General information about cytokines and tuberculosis

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JERUSALE
School: UC Berkeley

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Introduction
Most of the world’s population is said to have been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Due to the high infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it has led to over 4 million deaths each
year all over the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and M-tuberculosis are common
in some areas, some of this areas include central Africa. During the past 4 years, there have been
efforts that have been put in place to lower the death rate. Some of this actions include, there has
being a wide spread of vaccination and also there has been increasing the availability of ant
tuberculosis chemotherapy. Despite all those efforts that have been put in place over the last 4
years the cases concerning tuberculosis have doubled over the last 4 years. A century-long also
declined in the United States about tuberculosis cases was reversed in early 1984. There were
also yearly numeral new cases in 1992 which increased to approximately 27,000. This was an
increase of about 20% above the nadir as compared to the mid-1980s. Due to the appearance of
many drug resistant’s infections, the increase becomes more severe. This has led to one of the
major pressure group relating to studies in order to be able to come up with the mycobacterium
antigens which will be used as injection and also to be able to happen with a clear way of
protection. Due to the different clinical observation, it has helped us in understanding immunity
more. There is the first initial infection where one is affected with M-tuberculosis. Mtuberculosis is not only clinical apparent but also directly relates to the acquisition of delayedtype hypersensitivity. M-tuberculosis is also resistant to exogenous reinfection. After an
exposure tuberculosis can raise and the cases may respond to the reactivation disease which is
separated by both time and distance of the first infection. After infection of the first year, the risk
of tuberculosis can be said to be just about 5%. The cellular immunodeficiency mainly HIV
infection can lead to the increase of this risk by as many as 170-folds. There are some causes

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that lead to the changing balance stuck between host and pathogen the majority of the patients
and this cannot be clearly approved. In the process of the local response the cytokines produced
can prove to be of great importance in protection. Through the introduction of granuloma
formation, it will appear in the process of mycobacterial immunity, whereby the products of not
only cytokines but also particularly macrophage play a major role. Outside of the tuberculous
granulomas IL-1F3 and TNF are locally produced and when they are attached to insert particles
they can be able to bring on the formation of granulomas. Neutralizing TNF antibody which has
been administered to BCG mice will interrupt the pattern of bactericidal granulomas which in
turn leads to the challenge of BCG and lethal BCG infection is formed progressively. Due to
these observations it gives an idea o the formation of granuloma, macrophage cytokines and
immunity in animal models.
Epidemiology
Due to the high rate of world’s population being affected with M-tuberculosis and the new
infections which normally occur after every second. It is crystal clear that not all infection with
m-tuberculosis can lead to the infection of tuberculosis disease since many infections are
asymptomatic. The high rate of death mostly occurred in the developing countries and this death
mostly happen in are...

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Anonymous
Excellent job

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