rewrite the whole assignment

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Can u please re-write the whole assignment because i have to upload this on turnitin and i want the least similarity. just have to re-write it.

Table of Contents 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Main Body ............................................................................................................................................ 2 2.1 Product Description ............................................................................................................................ 4 2.2 Design & Manufacturing Steps ........................................................................................................... 3 2.2.1 Design steps ................................................................................................................................. 3 2.2.2 Manufacturing Steps .................................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Testing of Product ............................................................................................................................... 7 2.4 Technical Specifications ..................................................................................................................... 7 2.5 Using & Installing Method ............................................................................................................... 13 2.5.1 Laying track Preparation ........................................................................................................... 16 2.5.2 Ballasting ................................................................................................................................... 16 2.5.3 Laying Sleepers .......................................................................................................................... 17 2.6 Machinery Required for Implementation .......................................................................................... 17 2.7 Operation & Maintenance Aspects ................................................................................................... 18 2.8 Suitable Conditions for Usage .......................................................................................................... 19 2.9 Cost of Products………………………………………………...………………………………… 17 3. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................... 18 4. References ........................................................................................................................................... 19 List of Figures Figure 1: Design of twin block concrete sleepers ......................................................................................... 4 Figure 2: Design of mono block concrete sleepers ....................................................................................... 4 Figure 3: Design Process of Concrete Sleepers ............................................................................................ 7 Figure 4: 'Long Line Method' for the manufacture of concrete sleepers ...................................................... 9 Figure 5: Final Treatment of Concrete Sleepers ......................................................................................... 10 Figure 6: Notifications for the Dimensions of Sleepers .............................................................................. 11 List of Tables Table 1: Technical Specification of concrete sleepers for ballasted tracks with pictures. .......................... 11 Table 2: Technical Specification of concrete sleepers for ballast less tracks with pictures ........................ 14 Table 3: Operation & maintenance characteristics of concrete sleeper ...................................................... 20 Table 4: Cost of concrete sleepers for ballasted railway tracks. ................................................................. 20 Table 5:Cost of concrete sleepers for ballast less railway track. ................ Error! Bookmark not defined. ii 1. Introduction Sleepers are basically transverse beams which rests on ballast and support. There are four types of sleepers which include, wooden, composite, steel and concrete. In the past due the excessive availability of timber in local areas, wooden sleepers were used. Timber sleepers were grouped by Esveld (2001) into two types which are softwood (pinewood) and hardwood (beech, tropical tree, oak etc.). However, modern railway adopted reinforced or pre-stressed concrete sleepers, and steel sleepers to limited extent over the past decades, owing to the long service life and durability of concrete and steel. Among all these types concrete sleepers are not much affected by either weather or climate, and therefore are widely used in modern railway (Kaewunruen et al., 2008). Therefore, Rail. One provides a wide variety of concrete sleepers for entire field of railway tracks to match the standards of modern railway system. Rail. One manufactures different types of sleepers with different functions which includes main track, transition, railroad crossing to turnout sleepers for both ballasted and ballast less railway tracks (Rail. One, 2014). Rail. One made itself a well-established company in providing engineering for the entire fields of railway tracks and for comprehensive orientated systems, with its diversity for requirements. International leading position has been achieved by our company in the high speed railway systems. Furthermore, our company produces varies types of concrete sleepers for ballasted and ballast less railway tracks (Rail. One, 2014). Our company developed long line method for the production of main track concrete sleeper back in 1960. Then monolithic method for the design of main track sleeper was introduce around same time. A decade later our company became the first large scale manufacturer of turnout concrete sleepers. These production process proved to be superior in terms of efficiency and quality. The long line method of our company got recognized worldwide owing to the continuous development programmes and researches (Abetong, 2011). The aim of this report is to give detailed technical specifications of concrete sleepers manufactured by our company to convince client’s to buy our products. In order to achieve this goal product description, design and manufacturing, quality assurance, cost, technical specifications, installing methods, machinery required for implementation, suitable conditions for usage, and operation and iii maintenance aspects of concrete sleeper produced by our company is discussed in detail. This is done to provide sufficient information about the product that our company intends to sell. 2. Main Body 2.1 Product Description: Concrete railway sleepers are of two types: twin-block and mono-block (figure 1 & 2) (Kaewunruen et al., 2008). For high speed ballasted track and light rapid transit (LRT) a range of mono-block and twin block sleepers exists. Due to the light weight and easy installation of twinblock sleepers they are preferred for LRT projects (Stanton Bonna, 2016). In modern railway system concrete sleepers are made using pre-stressed concrete, which introduce internal tension in the sleepers using high tensile steel before it is casted. This helps the concrete sleeper to offset the external pressure exerted on the block during its service (Kable, 2016). The material of concrete sleepers is good economically and is also environmentally friendly (Fence Line, 2015). The design of mono block and twin block concrete sleepers is described in the figures below: Figure 1: Design of twin block concrete sleepers. Figure 2: Design of mono block concrete sleepers. Concrete sleepers performs following important functions in railway track (Kaewunruen et al., 2008): • It transfer the load uniformly and distribute them from the foot of rail to the ballast bed underneath. 4 • It anchorage the fastening system which grips the rails at their exact gauge and maintains the inclination. • It provide support to the rail and detain lateral, vertical and longitudinal movement by embedding itself against the substructure. Following are the advantages of concrete sleepers which make them better as compared to other sleepers (Chandra et al., 2007): • Concrete sleepers provide more strength and stability to the track as they are heavy, and due to the great resistance of concrete sleepers to buckling of track they are best fit for LWR. • With elastic fastening concrete sleepers helps track to maintain better gauge, alignment and cross level, and very well retains packing as well. • The flat bottom of concrete sleepers make them best fit for modern techniques of maintaining track which include mechanical maintenance and MSP, which are advantageous. • Concrete sleepers due to their poor conductivity of electricity, can be used in the circuited areas of the track. • Concrete sleepers are not flammable and under normal conditions they are not subjected to damage by corrosion or pests. • Due to the long lifespan of concrete sleepers (probably 50 – 60 years) the renewal of rail and sleepers can be coordinated, which act as a major economic advantage. • Using local resources concrete can generally be mass produced. Due to the advantageous properties of superior load bearing capacity and stable smooth ride, prestressed concrete sleepers became necessity for modern high speed lines (Kable, 2016). 2.2 Design & Manufacturing Steps: 2.2.1 Design steps: The design process of concrete sleepers consists of key steps and significant variables which are illustrated in figure 3. Through the axles and wheels of the vehicle its load is applied to the track. Axle load of the vehicle depends on its design and maintenance. The rail is loaded by the axle through its wheels. At this phase the consequences of impact have to be considered along with 5 significant variables: type of vehicle, speed, level of leaped and unleaped mass, track structure and maintenance. From this phase spacing of sleeper, stiffness of rail, packing of ballast, shape of sleeper footprint and maintenance are considered to obtain consequent ballast pressure and the sleeper rail reactions. From the ballast pressure and loads the design sleeper moments can be evaluated, but for developing a design moment envelope the unloaded resonant stresses should also be considered because of the dynamic effects. Then finally with the given strength of materials a concrete sleeper may be designed (Taylor, H.P.J., 1993). Therefore, in the design of concrete sleepers following forces and factors are considered (Chandra et al., 2007): • Forces acting on a sleeper. • Effects of geometric form (size, weight and shape). • Effects of used fastening characteristics. • Against derailment provision of failure. 6 Figure 3: Design Process of Concrete Sleepers (Taylor, H.P.J., 1993). 2.2.2 Manufacturing Steps It is a challenging task to produce pre-stressed concrete sleepers with high quality, minimum cost and in safe and reliable process. But our company makes it possible by using ‘Long Line Method’ for the production of sleeper. Four or more long casting beds are present in a typical plant for the production of sleepers, in these casting beds are placed a number of casting moulds. One such casting bed or line can be around 100 – 150 meters long (Abetong, 2011). Our company is thirdparty accredited to ISO 9001 for the Quality assurance system. This system includes the 7 verification of raw material used in concrete blends, monitoring process control variables, operator training and auditing (Austrak, 2012). In the long line manufacturing process of concrete sleepers (figure 4), the tendons of 5mm diameter are anchored between the moulds and tension tower and are stressed not more than 70% of the specified ultimate tensile stress using specifically designed tensioning method. The pre designed concrete mix, with its high quality being ensured by our company’s quality assurance system, is then poured in the moulds. Then with the assistance of high frequency vibrators the poured high quality concrete mix is thoroughly mixed and consolidated. After about 3 hours of casting concrete, tarpaulin is used to cover the moulds and the concrete is allowed to cure in the moulds by steam. By using the Hover’s method of destressing the tendons are allowed to destress and the tendons are then cut and the line is released. Then again the sleepers are further cured by steam for a period of 14 days until the required strength of sleepers is obtained. Afterwards, the sleepers are de-moulded and using rail operated wagon are transferred to cutting machine where they are cut into exact lengths (Chandra et al., 2007; Abetong, 2011). After the manufacture of concrete sleepers final treatment is carried out which involves, assembling of fastening components and inspection of sleepers and marking (figure 5). Then the concrete sleepers are stored and delivered to the client (Abetong, 2011). 8 Figure 4: 'Long Line Method' for the manufacture of concrete sleepers (Abetong, 2011). 9 Figure 5: Final Treatment of Concrete Sleepers. 2.3 Testing of Product: In order to meet specification (load bearing capacity, train speed etc.) and to manufacture a high quality concrete sleeper, our company ensure comprehensive testing during design and production processes. Before the manufacture of new design, our company proves the theoretical design by the assistance of computer based modelling (Austrak, 2012). Then the prototype sleeper are subjected to thorough load test repeatedly and are evaluated against the client’s performance expectations and theoretical data. During the production process our company carries out several test to ensure the conformity of (Austrak, 2012): 1. Utilized materials in the products 2. Pre-stressing 3. Strength of concrete From each bed, samples of sleepers are taken to ensure the final product meets testing criteria for bond, dimensional testing and first crack. According to our quality assurance program all sleepers are visually checked (Austrak, 2012). 2.4 Technical Specifications: Our company provides concrete sleepers for ballasted and ballast less tracks for railway systems (Rail. One, 2014). The sleepers are produced according to the client’s requirements and project specifications to optimize costs and the performance of variety of rails (Stanton Bonna, 2016). In the table below are the technical specifications of the concrete sleepers provided by our company. Dimensions of our products will be defined by the following notification given in figure 6. 10 Figure 6: Notifications for the Dimensions of Sleepers (Rail. One, 2014). Table 1: Technical Specification of concrete sleepers for ballasted tracks with pictures (Rail. One, 2014). Concrete Sleepers for Railway Ballasted Tracks Code = B 70 • Permissible Axle Load = 25 metric tons • Maximum Speed = 250 km/h • Concrete Grade = C 50/60 • Concrete Volume = 114 l • Weight (excluding fastening) = 280 kg • Length (L) = 2600 mm • Width (W) = 300 mm • Sleeper Height (H) = 234 mm • Height of Centre of Rail Base (h1) = 214 mm • Height of Sleeper Centre (h2) = 175 mm • Support Surface (Total) = 6800 cm2 • Standard Application = Main track sleeper Code = B 90 • Permissible Axle Load = 25 metric tons • Maximum Speed = 250 km/h • Concrete Grade = C 50/60 • Concrete Volume = 135 l • Weight (excluding fastening) = 332 kg • Length (L) = 2600 mm • Width (W) = 320 mm • Sleeper Height (H) = 234 mm • Height of Centre of Rail Base (h1) = 214 mm • Height of Sleeper Centre (h2) = 175 mm • Support Surface (Total) = 7944 cm2 • Standard Application = Main track sleeper 11 Code = B 93 • Permissible Axle Load = 25 metric tons • Maximum Speed = 250 km/h • Concrete Grade = C 50/60 • Concrete Volume = 142 l • Weight (excluding fastening) = 348 kg • Length (L) = 2600 mm • Width (W) = 298 mm • Sleeper Height (H) = 193 mm • Height of Centre of Rail Base (h1) = 193 mm • Height of Sleeper Centre (h2) = 193 mm • Support Surface (Total) = 7748 cm2 • Standard Application = Main track sleeper for gripping/guard rail Code = B 320 • Permissible Axle Load = 25 metric tons • Maximum Speed = 250 km/h • Concrete Grade = C 50/60 • Concrete Volume = 148 l • Weight (excluding fastening) = 360 kg • Length (L) = 2600 mm • Width (W) = 300 mm • Sleeper Height (H) = 273.5 mm • Height of Centre of Rail Base (h1) = 217 mm • Height of Sleeper Centre (h2) = 190 mm • Support Surface (Total) = 7768 cm2 • Standard Application = Transition sleeper 12 Code = BBS-BU • Permissible Axle Load = 25 metric tons • Maximum Speed = 250 km/h • Concrete Grade = C 50/60 • Concrete Volume = 290 l • Weight (excluding fastening) = 700 kg • Length (L) = 2400 mm • Width (W) = 590 mm • Sleeper Height (H) = 233 mm • Height of Centre of Rail Base (h1) = 214 mm • Height of Sleeper Centre (h2) = 233 mm • Support Surface (Total) = 14160 cm2 • Standard Application = Railroad crossing Code = Turnout • Permissible Axle Load = 25 metric tons • Maximum Speed = 250 km/h • Concrete Grade = C 50/60 • Concrete Volume = 63.4 l/m • Weight (excluding fastening) = 155 kg/m • Length (L) = 800 – 4700 mm • Width (W) = 300 mm • Sleeper Height (H) = 220 mm • Height of Centre of Rail Base (h1) = 220 mm • Height of Sleeper Centre (h2) = 220 mm • Support Surface (Total) = 3000 cm2/m • Standard Application = Turnout sleeper Table 1 shows six types of concrete sleepers with their codes and specifications that our company offers for the ballasted railway tracks. The technical specifications of the products mentioned in the table above can be customized according to the client’s and project requirements. 13 Table 2: Technical Specification of concrete sleepers for ballast less tracks with pictures (Rail. One, 2014). Concrete Sleepers for Railway Ballast-less Tracks Code = B 355.1 • Permissible Axle Load = 25 metric tons • Maximum Speed = 350 km/h • Concrete Grade = C 50/60 • Concrete Volume = 52 l • Weight (excluding fastening) = 138 kg • Length (L) = 2316 mm • Width (W) = 283 mm • Sleeper Height (H) = 233.5 mm • Height of Centre of Rail Base (h1) = 127 mm • Height of Sleeper Centre (h2) = • Support Surface (Total) = • Standard Application = Main track sleeper Code = B 355.2 • Permissible Axle Load = 25 metric tons • Maximum Speed = 350 km/h • Concrete Grade = C 50/60 • Concrete Volume = 47 l • Weight (excluding fastening) = 130 kg • Length (L) = 2509 mm • Width (W) = 285 mm • Sleeper Height (H) = 150 mm • Height of Centre of Rail Base (h1) = 105 mm • Height of Sleeper Centre (h2) = • Support Surface (Total) = • Standard Application = Main track sleeper 14 Code = B 355.3 • Permissible Axle Load = 25 metric tons • Maximum Speed = 350 km/h • Concrete Grade = C 50/60 • Concrete Volume = 77 l • Weight (excluding fastening) = 197 kg • Length (L) = 2509 mm • Width (W) = 286 mm • Sleeper Height (H) = 253.5 mm • Height of Centre of Rail Base (h1) = 147 mm • Height of Sleeper Centre (h2) = • Support Surface (Total) = • Standard Application = Main track sleeper Code = B 355.3 - DFC • Permissible Axle Load = 25 metric tons • Maximum Speed = 350 km/h • Concrete Grade = C 50/60 • Concrete Volume = 61 l • Weight (excluding fastening) = 161 kg • Length (L) = 2509 mm • Width (W) = 285 mm • Sleeper Height (H) = 202 mm • Height of Centre of Rail Base (h1) = 137 mm • Height of Sleeper Centre (h2) = • Support Surface (Total) = • Standard Application = Main track sleeper 15 Code = GWS 05 300W • Permissible Axle Load = 25 metric tons • Maximum Speed = 350 km/h • Concrete Grade = C 50/60 • Concrete Volume = 38 l/m • Weight (excluding fastening) = 105 kg/m • Length (L) = 800 – 4700 mm • Width (W) = 293 mm • Sleeper Height (H) = 183 mm • Height of Centre of Rail Base (h1) = 135 mm • Height of Sleeper Centre (h2) = • Support Surface (Total) = • Standard Application = Turnout sleeper Table 2 shows five types of concrete sleepers with their codes and specifications that our company offers for the ballast less railway tracks. The technical specifications of the products mentioned in the table above can be customized according to the client’s and project requirements. 2.5 Using & Installing Methods: The installation of concrete sleepers requires few steps to be carried out before they are laid, which includes, laying track preparation and ballasting (ARTC, 2008). 2.5.1 Laying track Preparation: The things that should be done for laying sleepers and rails include (ARTC, 2008): • Protection of top surface of the formation at all times. • The laying of sleepers and rails in a manner that avoids damage to the formation or capping. • Before laying rails on sleepers, the bearing surfaces of the bottom of rails and all sleepers must be free of all dirt by cleaning. 2.5.2 Ballasting: Before the ballast is laid, contaminated ballast is removed from the track (ARTC, 2008). Then at the level of the bottom of concrete sleepers the ballast bed should be evened. After levelling the vibratory rollers are used to compact ballast to the possible extent (Chandra et al., 2007). The ballasting is done according to the Contractor’s Quality Plan (ARTC, 2008). 16 2.5.3 Laying Sleepers: Concrete sleepers are first of all transported to the site by using rail wagons. Then they are laid at the bottom ballast by using road/rail excavator, with a sleeper grabbing attachment. The laying of concrete sleepers is done according to the specified spacing (Gautrain, 2009). The spacing of concrete sleepers at centers should be generally 667mm unless specified by the superintendent. Sleepers must be laid radial to curved track, whereas for straight tracks sleepers must be laid square to center line. The distance between the sleepers should not variate more than 25mm. From the outer rail, spacing must be measured on curves (ARTC, 2008). Sleeper laying machines are specifically designed for the purpose of accurately spacing the sleepers while installing them, and for ensuring they are aligned correctly before the offloading of rails (Border Railway, N.D.). Sleepers are handled and laid according to the Contractor’s Quality Plan (ARTC, 2008). 2.6 Machinery Required for Implementation: Concrete sleepers can only be implemented using the mechanical relaying system which requires machinery. Manual handling of concrete sleepers is not used due to the heavy weight of sleepers and can damage the sleepers as well. Mechanical relaying system requires sleeper laying machines for relaying. Gantry cranes are used to remove existing rail panels then the ballast is levelled up. Ballast is then compacted using vibrating rollers and then using sleeper laying machines concrete sleepers are laid. The following steps are involved (Chandra et al., 2007): • Work preparation at the site of relaying • Assembly of panels in base depots before relaying • Relaying operation • Work after relaying Therefore, the machinery used for the implementation of concrete sleepers include (Chandra et al., 2007): • Rail Wagons • Gantry Cranes • Vibrating Rollers • Sleeper Laying Machines: Road/rail excavator with a sleeper grabbing attachment etc. 17 2.7 Operation & Maintenance Aspects: Concrete sleepers are not prone to warping, environmental degradation, insect infestation and they also lessen the track fires potential owing to their non-combustible nature. Therefore, concrete sleepers has long life span and also requires less maintenance, this results in the less track closures and lower ongoing costs (Kable, 2016). The concrete sleepers cannot be maintained using manual methods due to their heavy weight except for individual sleeper treatment. As the maintenance requires heavy and complex equipment therefore manual treatment is not preferred and mechanical methods of sleeper maintenance are used (Border Railway, N.D.). The concrete sleepers can be easily maintained. The fasteners and rails can be easily replaced because the interface of rail/sleeper is same on ballast sleepers and on slab tracks. The concrete sleepers are easily replaceable because of our slab track system design (Consolis, 2016). The maintenance of concrete sleepers requires attention in following points (Chandra et al., 2007): • Mechanical facilities should be used for maintaining and laying of concrete sleepers. • Heavy on track tampers should normally be used for maintaining concrete sleepers, but for spot attention off track tamper or MSP may be used. The MSP chips should be of 8mm – 30mm size as per requirement. • At a time only 30 sleeper spaces should be opened between two boxed track stretches. • Concrete sleepers should be given good riding surface by compacting well and uniformly. The central 800mm of the mono block sleeper should not be packed hard to avoid binding at centre. • At both ends of concrete sleepers the exposed ends of pre-stressing wires should be painted with anticorrosive paints to prevent corrosion. Whereas the tie bars of twin block concrete sleepers should be examined for corrosion every year, and the affected portions should be painted. • The precautions for LWR track maintenance should be followed for the casual renewal of concrete sleepers. • Rubber pads should be instantly replaced by new ones, on their permanent displacement form the correct position. 18 Table 3: Operation & maintenance characteristics of concrete sleepers (Chandra et al., 2007). 2.8 Suitable Conditions for Usage: Concrete sleepers are not prone to warping, environmental degradation, insect infestation and they also lessen the track fires potential owing to their non-combustible nature. Therefore, concrete sleepers in all weather and extreme temperature conditions maintain their integrity (Kable, 2016). The working restriction due to the structure rigidity and heavy weight of concrete sleepers include their non-suitability for the fish-plated joints, places that cannot achieve uniform packing and yielding formations. Concrete sleepers are normally laid only at the locations where LWRs are allowable. High speed tracks are given preference on other tracks for the use of concrete sleepers. Concrete sleepers should not be laid at following locations (Chandra et al., 2007): • New Formation in banks except compacted specially. • Curves with less than 500 m radius. • Near the location of ash pits or other places where ash is dropped habitually. • Ballast less lines in yards. • At locations expected of causing extreme corrosion. • On arch bridges and ballast less bridges, where the height between bottom of ballast section and the arch is less than 1m. • On slab bridges, where the cushion of ballast between the top of slab and the bottom of sleeper is less than 300 mm. 19 • With fish plated tracks and troublesome formations. 2.9 Cost of Products: The cost of our different type of concrete sleepers mentioned above are given in the table 3 & table 4. Table 4: Cost of concrete sleepers for ballasted railway tracks (Rail. One, 2014). Codes of Sleepers B 70 B 90 B 93 B 320 BBS-BU Turnout Cost per Unit 120 US Dollar 160 US Dollar 170 US Dollar 177 US Dollar 354 US Dollar 90 US Dollar Table 5: Cost of concrete sleepers for ballast less railway tracks (Rail. One, 2014). Codes of Sleepers B 355.1 B 355.2 B 355.3 B 355.3 – DFC GWS 05 300W Cost per Unit 80 US Dollar 75 US Dollar 100 US Dollar 94 US Dollar 65 US Dollar The costs mentioned in table 3 and table 4 are according to the specification mentioned for the products in table 1 & 2. These costs can vary depending of the customized specifications of the client’s order. 3. Conclusion: This report discusses in detail the required information by the client regarding the concrete sleepers that our company manufacture. Therefore, for the satisfaction of client all aspects regarding the design, manufacture, quality assurance, cost, technical specifications, installing methods, machinery required for implementation, suitable conditions for usage, and operation and maintenance of concrete sleepers are discussed in report. The report concludes that the company manufactures variety of sleepers for ballasted and ballast less tracks. Our company manufactures six types of mono-block concrete sleepers for ballasted track which includes main track, transition, railroad crossing and turnout sleepers. Whereas, four types of twin-block and one type of mono-block concrete sleepers for ballast less track are 20 manufactured by our company which includes main track and turnout sleepers. The major specification of the concrete sleepers are given below in table. Table 6: Major specifications of concrete sleepers. Codes of Type (L x W) Sleepers of (mm) Weight Type of Speed Track Km/h Application Cost (US block Dollar) B 70 Mono 2600 x 300 280 kg Ballasted 250 Main Track 120 B 90 Mono 2600 x 320 332 kg Ballasted 250 Main Track 160 B 93 Mono 2600 x 298 348 kg Ballasted 250 Main Track 170 B 320 Mono 2600 x 300 360 kg Ballasted 250 Transition 177 BBS-BU Mono 2400 x 590 700 kg Ballasted 250 Railroad crossing 354 Turnout Mono (800-4700) x 300 155 kg/m Ballasted 250 Turnout 90 B 355.1 Twin 2316 x 283 138 kg Ballast less 350 Main Track 80 B 355.2 Twin 2509 x 285 130 kg Ballast less 350 Main Track 75 B 355.3 Twin 2509 x 286 197 kg Ballast less 350 Main Track 100 B 355.3 - DFC Twin 2509 x 285 161 kg Ballast less 350 Main Track 94 GWS 05 300W Mono (800-4700) x 293 105 kg/m Ballast less 350 Turnout 65 21 TASK 2 Introduction: The Sultanate of Oman (Oman) borders Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the west; the Republic of Yemen in the south; the Strait of Hormuz in the north and the Arabian Sea in the east. The capital of the country, Muscat, is located in the north of the country. In 2015, Oman had a population of 4.4 million (56% Omani, 44% expatriate) and GDP of $70 billion. With its per capita GDP of about $16,000, Oman is considered a high income country. However, the country is mainly depending on oil exports as one third of the GDP and 80% of the public finances are derived from petroleum related products. In 2015, Oman produced about 981,000 barrels of crude oil per day. Due to recent drop in world oil prices, Oman operated at a budget deficit of OMR 4.6 billion (about $12 billion) in 2015 despite the significant level of oil production. Oil and gas account for almost 60% of Oman’s exports. Imports largely comprise mechanical and transport equipment and base metals. Although Oman is blessed with significant mineral reserves that could generate enormous export revenue, mineral exports accounted for only 4% of the total exports in 2015. In order to reduce its dependence on oil, Oman plans to diversify its economy from exportation of crude oil to other mineral exports, manufacturing, logistic service arrangement, warehousing, fisheries, tourism as well as value added industry in the oil and gas sector such as downstream refinery, petroleum storage, and petrochemical plants. With three deep water ports and a favorable position on the Indian Ocean Rim outside of the Arabian Gulf, Oman is strategically positioned to export its natural resources, products and services to the Middle-east, northern Africa, and South Asia. Oman realizes its enormous potential through strengthening its logistics services and transforming the country to a global strategic logistics hub. In line with this, the Government of Oman (the Government) has planned to increase the production and export of construction materials and minerals such as dolomite, gypsum, and marble and prioritize the concurrent development of mineral connection railway line and the commercial terminal at Duqm Port so as to capture full benefits from such diversification. The Government is also committed to leverage Oman’s strategic location to boost its role as a regional logistics hub through investments in large infrastructure projects such as the national railway network, inland and coastal logistics centers, and free trade zones. Oman Rail Network: 22 In 2015, Oman’s Ministry of Transport and Communications (MOTC) produced the Sultanate of Oman Logistics Strategy (SOLS) as part of the national economic diversification strategy. The strategy identified that logistics could significantly enable the economy to diversify away from its dependence on oil and gas. SOLS aims to increase logistics contribution to Oman’s GDP from 5% in 2015 to 12% by 2040. In order to strengthen Oman’s logistics offering and connect the country to the GCC rail network, the Government had set up a wholly owned Oman Rail Company S.A.O.C. in 2014. It is a company incorporated under the laws of Oman, not a government department, and was tasked with developing an overall rail network 2 (about 2,135 km) in the country, which is to be completed through two phases. Phase 1 will connect Oman’s three deep seaports with the GCC railway network as well as with the inland mineral resources, and Phase 2 will connect various major cities of Oman. The Oman railway network has been divided into nine Segments. Segments 1- 4 are planned to be constructed under Phase 1 and Segments 5 to 9 under Phase 2. Railway will transform Oman: – Connect the three deep water ports to the Middle East – Provides new opportunities for Oman’s mineral resources – Stimulating long term growth for Oman, GCC and Middle East Oman economy: A flourishing economy, rich in natural resources with significant growth potential Oman enjoys one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Over the last 5 years, GDP growth has averaged over 9% p.a., predominantly driven by an increase in oil & gas production, prudent investments in economic diversification (in particular in the tourism, agriculture and logistics sectors), and growing competitiveness of Omani exports. Far from resting on its laurels, Oman is determined to maintain the economic growth momentum. Despite the recent decline in oil price, Oman has challenged itself to achieve double digit growth annually over the upcoming five years. The key building blocks of this growth include: • Continued investments into economic diversification • Further development of international trade • Sustainable development of Oman’s natural resources 23 1. Investment into economic diversification: As mapped out in the Sultanate’s longterm country strategy, Oman will continue to disproportionately invest in five core industries: logistics, tourism, agriculture, mining and industrial. All these sectors have been identified as focus of state investments due to their significant growth potential as well as their ability to act as cornerstones of Oman’s future economic prosperity. In 2012-2014, Oman already invested more than USD 20 billion into the expansion of its logistics infrastructure resulting in the enhancement and establishment of three major ports, five new airports, and 2,500 km of new road infrastructure In the upcoming years, the Sultanate will continue to further invest into its logistics infrastructure focusing on the buildup of the national railway network (more than 2,100 km). the development of the logistics sector these measures are expected to double the country’s cargo throughput, adding further USD 5 billion to the Omani economy and creating 50,000 new jobs by 2020. 2. Development of international trade: Foreign trade is a significant contributor towards Oman’s economy. In 2013, Oman exported USD 65 bn, imported USD 35 bn and re-exported USD 9 bn of goods. Exports are primarily driven by petrochemicals, minerals, plastics, metals, textiles, electrical machinery and food. Major recipients are neighboring GCC and Asian countries. Reexported products are primarily imported from Asia and Latin America, and subsequently reexported around to other GCC countries and the wider Middle East region. The introduction of the railway and the development of the overall logistics infrastructure will further enable the growth of international trade by providing Omani companies with a more efficient supply chain. By establishing the basis for a more cost efficient way of supplying raw materials and a faster and more reliable delivery of goods to customers, Omani companies will become significantly more competitive on the international stage. Furthermore, these measures will serve re-exporters with a more cost efficient and faster mode to distribute goods both into to GCC countries and the wider Middle East region as well as across the Indian Ocean and beyond. 3. Sustainable development of Oman’s natural resources: Oman is blessed with an abundance of natural resources aside from oil and gas. In particular, the Sultanate is rich in gypsum, limestone, copper, marble and chromium. While these resources are currently already form a substantial portion of Omani exports, a strong increase is expected over the next decade building on an improved transportation infrastructure. The majority of the abovementioned natural resources are located in remote areas of Oman, which are typically served by 24 road transport links (if at all). As a result, the mining of these resources is currently often economically unfeasible. The build-up of the railway network (designed to pass through areas with a high concentration of natural resources), will improve the economic attractiveness of a multitude of mining projects significantly. Overall, while all mining will occur in a respectful and sustainable manner, it is estimated that the railway network will enable a 6-fold growth of Oman’s mining industry. 25

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School: Cornell University

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