timer Asked: Dec 31st, 2017
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pick one question from the attachment. Need 1 case study to talk about the topic. Cultural industries. 3000 words, use of journals , articles, books. 20 references in havard style. 1 good case study, dissect and analyze. Compare and contrast, arguments. Theories. Link slightly to psychology since Mass Comm is interrelated to Market& psychology.

Link it well and make the essay flow. my essay requires critical thinking., Critical judgements. need theories, use of theories on case studies, some examples and critical analysis.


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School: University of Virginia

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Partial Title 1


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Partial Title 2
Ezumah, (2013) argues that the use and gratification theory looks at how the audience
actively works on seeking the specific types of media that they can use to satisfy their needs
rather than waiting for the media to give them news content. This hence means that it is an
audience-centered approach which is based on how the audience uses the media rather than what
the media does with their audience. Rather than the audience being passive consumers of media
content, UGT theory assumes that the audience has the power over the usage of their media as it
shows how the audience maximizes on the various available media channels to meet their
entertainment, relaxation and socialization needs.
This article looks at uses and gratification theory focusing on how over time the theory
has been used to determine the various needs that users look at the meeting when they are
looking for various types of media. This is especially focused on how people use media to meet
their psychological and marketing needs. This is mainly focused on modern media including
social media, instant messaging and entertainment news in the traditional forms of media.
Uses and Gratifications Theory
History of Uses and Gratifications Theory
The evolution of the theory is usually explained in three stages with the first stage
according to Fortner & Fackler, (2014) starting in 1944 when people who listened to soap operas
were interviewed and it was determined that such people seek to fulfil three types of
gratifications including emotional, wishful thinking and learning from this type of entertainment.
The next development came in 1954 when a formula was developed to determine the type of
media an individual might select to meet their needs. This theory was also developed by Maslow
as an extension of building upon the hierarchy of needs. In 1969, a study was carried out to

Partial Title 3
determine the motivation that people had in the 1964 UK election to watch various
political TV programs (DeFleur & DeFleur, 2016). This hence helps in determining the
needs of the people which has an effect on various aspects of mass media. Also, in 1972
people needs that lead them to use mass media was classified into four categories
including diversion, personal relationships, personal identity, and surveillance. In the
third stage, the use of UGT has been used to give an understanding of why media people
use specific media and the achieved satisfaction that is gained.
The 1980s saw studies being carried out to advance UGT to show the type of
satisfaction that was derived from people when they went to watch movies. The modern
world has seen UGT being developed to be more advanced so that it can be used to
predict and explain the various connections that exist between the needs, goals, benefits,
and consequences derived from media consumption and the various individual factors
that affect this (Floyd, et al., 2017).
Modern application of UGT in Marketing and Psychology
In the modern world Musa, et al., (2015) argues that UGT has been used as a way
of understanding how people use technology and what needs they look at the meeting
when they are using various forms of technology. One aspect that has been discovered
from the modern use of UGT is that various types of needs have motivated people to use
different technologies including the search for entertainment, socialization needs, and
affection, and search for mobility. Egede, (2013) argues that modern technology usage
has also been motivated by the need to meet various other issues such as the need to vent
negative feelings and anger, and the need to be recognized.

Partial Title 4
Mobile Phone Usage
Given the various aspects of mobile phone functionalities, including the mobility of the
mobile phones, their ease of access and the fact that they can now be accessed through mobile
phones, there are various needs that users try to achieve. Tanta, et al., (2014) argues that some of
the main needs that users look at achieving when they are using mobile phones include the need
to be social and communicate with other people, for entertainment purposes which includes
access to marketing news, p...

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