems but those are easy to fix. 4. Conclusion: In conclusion this study was only a glimpse of the earthwork equipment uses and some of the features that the equipment above provides during construction / excavation time. And the objective was to compare the five machineries in terms of: • Cost. • Speed. • Capacity. • Maintenance. The objective was achieved by visiting the Caterpillar Company for getting data to write the study of the machineries that were chosen of that specific company and as well visiting other construction equipment companies to compare between prices and such. And in conclusion there was a big difference between the machineries that were chosen for the study because each one has a specific work to do such as: 1. The wheel loader can pick the material (filling) and put it elsewhere. 2. The excavator can remove the unnecessary material and put them away or load it into the truck. 3. The dozer is the perfect machine to push the waste away from the site. 4. The grader is the machine that we can use to level the road and push the rocks away from the roads to make smooth for driving. The other task that was done is comparing two earthwork equipment that are similar in the factors mentioned above and list the comparison in table, and the equipment that were chosen are from the same company (Caterpillar) and both are medium excavator and there model numbers are: 1. Hydraulic excavator model number 320D2 2. Hydraulic excavator model number 323F Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Page 11 The additional task was to find out what was the average hiring price of equipment’s in Oman and the data that was collected to do this task is going to companies that hire machines for a price. The final task was to investigate a site to know the problems that the engineers had with the equipment’s during the project timeline and the data was collected from the project located in Samail near Nizwa in Oman working in excavating hard material called chromite. 5. References: • • • • • • • • • • Remon.A , Yasser.A (2015) “ Suitably selection for earthwork equipment in Egyptian sites” Vol 3 , Al Amal publishing Ahmed.J , Nour.M , Nader.A ,(2013) “An economical operation analysis optimization model for heavy equipment selection, (Available online from) < http://waset.org/publications/6378/an-economical-operation-analysisoptimization-model-for-heavy-equipment-selection > http://www.cat.com/en_IN/products/new/equipment/backhoeloaders/sideshift/18516738.html http://www.cat.com/en_IN/products/new/equipment/wheel-loaders/mediumwheel-loaders/16932559.html http://www.cat.com/en_ZA/products/new/equipment/excavators/mediumexcavators/18400186.html http://www.cat.com/en_AU/products/new/equipment/dozers/waste-handlingdozers/18274348.html http://www.cat.com/en_IN/products/new/equipment/motor-graders/m-seriesmotor-graders/752237.html Majid Bin Ramadhan Al Musafer Trading. El Balad AL Tayeb United Trading LLC. Mohammed Nour Khan Trading LLC. Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347) Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S Page 12

Tutor Answer

Arisanator9900
School: Carnegie Mellon University

Done

Department of Civil engineering
Course Work.
Submitted by:
Nael Munib Othman
14f12347
Submitted to:
Mr. Balamurugan.S

Fall 2015
Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347)
Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S

Page 0

Content

Page

Title page

0

Table of contents

1

Acknowledgment

2

Introduction

3

Literature review
3-4
Methodology

4-12

Conclusion

12-13

References

14

Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347)
Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S

Page 1

Acknowledgment:
Special thanks to Caterpillar for giving the dates needed to conduct this study. Another
thanks to Majid Bin Ramadhan Al Musafer of Trading LLC, El Balad El Tayeb of
Trading LLC, and Mohammed Nour Khan of Trading LLC, for giving the needed
information to conduct the study.

Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347)
Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S

Page 2

1. Introduction:
In every construction project that involves earthwork operations, heavy equipment is
required to properly complete the task. For the best results, the construction equipment
must be picked with extreme specificity and care. Not every machine is suitable for every
kind of project. There are many factors that can influence the choice of machinery that is
used in a project, such as: cost, speed and capacity of each machine. The cost is very
straightforward. Each machine costs a lesser or larger amount based on its company and
quality. To get the best efficiency per project, cost and quality need to be carefully
balanced for each project. Speed of the equipment is also a major factor since every
project has a deadline that must be adhered to. The construction equipment that is picked
for use in the project must have the ability to complete the work in the allotted time. The
capacity of the machine is also another major factor. As this study addresses, each
machine has a differing capacity as that differs which jobs are best for that particular
machine. For example, Caterpillar produces many different models of mining trucks, all
of which have a different capacity. Maintenance is another major category which is a
determinant for the best machine for a job. If a machine requires extensive maintenance,
it will not be an effective candidate for specific construction projects.
The objective of this case study is to analyze five different earthwork machines
that are used in Oman construction projects located in Samail, near Nizwa. The machines
will be reviewed by the four major factors above (Cost, Speed, Capacity, and
Maintenance). This case study will also review the purchasing and hiring rate of the
selected machines, including the hiring rate in Oman. This study will also analyze two
specific machines in depth by the major factors mentioned above. Finally, this study will
discuss the problems that buyers/hires had with the machines during the project timeline,
and how they solved the project.

Made by: Nael Munib Othman (14f12347)
Presented to: Mr. Balamurugan.S

Page 3

2. Literature review:
Choosing the correct machine for the job is one of the most important aspects of a
project. Heavy machinery is the most commonly used and required equipment for an
earthmoving construction...

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Anonymous
Excellent job

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