Critically evaluate the two scenarios below based upon the following points:
- Critically evaluate the sample size.
- Critically evaluate the statements for meaningfulness.
- Critically evaluate the statements for statistical significance.
- Based on your evaluation, provide an explanation of the implications for social change.
Below are the two Scenarios:
The p-value was slightly above conventional threshold, but was described as "rapidly approaching significance" (ie., p=.06).
An independent samples t test was used to determine whether student satisfaction levels in a quantitative reasoning course differed between the traditional classroom and on-line environments. The samples consisted of students in four- face- to- face classes at a traditional state university (n=65) and four online classes offered at the same university (n=69). Students reported their level of satisfaction on a five - point scale, with higher values indicating higher levels of satisfaction. Since the study was exploratory in nature, levels of significance were relaxed to the .10 level. The test was significant t(
132) = 1.8, p
= .074, wherein students in the face-to-face class reported lower levels of satisfaction (M
= 3.39, SD
= 1.8) than did those in the online sections (M
= 3.89, SD
=1.4). We therefore conclude that on average, students in the online quantitative reasoning classes have higher levels of satisfaction. The results of this study are significant because they provide educators with evidence of what medium works better in producing quantitatively knowledgeable practitioners.
A results report that does not find any effect and also has small sample size (possibly no effect detected due to lack of power).
A one- way analysis of variance was used to test whether a relationship exists between educational attainment and race. The dependent variable of education was measured as number of years of education completed. The race factor had three attributes of European American (n = 36),
African American (n = 23) and Hispanic (n = 18). Descriptive statistics indicate that on average,European Americans have higher levels of education (M = 16.4, SD = 4.6), with African Americans slightly trailing (M = 15.5, SD = 6.8) and Hispanics having on average lower levels of educational attainment (M = 13.3, SD = 6.1). The ANOVA was not significant F (2, 74) = 1.789, p =.175, indicating there are no differences in educational attainment across these three races in the population. The results of this study are significant because they shed light on the current social conversation about inequality.