rewrite the whole assignment

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Can u please re-write the whole assignment because i have to upload this on turnitin and i want the least similarity. just have to re-write it.

Introduction Composite material Railway sleeper is the product that our company ‘Ecolines’ sells worldwide. Sleeper is one of the most important components of a railway infrastructure it is used to clamp the rail to avoid any type of slippage and to maintain the alignment and shape of the tracks. It is also used to hold the rail in proper levels at turnouts and crossovers. It is placed over layers of ballasts in order to transmit the load through rail and it holds rail above which the train moves, there are different types of sleepers present initially wooden sleepers were used all over the world. With the advancement in technologies concrete sleepers took over wooden sleepers at some places and steel sleepers were also introduced at some places like bridges with heavy traffic loads and less maintenance requirements. But with the increasing population and environmental concerns composite sleepers were introduced. (Sahay, A. Phogat, S. 2015) Composite is the mixture of two or more than two items or materials. Composite also refers to the materials that are completely recyclable and provide high service life, reduction in wastes and deforestation. Some of the main composite sleepers are obtained from mixture of shredded plastics, rubbers from waste tires, chemical additives, and fiber as reinforcement, fillers (CaCO3) and other several waste materials. (Sahay, A. Phogat, S. 2015) Some of the key important functions of composite railway sleepers are: 1. Composite sleepers do not get deformed. 2. They are resistant to tears and avoid end gaps. 3. They are fire resistant and are suitable for track circuited areas. 4. They are free of voids and resistant to insects. 5. They are light weight and provide less electrical conductivity. 6. Sound and vibrations are well absorbed by them. (Sahay, A. Phogat, S. 2015) Ecolines is an Australian based company and it was founded in 1980. Since that time it has grown to be the Australia’s biggest supplier of composite sleepers and worlds leader in the manufacturing of the composite railway sleepers. Our company has an experience of more than 30 years in the field of railway sleepers and we meet with our client’s demands and orders with exceptional engineering, safety and quality. In the time period of 30 years Ecolines has produced over 18 million railway composite sleepers and has extended its branches in Australia and many other countries like Dubai, Saudi Arabia, Germany and India. We have adopted own working method and quality assurance standards linked with ISO 9001. Some of our factories are custom built which help in the client’s specific demand of the project and complexity of the project and location. Not only Ecolines specializes in Composite sleepers but also provides with flexible, cost effective, client oriented sleeper design and stock and end to end logistics supply. (Railway Technology, 2016) This report covers all the details of composite railway sleepers which include the description of the sleepers, technical specifications, and design steps involved in the production of composite sleepers, operation and management aspects of composite sleepers, cost and conditions of place to install and use composite sleepers. This helps in understanding the safety measures involved in the railway industry, the design process, usage of several software, principles of maintenance and operations, understanding different conditions of standards and railway and track design. Technical Details Below are the technical properties and information about the Composite Railway sleeper created by our company Ecolines. Product Description: The description of the product our company sells and provides to railway departments is a composite material railway sleeper. It is an alternative of wood, concrete and steel sleepers and provides better service in application than them. It is not only strong and cost effective but also reflects upon the following properties: 1. Performance:  More durable and long lasting  Resistant to moisture and decay  Eliminates and lessens noise and vibrations 1. Track Tested:  Individually lab tested  According to the standards  Can withstand two billion gross tons of traffic  Zero failures 1. Lessens future risks:  Waste disposal cost responsibilities  Made of recycled plastic  Eliminates environmental hazards 1. Asset Management:  Increased adaptability  Reduced and easy maintenance  Easy replacement  Longer lasting  Enhanced operational flexibility 1. Sustainability:  Reduces CO2 impacts  Non – leaching  Supports waste management  Reduces disposal costs  Sustainable Earning 1. Quality and Stability:  No shortage on raw materials  Consistency assured  Quality engineering process (Ecotrax, 2015) Design Steps: Collection of Waste plastic: The first step in order to get composite sleeper is to collect recyclable plastic waste from different industrial and waste sectors. Each sleeper requires about 75 kg of plastic which is obtained from 1200 plastic bottles. (Mega Projects, 2016) Inspection of the waste: The recycled plastic is visually inspected, coded and tagged according to the type of waste labeled by the inspectors present; these quality inspectors verify and properly identify the waste. After that the bundles of waste are weighed and recorded and the waste is staged for processing. (Mega Projects, 2016) Shredding of the plastic waste: Since plastic is versatile material therefore it ranges from tough polymer structures to extra firm material, shredder is machine in which different knives, rotors and cutting technologies are present. It cuts and reduces the size of the plastic waste when the bundles of wastes are placed in it. (Mega Projects, 2016) Eddy Current Separator: Eddy current separator is a machine that uses a powerful magnetic field to separate ferrous and non – ferrous materials from the waste. This machine uses eddy currents in its application. (Mega Projects, 2016) Granulation: In this step a granulator is used which is a machine for size reduction, granulators have the ability to break down plastic products such as plastic bottles, crates and drums into simpler and uniform form. (Mega Projects, 2016) Molding: Railway sleepers are made out of moulds which hold up to 10 sleepers per mould. It should be noticed that these moulds are cleaned and oiled thoroughly so that the sleepers come off the moulds easily and the oiling also helps to keep the surface smooth of the sleeper. (Mega Projects, 2016) Heating: After placing the matter in the moulds the moulds are placed in the heating kilns with constant steam pressure along with controlled temperature and humidity. A high pressure of steam and cold water is also sprayed upon the moulds and after several hours the moulds are overturned. (Mega Projects, 2016) Separation of sleepers: After the moulds come out of the kiln chambers, they are placed upon a conveyor system and here they are cut into individual units with the help of a high speed rotating blade moving back and forth and separating the sleepers. (Mega Projects, 2016) Storage and identification: Now these sleepers are taken to the storage area and here they are laser engraved with identification codes and barcodes. Dimple patterns are applied in the three sides of the sleepers. (Mega Projects, 2016) Installation: After that all these sleepers undergo a pressure test to determine whether they will be able to survive the outside conditions of the loads. If a sleeper goes through this test then they are taken to the final step and installed beneath the railway line. (Mega Projects, 2016) Technical specification: The technical specification of the railway sleeper provide by our company includes: Shape: Rectangular Height and Width: 130 mm (H) and 254 mm (W) Length: Ranges between 2.4 m – 2.75 m Weight: Ranges between 54 – 69 kg Specific Gravity: Ranges between 0.85 – 0.9 Density: Ranges between 849 – 897 kg/m3 Thermal Expansion: 0.000074 cm/cm/C Compressive Strength: 20.6 MPa Modulus of elasticity (Flexural): 1,724 MPa Shear Strength: 10.3 MPa Bending Strength: 20.6 MPa Speed: Ranges between 250 – 300 km/hr. Figure 1 shows composite sleeper (SICUT, 2016) Using and Installing Method: The steps used in order to install railway sleepers are: 1. Initially the worksite where the sleepers are to be installed or replaced is selected. 2. The hazards and dangers are accessed on the site and precautionary measures are applied. 3. It is selected weather the sleepers are to be installed newly or being replaced or repaired. 4. Apparatus and tools are selected in accordance with the workplace environment. 5. After that track gauge measurements are recorded in agreement to the selected site. (Australian Government, 2015) 6. Sleepers are heavy and manual handling of sleepers is difficult and may damage the sleeper as well. 7. Therefore mechanical relaying system is implemented in order to proceed with the placement of sleepers. 8. In mechanical relaying system, two portal cranes are used and relaying is done using prefabricated panels. 9. Before placing any sleeper the ballast layer below is balanced and leveled up to determined point. 10. The portal cable lifts up the sleeper and places upon the ballast bed. 11. The sleepers should be placed with uniform spacing, 60 or 65 cm spacing should be provided between the sleepers. 12. The sleeper panels are then connected with fish plates, fittings and fastenings. (Railway Engineering, 2007) Machinery needed to implement: The machinery required during the preparation of Sleepers:  Shredder  Granulator  Eddy Current apparatus  Conveyor Belt for cutting  Pressure Test apparatus The machinery used during the installation of the sleepers:  Portal Cranes  Auxiliary wire cables  Prefabricated Panel Operation and Maintenance aspects: Since the composite railway sleeper is environmentally friendly it does not require much maintenance to be done. Unlike wooden sleepers it does not get rot and is completely water resistant. It is impermeable to wood eating insects, it absorbs very less water and thus it is very durable and easy to maintain. The maintenance of composite sleeper is very simple since it is light in weight. It has excellent vibration absorption characteristics. If a sleeper gets damaged the screws can be easily unfastened and can be replaced with the new sleeper easily. Some of the maintenance factors are as follows: Debris and dirt: early steps should be taken in order to clean the dirt and reduce the collection of debris from the surface of the sleeper. Pressure water jet or brooms can be used to wipe away the dirt. (Composite Lumber, 2016) Mold and Mildew: mold and mildew in other words is rotting and decaying process, especially the sleepers located in hot regions face this problem, since our company provides composite sleepers, they do not rot and the decaying growth is also very less. If in case mold and mildew is present on the sleeper commercial cleaning should be done to prevent future growth. (Composite Lumber, 2016) Rust, oil and grease stains: rust stains can be appeared on the surface of sleepers as a result of contact of the metallic surface with the sleeper like rail. Whereas the stains of oil and greases should also be immediately removed, therefore Oxalic or phosphoric acid can be used to lighten up or removal of these stains. If slight stains still appear on the surface a short period of normal weathering will lessen. (Composite Lumber, 2016) Product Illustration: Below is a labeled diagram of the composite Sleeper that our company provides: Figure 2 shows labeled diagram of Sleeper (Patent Docs, 2016) Cost of the product: Discussing about the cost we must consider the following factors:  Durability of the composite Sleeper (years): 40 – 50 years  Replacement practice: Easy  Handling the sleepers: Easy  Weight of the sleeper: 54 – 69 kg  Cost of the sleeper with fittings: 280 $  Life Cycle cost (year): 6 $ Conditions and place of using: A sleeper is placed over a surface of ballast, sub ballast and sub grade. The ballast is a layer of broken small stones, gravel and several other granular materials placed below and around sleepers in order to distribute load from the sleeper to the foundation along with drainage facility, longitudinal and lateral stability of the track. It also helps in holding the sleeper firmly while the train passes. A sub grade is a layer of naturally occurring soil which is prepared in order to serve the ballasts layer along with sleepers and rail. It helps in providing a smooth and leveled bed for laying the track. This subgrade layer nears the loads which are transmitted from the ballast layer through the moving load. This subgrade layer provides stability to the track. (Railway Engineering, 2007) While some of the precautions that should be adopted while installing a sleeper are: 1. The sleepers should not be laid near ash pits and other places where ash is present or dropped regularly. 2. The sleepers should not be installed in uncompact and ballast less yard lines. 3. The curves which exceeds 500 m radius in the rail track are not suitable for the sleepers to be laid. 4. Sleepers should be placed at such places where corrosions and rotting occurs massively. (Railway Engineering, 2007) Conclusion By the end of this report it is concluded that composite railway sleepers are completely made up of recycled materials and are 100% recyclable after the production. They cause no effects on the environment and promote green energy, sustainability and no disposal difficulties. In any country or city plastic is the main source of solid waste and it can be beneficially utilized in the form of railway sleeper, by adapting plastic as a railway sleeper the land pollution can also be reduced because they release less amount of energy and produce insignificant greenhouse gases. By using composite sleepers and not using timber sleepers the forest can be saved and deforestation is also reduced. The results and performance of composite sleeper makes it a better alternative to timber sleeper. One of the other advantage of composite sleeper is that they are light weight but still provide high strength and durability, they have a longer service life as compared to concrete sleepers and easy maintenance. The installation is also very simple which cuts the labor charges. It is believed that the composite sleepers can take over traditional sleepers and it can be seen from the table below: Table 1 shows countries using Composite Sleepers The above table shows that developed countries like USA, Germany, Japan and UK are using and installing different composite sleepers due to the vast advantages and high strength and tensile properties of composite sleepers. Task 2 Introduction: Oman’s location, between the eastern and western corners of the globe, and at the foothills of the Middle East, naturally places the Sultanate at the center of global trade lanes. Indeed, its geostrategic importance was already exemplified during the struggle for international maritime supremacy in the 16th century, when the Portuguese invaded Oman in order to secure their lucrative trade routes from India and South-East Asia. Today, Oman is in the midst of a second renaissance. It has a young, educated and highly ambitious population. Furthermore, it benefits from continued political stability, strong international relations, and a rapidly growing economy with an average GDP growth of 9% p.a. over the last 5 years. Oman’s geographical location is as advantageous today as at any point in its history. It currently finds itself at the heart of the fastest growing economies of the world (South East Asia, Middle East and Africa), and is placed directly on the major shipping routes between East and West. Given the recent investments in its logistics infrastructure, Oman is able to offer its neighboring countries and continents one of the fastest and most cost-efficient distribution hubs for the Middle East and the Indian Ocean regions, while at the same time avoiding the requirement to navigate the politically sensitive Straits of Hormuz. Oman Rail: The development of the railway network in Oman project is partially driven by the development of the GCC Railway Mainline (see Exhibit 6). Designed to generate economic, social and environmental benefits for each of the member countries, the GCC Railway Mainline will link all six GCC member countries along their eastern sea border, from Kuwait in the north, through Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates to Oman in the south. To effectively facilitate cross-border trade and thus maximize the impact created, the entire rail network in the GCC region is designed to allow full interoperability. Furthermore, the network will accommodate both passenger and freight services. The rail network in Oman and its technical specifications: The full rail network in Oman will ultimately span 2,135 km and connect Oman’s major ports, industrial areas, mineral deposits and population centers both with each other and with the wider GCC region (see Exhibit 7). The railway will benefit from the following technical specifications: • Double track designed for future electrification • Safety by design (no crossings at grade, protected by fencing) • Mixed freight and passenger operations • Locomotive and wagons axle load of 32.4 tons • International design standards (AREMA AAR/UIC) • State-of-the-art signaling and communication systems (ETCS Level 2, GSM-R) Oman economy Since oil prices began falling in mid-2014, the government has repeatedly emphasised that it will continue to invest in large infrastructure projects. The transport and communications under- secretary, Salim bin Mohammed al Nuaimi, told a press conference that more than 80 projects were currently under way to build over 1,600km of road at a total cost of US$7bn, although if recently awarded contracts are included, total investment rises to nearly US$7.8bn. Major projects under construction include the Batinah Expressway and a dual carriageway from Bidbid to Sur. According to the transport and communications minister, Ahmed bin Salim al Futaisi, work will begin in 2015 on upgrading the first two 120 km long sections of the Adam-Thumrait road to dual carriageway, and another 25 road projects are currently being tendered, including roads to connect the Batinah Expressway with the Sultan Qaboos Highway, and the 65-km long Diba-Lima-Khasab coastal road through the challenging mountain terrain of Musandam. Although some of the country's transport infrastructure remains in urgent need of maintenance, the government has invested heavily in road development over the past ten years, surfacing many graded roads and upgrading single-lane roads to dual carriageways. The major step change in Oman's transport infrastructure is expected to begin this year with the start of construction of the US$15bn national rail project. The state-owned Oman Rail extended the deadline to March 1st for commercial bids for construction of the first segment from Buraimi to Sohar following requests from several bidders for more time to price their bids. The delay will further squeeze the already tight timeframe; the segment is Oman's link to the Gulf Cooperation Council rail network, which is planned to begin operating in 2018. The contract is now expected to be awarded in mid-2015.

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QUARDIAN
School: UT Austin

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Anonymous
Outstanding Job!!!!

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