Sleepere Railway Rewrite Assignment

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Can u please re-write the whole assignment because i have to upload this on turnitin and i want the least similarity. just have to re-write it.

Introduction Composite material Railway sleeper is the product that our company ‘Ecolines’ sells worldwide. Sleeper is one of the most important components of a railway infrastructure it is used to clamp the rail to avoid any type of slippage and to maintain the alignment and shape of the tracks. It is also used to hold the rail in proper levels at turnouts and crossovers. It is placed over layers of ballasts in order to transmit the load through rail and it holds rail above which the train moves, there are different types of sleepers present initially wooden sleepers were used all over the world. With the advancement in technologies concrete sleepers took over wooden sleepers at some places and steel sleepers were also introduced at some places like bridges with heavy traffic loads and less maintenance requirements. But with the increasing population and environmental concerns composite sleepers were introduced. (Sahay, A. Phogat, S. 2015) Composite is the mixture of two or more than two items or materials. Composite also refers to the materials that are completely recyclable and provide high service life, reduction in wastes and deforestation. Some of the main composite sleepers are obtained from mixture of shredded plastics, rubbers from waste tires, chemical additives, and fiber as reinforcement, fillers (CaCO3) and other several waste materials. (Sahay, A. Phogat, S. 2015) Some of the key important functions of composite railway sleepers are: 1. Composite sleepers do not get deformed. 2. They are resistant to tears and avoid end gaps. 3. They are fire resistant and are suitable for track circuited areas. 4. They are free of voids and resistant to insects. 5. They are light weight and provide less electrical conductivity. 6. Sound and vibrations are well absorbed by them. (Sahay, A. Phogat, S. 2015) Ecolines is an Australian based company and it was founded in 1980. Since that time it has grown to be the Australia’s biggest supplier of composite sleepers and worlds leader in the manufacturing of the composite railway sleepers. Our company has an experience of more than 30 years in the field of railway sleepers and we meet with our client’s demands and orders with exceptional engineering, safety and quality. In the time period of 30 years Ecolines has produced over 18 million railway composite sleepers and has extended its branches in Australia and many other countries like Dubai, Saudi Arabia, Germany and India. We have adopted own working method and quality assurance standards linked with ISO 9001. Some of our factories are custom built which help in the client’s specific demand of the project and complexity of the project and location. Not only Ecolines specializes in Composite sleepers but also provides with flexible, cost effective, client oriented sleeper design and stock and end to end logistics supply. (Railway Technology, 2016) This report covers all the details of composite railway sleepers which include the description of the sleepers, technical specifications, and design steps involved in the production of composite sleepers, operation and management aspects of composite sleepers, cost and conditions of place to install and use composite sleepers. This helps in understanding the safety measures involved in the railway industry, the design process, usage of several software, principles of maintenance and operations, understanding different conditions of standards and railway and track design. Technical Details Below are the technical properties and information about the Composite Railway sleeper created by our company Ecolines. Product Description: The description of the product our company sells and provides to railway departments is a composite material railway sleeper. It is an alternative of wood, concrete and steel sleepers and provides better service in application than them. It is not only strong and cost effective but also reflects upon the following properties: 1. Performance: ➢ More durable and long lasting ➢ Resistant to moisture and decay ➢ Eliminates and lessens noise and vibrations 2. Track Tested: ➢ Individually lab tested ➢ According to the standards ➢ Can withstand two billion gross tons of traffic ➢ Zero failures 3. Lessens future risks: ➢ Waste disposal cost responsibilities ➢ Made of recycled plastic ➢ Eliminates environmental hazards 4. Asset Management: ➢ Increased adaptability ➢ Reduced and easy maintenance ➢ Easy replacement ➢ Longer lasting ➢ Enhanced operational flexibility 5. Sustainability: ➢ Reduces CO2 impacts ➢ Non – leaching ➢ Supports waste management ➢ Reduces disposal costs ➢ Sustainable Earning 6. Quality and Stability: ➢ No shortage on raw materials ➢ Consistency assured ➢ Quality engineering process (Ecotrax, 2015) Design Steps: Collection of Waste plastic: The first step in order to get composite sleeper is to collect recyclable plastic waste from different industrial and waste sectors. Each sleeper requires about 75 kg of plastic which is obtained from 1200 plastic bottles. (Mega Projects, 2016) Inspection of the waste: The recycled plastic is visually inspected, coded and tagged according to the type of waste labeled by the inspectors present; these quality inspectors verify and properly identify the waste. After that the bundles of waste are weighed and recorded and the waste is staged for processing. (Mega Projects, 2016) Shredding of the plastic waste: Since plastic is versatile material therefore it ranges from tough polymer structures to extra firm material, shredder is machine in which different knives, rotors and cutting technologies are present. It cuts and reduces the size of the plastic waste when the bundles of wastes are placed in it. (Mega Projects, 2016) Eddy Current Separator: Eddy current separator is a machine that uses a powerful magnetic field to separate ferrous and non – ferrous materials from the waste. This machine uses eddy currents in its application. (Mega Projects, 2016) Granulation: In this step a granulator is used which is a machine for size reduction, granulators have the ability to break down plastic products such as plastic bottles, crates and drums into simpler and uniform form. (Mega Projects, 2016) Molding: Railway sleepers are made out of moulds which hold up to 10 sleepers per mould. It should be noticed that these moulds are cleaned and oiled thoroughly so that the sleepers come off the moulds easily and the oiling also helps to keep the surface smooth of the sleeper. (Mega Projects, 2016) Heating: After placing the matter in the moulds the moulds are placed in the heating kilns with constant steam pressure along with controlled temperature and humidity. A high pressure of steam and cold water is also sprayed upon the moulds and after several hours the moulds are overturned. (Mega Projects, 2016) Separation of sleepers: After the moulds come out of the kiln chambers, they are placed upon a conveyor system and here they are cut into individual units with the help of a high speed rotating blade moving back and forth and separating the sleepers. (Mega Projects, 2016) Storage and identification: Now these sleepers are taken to the storage area and here they are laser engraved with identification codes and barcodes. Dimple patterns are applied in the three sides of the sleepers. (Mega Projects, 2016) Installation: After that all these sleepers undergo a pressure test to determine whether they will be able to survive the outside conditions of the loads. If a sleeper goes through this test then they are taken to the final step and installed beneath the railway line. (Mega Projects, 2016) Technical specification: The technical specification of the railway sleeper provide by our company includes: Shape: Rectangular Height and Width: 130 mm (H) and 254 mm (W) Length: Ranges between 2.4 m – 2.75 m Weight: Ranges between 54 – 69 kg Specific Gravity: Ranges between 0.85 – 0.9 Density: Ranges between 849 – 897 kg/m3 Thermal Expansion: 0.000074 cm/cm/C Compressive Strength: 20.6 MPa Modulus of elasticity (Flexural): 1,724 MPa Shear Strength: 10.3 MPa Bending Strength: 20.6 MPa Speed: Ranges between 250 – 300 km/hr. (SICUT, 2016) Figure 1 shows composite sleeper Using and Installing Method: The steps used in order to install railway sleepers are: 1. Initially the worksite where the sleepers are to be installed or replaced is selected. 2. The hazards and dangers are accessed on the site and precautionary measures are applied. 3. It is selected weather the sleepers are to be installed newly or being replaced or repaired. 4. Apparatus and tools are selected in accordance with the workplace environment. 5. After that track gauge measurements are recorded in agreement to the selected site. (Australian Government, 2015) 6. Sleepers are heavy and manual handling of sleepers is difficult and may damage the sleeper as well. 7. Therefore mechanical relaying system is implemented in order to proceed with the placement of sleepers. 8. In mechanical relaying system, two portal cranes are used and relaying is done using prefabricated panels. 9. Before placing any sleeper the ballast layer below is balanced and leveled up to determined point. 10. The portal cable lifts up the sleeper and places upon the ballast bed. 11. The sleepers should be placed with uniform spacing, 60 or 65 cm spacing should be provided between the sleepers. 12. The sleeper panels are then connected with fish plates, fittings and fastenings. (Railway Engineering, 2007) Machinery needed to implement: The machinery required during the preparation of Sleepers: ➢ Shredder ➢ Granulator ➢ Eddy Current apparatus ➢ Conveyor Belt for cutting ➢ Pressure Test apparatus The machinery used during the installation of the sleepers: ➢ Portal Cranes ➢ Auxiliary wire cables ➢ Prefabricated Panel Operation and Maintenance aspects: Since the composite railway sleeper is environmentally friendly it does not require much maintenance to be done. Unlike wooden sleepers it does not get rot and is completely water resistant. It is impermeable to wood eating insects, it absorbs very less water and thus it is very durable and easy to maintain. The maintenance of composite sleeper is very simple since it is light in weight. It has excellent vibration absorption characteristics. If a sleeper gets damaged the screws can be easily unfastened and can be replaced with the new sleeper easily. Some of the maintenance factors are as follows: Debris and dirt: early steps should be taken in order to clean the dirt and reduce the collection of debris from the surface of the sleeper. Pressure water jet or brooms can be used to wipe away the dirt. (Composite Lumber, 2016) Mold and Mildew: mold and mildew in other words is rotting and decaying process, especially the sleepers located in hot regions face this problem, since our company provides composite sleepers, they do not rot and the decaying growth is also very less. If in case mold and mildew is present on the sleeper commercial cleaning should be done to prevent future growth. (Composite Lumber, 2016) Rust, oil and grease stains: rust stains can be appeared on the surface of sleepers as a result of contact of the metallic surface with the sleeper like rail. Whereas the stains of oil and greases should also be immediately removed, therefore Oxalic or phosphoric acid can be used to lighten up or removal of these stains. If slight stains still appear on the surface a short period of normal weathering will lessen. (Composite Lumber, 2016) Product Illustration: Below is a labeled diagram of the composite Sleeper that our company provides: Figure 2 shows labeled diagram of Sleeper (Patent Docs, 2016) Cost of the product: Discussing about the cost we must consider the following factors: • Durability of the composite Sleeper (years): 40 – 50 years • Replacement practice: Easy • Handling the sleepers: Easy • Weight of the sleeper: 54 – 69 kg • Cost of the sleeper with fittings: 280 $ • Life Cycle cost (year): 6 $ Conditions and place of using: A sleeper is placed over a surface of ballast, sub ballast and sub grade. The ballast is a layer of broken small stones, gravel and several other granular materials placed below and around sleepers in order to distribute load from the sleeper to the foundation along with drainage facility, longitudinal and lateral stability of the track. It also helps in holding the sleeper firmly while the train passes. A sub grade is a layer of naturally occurring soil which is prepared in order to serve the ballasts layer along with sleepers and rail. It helps in providing a smooth and leveled bed for laying the track. This subgrade layer nears the loads which are transmitted from the ballast layer through the moving load. This subgrade layer provides stability to the track. (Railway Engineering, 2007) While some of the precautions that should be adopted while installing a sleeper are: 1. The sleepers should not be laid near ash pits and other places where ash is present or dropped regularly. 2. The sleepers should not be installed in uncompact and ballast less yard lines. 3. The curves which exceeds 500 m radius in the rail track are not suitable for the sleepers to be laid. 4. Sleepers should be placed at such places where corrosions and rotting occurs massively. (Railway Engineering, 2007) Conclusion By the end of this report it is concluded that composite railway sleepers are completely made up of recycled materials and are 100% recyclable after the production. They cause no effects on the environment and promote green energy, sustainability and no disposal difficulties. In any country or city plastic is the main source of solid waste and it can be beneficially utilized in the form of railway sleeper, by adapting plastic as a railway sleeper the land pollution can also be reduced because they release less amount of energy and produce insignificant greenhouse gases. By using composite sleepers and not using timber sleepers the forest can be saved and deforestation is also reduced. The results and performance of composite sleeper makes it a better alternative to timber sleeper. One of the other advantage of composite sleeper is that they are light weight but still provide high strength and durability, they have a longer service life as compared to concrete sleepers and easy maintenance. The installation is also very simple which cuts the labor charges. It is believed that the composite sleepers can take over traditional sleepers and it can be seen from the table below: Table 1 shows countries using Composite Sleepers The above table shows that developed countries like USA, Germany, Japan and UK are using and installing different composite sleepers due to the vast advantages and high strength and tensile properties of composite sleepers. TASK 2 Introduction: The Sultanate of Oman (Oman) borders Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the west; the Republic of Yemen in the south; the Strait of Hormuz in the north and the Arabian Sea in the east. The capital of the country, Muscat, is located in the north of the country. In 2015, Oman had a population of 4.4 million (56% Omani, 44% expatriate) and GDP of $70 billion. With its per capita GDP of about $16,000, Oman is considered a high income country. However, the country is mainly depending on oil exports as one third of the GDP and 80% of the public finances are derived from petroleum related products. In 2015, Oman produced about 981,000 barrels of crude oil per day. Due to recent drop in world oil prices, Oman operated at a budget deficit of OMR 4.6 billion (about $12 billion) in 2015 despite the significant level of oil production. Oil and gas account for almost 60% of Oman’s exports. Imports largely comprise mechanical and transport equipment and base metals. Although Oman is blessed with significant mineral reserves that could generate enormous export revenue, mineral exports accounted for only 4% of the total exports in 2015. In order to reduce its dependence on oil, Oman plans to diversify its economy from exportation of crude oil to other mineral exports, manufacturing, logistic service arrangement, warehousing, fisheries, tourism as well as value added industry in the oil and gas sector such as downstream refinery, petroleum storage, and petrochemical plants. With three deep water ports and a favorable position on the Indian Ocean Rim outside of the Arabian Gulf, Oman is strategically positioned to export its natural resources, products and services to the Middle-east, northern Africa, and South Asia. Oman realizes its enormous potential through strengthening its logistics services and transforming the country to a global strategic logistics hub. In line with this, the Government of Oman (the Government) has planned to increase the production and export of construction materials and minerals such as dolomite, gypsum, and marble and prioritize the concurrent development of mineral connection railway line and the commercial terminal at Duqm Port so as to capture full benefits from such diversification. The Government is also committed to leverage Oman’s strategic location to boost its role as a regional logistics hub through investments in large infrastructure projects such as the national railway network, inland and coastal logistics centers, and free trade zones. Oman Rail Network: In 2015, Oman’s Ministry of Transport and Communications (MOTC) produced the Sultanate of Oman Logistics Strategy (SOLS) as part of the national economic diversification strategy. The strategy identified that logistics could significantly enable the economy to diversify away from its dependence on oil and gas. SOLS aims to increase logistics contribution to Oman’s GDP from 5% in 2015 to 12% by 2040. In order to strengthen Oman’s logistics offering and connect the country to the GCC rail network, the Government had set up a wholly owned Oman Rail Company S.A.O.C. in 2014. It is a company incorporated under the laws of Oman, not a government department, and was tasked with developing an overall rail network 2 (about 2,135 km) in the country, which is to be completed through two phases. Phase 1 will connect Oman’s three deep seaports with the GCC railway network as well as with the inland mineral resources, and Phase 2 will connect various major cities of Oman. The Oman railway network has been divided into nine Segments. Segments 1- 4 are planned to be constructed under Phase 1 and Segments 5 to 9 under Phase 2. Railway will transform Oman: – Connect the three deep water ports to the Middle East – Provides new opportunities for Oman’s mineral resources – Stimulating long term growth for Oman, GCC and Middle East Oman economy: A flourishing economy, rich in natural resources with significant growth potential Oman enjoys one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Over the last 5 years, GDP growth has averaged over 9% p.a., predominantly driven by an increase in oil & gas production, prudent investments in economic diversification (in particular in the tourism, agriculture and logistics sectors), and growing competitiveness of Omani exports. Far from resting on its laurels, Oman is determined to maintain the economic growth momentum. Despite the recent decline in oil price, Oman has challenged itself to achieve double digit growth annually over the upcoming five years. The key building blocks of this growth include: • Continued investments into economic diversification • Further development of international trade • Sustainable development of Oman’s natural resources 1. Investment into economic diversification: As mapped out in the Sultanate’s longterm country strategy, Oman will continue to disproportionately invest in five core industries: logistics, tourism, agriculture, mining and industrial. All these sectors have been identified as focus of state investments due to their significant growth potential as well as their ability to act as cornerstones of Oman’s future economic prosperity. In 2012-2014, Oman already invested more than USD 20 billion into the expansion of its logistics infrastructure resulting in the enhancement and establishment of three major ports, five new airports, and 2,500 km of new road infrastructure In the upcoming years, the Sultanate will continue to further invest into its logistics infrastructure focusing on the buildup of the national railway network (more than 2,100 km). the development of the logistics sector these measures are expected to double the country’s cargo throughput, adding further USD 5 billion to the Omani economy and creating 50,000 new jobs by 2020. 2. Development of international trade: Foreign trade is a significant contributor towards Oman’s economy. In 2013, Oman exported USD 65 bn, imported USD 35 bn and re-exported USD 9 bn of goods. Exports are primarily driven by petrochemicals, minerals, plastics, metals, textiles, electrical machinery and food. Major recipients are neighboring GCC and Asian countries. Reexported products are primarily imported from Asia and Latin America, and subsequently reexported around to other GCC countries and the wider Middle East region. The introduction of the railway and the development of the overall logistics infrastructure will further enable the growth of international trade by providing Omani companies with a more efficient supply chain. By establishing the basis for a more cost efficient way of supplying raw materials and a faster and more reliable delivery of goods to customers, Omani companies will become significantly more competitive on the international stage. Furthermore, these measures will serve re-exporters with a more cost efficient and faster mode to distribute goods both into to GCC countries and the wider Middle East region as well as across the Indian Ocean and beyond. 3. Sustainable development of Oman’s natural resources: Oman is blessed with an abundance of natural resources aside from oil and gas. In particular, the Sultanate is rich in gypsum, limestone, copper, marble and chromium. While these resources are currently already form a substantial portion of Omani exports, a strong increase is expected over the next decade building on an improved transportation infrastructure. The majority of the abovementioned natural resources are located in remote areas of Oman, which are typically served by road transport links (if at all). As a result, the mining of these resources is currently often economically unfeasible. The build-up of the railway network (designed to pass through areas with a high concentration of natural resources), will improve the economic attractiveness of a multitude of mining projects significantly. Overall, while all mining will occur in a respectful and sustainable manner, it is estimated that the railway network will enable a 6-fold growth of Oman’s mining industry.

Tutor Answer

School: UT Austin

Kindly see the attachment..There are some terms that would be plagiarize and you know that even your teacher because it was about Composite Sleeper railways,, that is never be paraphrase okay, but no worries it was only a little similarities :).


The composite material railway sleeper is the item that our agency 'Ecolines' offers
globally. The sleeper is a standout amongst the maximum critical segments of a railroad
framework it's far applied to brace the rail to stay far from a slippage and to hold up the
arrangement and nation of the tracks. It's miles moreover used to hold the rail in appropriate
stages at turnouts and hybrids. It was set far in which having over layers of the stabilizer with a
specific quit aim to transmit the heap through rail and it holds rail above which they put together
movements, there are various forms of sleepers display before everything timber sleepers were
utilized anywhere in the course of the sector. With the development of advances, strong sleepers
assumed manage timber sleepers at a few locations and metallic sleepers have been additionally
offered at some spots like extensions with big motion loads and fewer aid stipulations. Be that as
it may, with the increasing populace and ecological concerns composite sleepers were presented.
(Sahay, a. phat, s. 2015). The composite is the combination of at least two than matters or
materials. It was also additionally alluded to the substances which can be definitely recyclable
and give excessive administration lifestyles, lessening in squanders and deforestation. A part of
the primary composite sleepers is obtained from the combination of destroyed plastics, rubbers
from squandering tires, substance introduced substances, and fiber as fortification, fillers (caco3)
and different a few waste materials. (Sahay, a. phat, s. 2015)A portion of the key essential
elements of composite railroad sleepers are:

Composite sleepers don't get distorted.


They are impervious to tears and maintain a strategic distance from end holes.


They are heat proof and are appropriate for track circuited zones.



They are free of voids and impervious to creepy crawlies.


They are light weight and give less electrical conductivity.


Sound and vibrations are very much consumed by them (Sahay, A. Phogat, S. 2015).
The Ecolines is an Australian based totally company and it became installed in 1980.

considering that that point it has emerged as Australia's finest provider of composite sleepers and
universes pioneer inside the assembling of the composite railroad sleepers. The employer has an
affair of over 30 years inside the subject of railroad sleepers and we meet with our purchaser's
requests and requests with first-rate constructing, wellness and great. inside the technology of 30
years, Ecolines has created greater than 18 million railroad composite sleepers and has multiplied
its branches in Australia and the one-of-a-kind countries like Dubai, Saudi Arabia, Germany, and
India. we've got embraced declare running method and first-class affirmation models connected
with ISO 9001. Some of our industrial centers are custom constructed which assist inside the
customer's unique request of the undertaking and multifaceted nature of the assignment and
vicinity. Ecolines represents extensive authority in composite sleepers in addition to furnishes
with adaptable, financially savvy, purchaser arranged sleeper define and stock and stop to end
coordination's deliver. (railroad era, 2016). This document covers each one of the factors of
railway sleepers which incorporate the portrayal of the sleepers, specialized details, and
configuration steps engaged with the era of composite sleepers, operation and management parts
of composite sleepers, fee and states of vicinity to introduce and make use of composite sleepers.
This aide in know-how the security measures engaged with the railroad enterprise, the planning
system, use of a few programming, requirements of aid and operations, knowledge special states
of standards and rail course and music outline.


Technical Details
Seen below are the technical properties and some information that is indicating the Composite
Railway sleeper about which is created by our company Ecolines.
Product Description:
It is an option of wood, cement and steel sleepers and gives preferable administration in
application over them. It isn't just solid and savvy yet in addition reflects upon the accompanying
properties. The depiction of the item our organization offers and gives to railroad offices is a
composite material railroad sleeper.
1. Performance:
➢ Strong durability and long lasting
➢ Resistant to moisture and decay
➢ Prevent and decreased the noise and vibrations
2. Track Tested:
➢ Indi...

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