Calculate Equivalent Readings

Anonymous
timer Asked: Dec 25th, 2017
account_balance_wallet $10

Question description

attached experiments 7&8 and 9&10

1- prphrase

-thery part

-procedure part

2-drow graph

-for the observation and calculation part

3- solve

- results and discussion part

-conclustion

EXPERIMENT 7 - TURBINE METER Aim: To draw the calibration curve by plotting a graph between actual flow discharge (Q act) and Observed flow discharge (Qobs). Apparatus Required: Flow Bench with Turbine Meter Theory: Turbine flow meters measure the rate of flow in a pipe or process line via a rotor that spins as the media passes through its blades. The rotational speed is a direct function of flow rate and can be sensed by magnetic pick-up, photoelectric cell, or gears. Flow meters types can be either volumetric or velocity. Volumetric turbine flow meters measure flow rate in units of volumetric flow, for example, mL/min. Velocity turbine flow meters measure flow rate as in units of velocity, for example, ft. /sec Turbine flow meters can be configured to either measure liquid or gas flow. Measuring the flow of liquids and gases is a critical need in many industrial plants. In some operations, the ability to conduct accurate flow measurements is so important that it can make the difference between making a profit and taking a loss. In other cases, inaccurate flow measurements or failure to take measurements can cause serious (or even disastrous) results. Important parameters to consider when specifying turbine flow meters include velocity flow rate range, liquid volumetric flow rate, operating pressure, fluid temperature, material density, and material viscosity. Velocity flow rate range applies only to those turbine flow meters that are velocity flow sensors or meters. It is the range of flow in distance/time. Liquid volumetric flow rate applies only to those turbine flow meters that are liquid volumetric flow sensors or meters. It is expressed as the range of flow in volume/time. The operating pressure is the maximum head pressure of the process media the meter can withstand. The maximum temperature of the media that can be monitored is usually dependent on construction and liner materials. Depending on the flow meter technology used, material viscosity can be an important material factor to consider. The higher the viscosity, typically higher the pressure drops. Pipe diameter is also important to consider, especially when specifying specific mounting options. Procedure: . i) Before switching on the mains open the bypass valve flow / level (sump). . ii) Valves of collecting jar (1, 2, 3, 4) and (1, 2, 3) must be closed and open the drainage. . iii) Open the air out valve and adjust the selector switch in 3rd position. . iv) Switch on the mains and pump No.2, such that timer indicator 3 and digital meter glow. . v) Slowly close the bypass valve of pump No.2 such that the display should go beyond 40 and up to 160 lph. . vi) Observe there should not be any air bubbles then close the air put valve. Allow for stabilization of display reading. . vii) Close the drainage valve to the sump (1, 2, 3, and 4). . viii) As soon as the water level increases to 100ml in collecting jar (1, 2, 3, and 4). Start the timer at that position. . ix) Stop the timer when the level of liquids reaches 1000ml and note down the time. . x) Release the drainage valve to sump (1, 2, 3, and 4) immediately to avoid over flow. Reset the time to zero position. Close the valve (1,2,3,4) gradually of the collecting jar for different flow rates up to 40 and note down the reading / time. . xi) Release the drainage / bypass valve. Switch off the pump 2. . xii) Tabulate the readings and draw the calibration graph between actual flow discharge and observed flow discharge and finally declare the percentage error. Observations and Calculation: Actual Turbine Flow Rate meter (Q act) LPH Reading LPH Time of Collection for 900 ml of water (S) 9.5 4.26 2.4 1.68 1.13 95 64 48 42 34 10 15 20 25 30 Results & Discussion: Conclusion: EXPERIMENT 8 – CORIOLIS METER Aim: To calibrate and understand the working of Coriolis meter. Apparatus Required: Flow bench with Coriolis Meter Theory: Coriolis meter uses an obstruction less U-shaped tube area sensor and applies Newton’s Second law of motion to determine flow rate. Inside the sensor housing, the sensor tube vibrates at its natural frequency and is driven by an electromagnetic drive coil located at the center of the bend in the tube and vibrates similar to that of a tuning fork. Due to Newton’s Second Law of Motion, the amount of sensor tube twist is directly proportional to the mass flow rate of the fluid flowing through the tube. The deflection cannot be visualized by naked eye. Mass flow is determined by measuring the time difference exhibited by the velocity detector signals. The time difference is proportional to mass flow. ()() Procedure: . i) Before switching on the mains make sure, if the bypass flow/valve is fully opened . ii) Valves collecting tank (1, 2, 3 and 4) and valves (1, 2, and 3) shall be closed and the drainage should be open. . iii) Open the air out valve and adjust the selector switch in position 4 . iv) Switch on the mains and Pump 2, such that timer indicator 4 and digital meter glows. . v) Slowly close the bypass valve of pump no.2, such that the display should go beyond 40 up to 160lph . vi) Observe there should not be any air bubbles and then close the air out valve. . vii) Allow for stabilization of display reading. . viii) Close the drainage valve to the sump (1, 2, 3, and 4). . ix) As soon as the water level increases to 100ml in collecting jar (1, 2, 3, and 4), Start the timer at that position. . x) Stop the timer when the level of liquids reaches 1000ml and note down the time. . xi) Release the drainage valve to sump (1, 2, 3, and 4) immediately to avoid over flow. . xii) Reset the time to zero position. Close the valve (1,2,3,4) gradually of the collecting jar for different flow rates up to 40 and note down the reading / time. . xiii) Release the drainage / bypass valve. Switch off the pump 2. . xiv) Tabulate the readings and draw the calibration graph between actual flow discharge and observed flow discharge and finally declare the percentage error www.petro-online.com Observations and Calculation: Sl.No Actual Flow Rate (Q act) LPH 1 9 2 4.4 15 3 2.55 20 51 4 1.64 25 41 5 1.16 30 6 0.8 35 Turbine meter Reading LPH 10 Time of Collection for 900 ml of water (s) 90 66 35 28 Width of the tank, w Breadth of the tank, b Height of the tank, h Volume of the tank, V Volumetric Flow rate, Q = V / t Conversion base: 1 LPM = 1.67E-5 m3/s Results & Discussion: Conclusion:
EXPERIMENT 9 – STUDY THE CALIBRATION OF THE TEST RTD SENSOR Aim: To study the temperature measurement by RTD Test sensor and to perform its calibration in comparison with the master sensor. Apparatus required: RTD TEST RIG Specifications of RTD Sensor: Type: PT 100 3 wire Length: 10” long Sheathing: SS304 Maximum Temperature: 200°C Procedure: . i) Before proceeding with the experiment, prepare the initial setup as explained in operation section. . ii) Once the initial setup is done, switch on the PID controller, keeping the set point at first point of control as 35 °C. . iii) Adjust the PB value to 7.1., integral value to 25.0 (equivalent to 250 seconds) and Derivative value to 8.0 (equivalent to 80 seconds). . iv) Once the temperature reaches 35 °C and remains at this point, note this reading as Master meter reading and also note the reading of test RTD sensor on the digital Ohmmeter. . v) Continue the experiment by changing/selecting the set points in step of 5°C or 10 °C and note the master meter reading and corresponding test RTD sensor reading on Ohmmeter. . vi) Tabulate these readings as follows and draw a graph of master meter readings vs. test RTD readings, which shall indicate the calibration curve Observations and Calculations: Sl.No Master meter reading (°C) Test RTD Sensor reading Equivalent readings (°C) R, (ohms) 1 2 3 4 5 Calculations: 𝑇= 𝑅𝑜 − 𝑅 −0.5 (𝑅0𝐴 + √𝑅0 𝐴2−4𝑅𝑜𝐵(𝑅𝑜−𝑅) T = Calculated Temperature (°C) R0 = RTD Nominal resistance at °C for PT 100, R0 = 100Ω R = Measured Resistance (Ω) A = 3.90802*10-3 B = -5.80195*10-7 (A, B are RTD temperature tolerance grades) Results & Discussion: Conclusion: EXPERIMENT 10 – STUDY THE CALIBRATION OF THE TEST THERMISTOR SENSOR Aim: To study the temperature measurement by Thermistor Test sensor and to perform its calibration in comparison with the master sensor. Apparatus required: Thermistor test RIG Specifications of Test Thermistor: Type: C 4.7 K Length: 10” long Sheathing: SS304 Maximum Temperature: 150°C Procedure: . i) Before proceeding with the experiment, prepare the initial setup as explained in Operation section. . ii) Once the initial setup is done, switch on the PID controller, keeping the set point at first point of control as 35 °C. Adjust the PB value to 7.1., integral value to 24.0 (equivalent to 250 seconds) and Derivative value to 8.0 (equivalent to 80 seconds). . iii) Oncethetemperatureisstableatagivensetpoint,notethemasterm eterreadingson PID controller and corresponding Millivolt readings of test Thermistor on digital Ohmmeter. . iv) Continue the experiment for different set points and note the meter readings and corresponding test Thermistor reading on Ohmmeter. . v) Tabulate these readings as follows and draw a graph of mater meter readings vs. test Thermistor readings, which shall indicate the calibration curve. Observations: Sl.No. Master meter reading (°C) Test Thermistor Sensor reading (R) (K ohms) Equivalent readings (°C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Calculations: NTC (negative temperature coefficient) thermistors change their effective resistance over T is the temperature (in kelvins) R is the resistance at T (in ohms) A, B, and C are the Steinhart–Hart coefficients which vary depending on the type and model of thermistor and the temperature range of interest. Results & Discussion: Conclusion:

Tutor Answer

norman09
School: University of Maryland

calculation paraphrase .

EXPERIMENT 7 - TURBINE METER
Aim: To draw the calibration curve by plotting a graph between
actual flow discharge (Q act) and Observed flow discharge (Qobs).
Apparatus Required: Flow Bench with Turbine Meter
Theory:
The principle of turbine flow meters has something to do
with pipes, blades, and rotor. The rate of flow in pipes has been
flowing on pipes via a rotor that spins and this flow has passed on
its blades and the thing on this measurement is called turbine flow
meter. Mathematically a direct function of flow rate is the rotational
speed of the rotor in pipes is and this can be sensor by its
magnetic pick-up, photoelectric cell or gears.
There are volumetric turbine flow meter and velocity
turbine flow. These are basic classification types of this flow meter
and have different units, mL/min for volumetric turbine flow and
ft./sec for velocity turbine flow. Classification of Volumetric turbine
flow can be in a state of gas or liquid and can be-be critical need
for measurement in many industrial plants so that it has an
accurate flow of measurement, for business to have gain profit on
this operation in industries. Inaccurate measurement can result in
distrust of people in their company. So as of be carefulness, there
are important parameters to consider when specifying turbine flow
meters include velocity flow rate range, liquid volumetric flow rate,
operating pressure, fluid temperature, material density, and
material viscosity in order to have met its accuracy. On the other
types, velocity flow applies sensor. rate range applies only to those
turbine flow meters that are velocity flow sensors or meters.
Importance of this can be maximized its accuracy, include
the parameter of pressure. Viscosity is an important role for this
that make include on a process on turbine flow measurement. It’s
dependable on materials needed that turbine can be stand or
withstand like in turbine exposure at some temperature. In relation
to viscosity, the higher viscosity, the higher pressure drops, or

lower viscosity the lower
pressure drops so selection
material must be considered
as used. Also, the pipe
diameter is important to use.

Procedure:

i) Before turning on the power of the network, open the flow / water
level of the bypass valve.
ii) It is necessary to close the valves of the collection containers (1,
2, 3, 4) and (1, 2, 3) and open the drain.
iii) Open the exhaust valve and align the selector switch to the third
position.
iv) Turn on the electri...

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Anonymous
Outstanding Job!!!!

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