Air pollution

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Department of Civil Engineering Introduction to Environmental Engineering (ENVT 0002) Individual Assignment (Case study 2) Air pollution Submitted by: Said Salim Al Ghusaini. ID: 14s11428 Session: A Submitted to: Dr. Mohammed Abushammala Fall2017 1|Page Report Structure 2|Page Page Abstract 3 Introduction 3-4 Case study 5-6-7-8-9-10 Conclusions 10-11 References 11 1. Abstract: Reasons to choose the subject: choose the subject of air pollution, because it is the resource most resources are important to humans, and that any pollution in any proportion of any element of the event enters with air in human cavity density of human damage and disease. 24 hours a day and that contaminant are cumulative pollutants remain within the human body and does not come out of it. Very little body. (Abiat, 2017) The aim of the research is to identify the nature and nature of air pollutants, to identify any sources of pollution on human health in the air and to be dangerous to humans. And damage caused by air pollution and international protective mechanisms. (Trotman, 1998) Gases with varying natural rates have no negative effects on the living.These gases are: Nitrogen by 78.07% of air volume. Oxygen is 20.95% of air volume. Argon by 0.93% of air volume. Krypton by 0.0001% of air volume. Hydrogen by 0.0005% of air volume. Helium by 0.0005% of air volume. Neon by 0.0018% of air volume. Carbon dioxide by 0.03% of air volume. Ozone by 0.00002% of air volume. Any increase or decrease caused by man or by nature, and any quantitative change or change in these natural components of the air will lead to inevitable pollution. (barod ،2006) Research has concluded that air pollution prevention and treatment methods can make land without pollution and more generally. All communities should think about reducing air pollution . (barod ،2006) Substantial progress has been made over the years in terms of increasing the efficiency of cars in terms of energy consumption, quantity and quality of spent fuel and thus the quantity and quality of pollutants emitted from cars. Engine case design in cars is a major concern to protect air from pollution. Emissions by vehicle type, age, operating methods and fuel quality used. Modern cars are more fuel-efficient and less polluting, and the use of unleaded fuel contributes significantly to the fight against lead contamination. (barod ،2006) 2. Introduction: Fresh air is necessary for life and health because man is like any living animal needs oxygen and is in the air and did not die even plants and flowers if prevented from the air died as well (Saleh, 2003) If air is an important element in sustaining life and preserving it, a person can live without food for a week without water for several days, but he cannot live without air for a few minutes. It is known that the natural human lungs in the normal climate need about 15 kg of air within 24 hours. (Saleh, 2003) 3|Page The air is important for the vital and social functions and the preservation of life and followed by the preservation of the human being is true strong structure free of diseases and diseases. And air pollution, the person inhaled polluted air makes him live weakly and also a poor infected with diseases social buildings of the country and pollution is naturally or industrial. (Saleh, 2003) Natural pollution is the result of natural processes to enter humans, such as pollution that occurs in the case of an explosion or volcanic eruptions, which meet the volcanic lava and dust to a distance from the surface of the earth and cover large areas of agricultural land and the sea and rivers and the deaths of many people and damage crops on the surface of the earth and bottom Pollution and pollution of living organisms in rivers and seas. The pollution is natural, such as sandstorms, which cause the prevention of ruination, damage of thousands of materials and the occurrence of electrical charges with soil erosion, damage to crops and flowers, dust and damage to living organisms. (Saleh, 2003) Natural pollution occurs when forests are burned by the impact of lightning or public fires, where hundreds or even thousands of kilometers of agricultural forests burn, causing pollution by smoke, air and water. This smoke passes through the air to humans or living things. Inhalation of air pollutants affects the respiratory readiness and causes asthma and shortness of breath. Or allergies, itching, skin diseases, or artificial pollution. This pollution causes the human condition and management of its wills, such as the triangular of closed rooms or lounges, buses, planes and all kinds of cigarettes. Negative Effects of Nicotine and Diets on Humans This harmful and dangerous effect affects the smoker and is accompanied by a meeting of smokers such as children, women and the elderly. (Saleh, 2003) The pollution is industrial, such as the cement factories and oil refineries from the soil and toxic gases affect the region around these factories, especially when there is strong winds driving these toxins lush the residential areas around this plant, contamination of areas with lead and mercury and these have a toxic effect on the human body and the calamities Which polluted the air of cities with exhausts of cars and the effects of toxic gases in the skies of major cities, especially the old cars and buses that roam the streets of cities day and night and produced by toxic gases caused by the burning of gasoline and diesel or pollution of the seas and rivers with sewage, where damage occurs Living organisms in seas and rivers may lead to the death of these fish, or air pollution with pesticides when spraying homes and farms with these pesticides transmitted by wind and air to the lung or cirrhosis. (Saleh, 2003) When we talk about air pollution, we are already talking about the pollution of the atmosphere of the gas surrounding the earth's crust, which extends over the surface of the Earth for a distance of 1508 kilometers, which is called the troposphere. This class is important for the living of animals. Animals, whether plants, animals or humans. The air components, namely oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor and some other substances, are attributed to delays depending on air purity. (Saleh, 2003) It is assumed that the atmosphere of the layer contains pure air, but as a result of intense human activity, some components in this layer of air vary and are polluted from one place to another. 4|Page Although pollutants are transported from one place to another and down to the top in all directions by air traffic for air pollution in other areas. Cars are one of the most polluting sources of air affecting people and their health. The stations measure urban air quality monitoring and on the main streets dozens of violations of air quality standards annually resulting, especially from the emission of automobile exhausts, especially the emission of nitrogen oxides, carbohydrates and inhaled particles. (Ali ،2014) 3. Case study: Fuel combustion As we all know by passing gasoline from the fuel tank to the engine through the fuel feed (caricature), gasoline is fed by air, so that the gasoline block rate of entry into the air mass is usually fixed at 1:15 and combustion occurs and produces a combination of vehicles For example, if the ratio of fuel to the air ratio is increased, carbon monoxide products will be released, and pollutants from cars will be released from several outlets, the exhaust and so-called containers - the crankcase - the Carrefour feeder - evaporation from Fuel tank, except for most contaminants DONC are released from the exhaust. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and lead compounds are completely discharged by the exhaust. 65% of hydrocarbons are also released by the exhaust. For evaporation from the fuel tank, about 15% of the hydrocarbons and 25% of the hydrocarbons. (Ali ،2014) The bulk of the combustion gas is nitrogen (N2), H2O (excluding pure carbon fuel) and carbon dioxide (CO2). These gases are not toxic or harmful (although carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that contributes to increasing global warming a relatively small fraction of unwanted combustion gas or harmful substances such as carbon monoxide caused by incomplete combustion, hydrocarbons (CCHI) Fuel combustion, nitrogen oxides and other bodies such as casing. (Ali ،2014) There is a difference between diesel engines and gasoline engines. Diesel engines are less expensive than gasoline engines. This is one of the advantages of diesel engines for the environment because diesel respiration is very low and evaporation is low. Because the diesel engine uses a closed circuit for fuel injection, diesel fuel is also less volatile than gasoline, where diesel boils at 350-750 ° C compared with 90-400 ° C for gasoline. (Ali ،2014) Diesel exhaust is produced from 10 cars produced from carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, while oxides of nitrogen are equivalent, of course, lead compounds are not diesel, and diesel cars are generally not a serious problem because of the small number compared with cars and it is powered by gasoline engines the main diesel is the smell and smoke. (Ali ،2014) 5|Page Car travel leads to the emission of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, as well as causing damage to the environment, including increased noise and overcrowding and the conversion of nature to roads and streets. Reducing travel by car and using modern technology in the car engine are ways to reduce air pollution and increase human health. (Ali ،2014) Some studies show that cars and transport are the main sources of air pollution, especially in cities. Global transport generates about 60% of CO2 emissions 42% of NOx emissions 40% of hydrocarbon emissions 13% Plankton 3% of CO2 90% of lead in urban air emissions due to vehicle exhausts, the correct chemical ratio In gasoline fuel combustion is part of the fuel to 15 parts of the air, equivalent to 0.066 at speeds. The higher engine action requires a higher concentration of fuel at the ideal speed that causes less liquefaction of biodiesel than gas and less fuel consumption of 60-80 km / h. (Ali ،2014) In diesel cars, due to the difficulty of flying diesel, the compressed air is pumped into small granules. In order to burn efficiently, the ratio of air to fuel must be between 100/1 and 20/1. Gasoline, where emissions of diesel-powered cars with good engines emit less carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons than those on gasoline. (Ali ،2014) Air pollution is a combination of air with chemicals, physical particles, or biological compounds that cause a lot of damage that harms humans, living organisms and the surrounding environment. This pollution leads to serious illness and death of many living organisms. One of the factors that cause air pollution. In this article, we will provide you with sources of human air pollution, sources of natural air pollution, and some ways to reduce air pollution. Sources of air pollution There are several types of contaminants * Pollutants from biofuel burning, such as oil and coal, are among the most polluting pollutants in the environment. * Pollutants from industrial waste. * Pollutants from industrial waste burning or reuse. * Bacteria and bacteria resulting from the decomposition of dead plants, animals and waste. * Airborne solid materials such as: smoke, car exhaust, dust, cotton dust, pollen, cement soil, building materials, soil insect. Types of air pollution Air pollution is caused by transportation, incineration processes, factory fumes and fumes, refineries, and environmental and natural factors. (mfarg, 2014) Types of air pollutants include: Gases from complete or incomplete combustion processes such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and others. Exhaust compounds from organic compounds resulting from combustion of fuel such as methane, one of the gases that lead to increased global warming. 6|Page Air plankton from solid compounds such as bacteria, bacteria, pesticides, mould and others. Dust and dust caused by climate variability and by the movement and fall of meteorites and meteorites. Radioactive elements, and heavy and nuclear elements resulting from nuclear and atomic processes. Stinking and harmful odor’s that rise from waste dumps, salt ponds and sewage leaks. (mfarg, 2014) 3.1 Controlling sources of pollution: Natural processes in the environment were sufficient to control air pollution and reduce its impact. However, with the steady increase in pollution sources and quantity, the diversity of air pollutants, natural processes are no longer sufficient to purify the air. (Sarawi ،2016) Human intervention was necessary to reduce these harmful pollutants. Prompting scientists to look for ways and means to reduce the number of pollutants released, control quality and control some of them and reduce their effects. (Sarawi ،2016) The main ways to control air pollution are to prevent pollution, collection and dispersion. Preventing or minimizing pollution is the most effective means of controlling pollution and collecting pollutants. The aim is to concentrate and control pollutants so that they can be treated and disposed of in ways that do not harm the environment or humans. Scattering is the mitigation of pollutants by diffusion and dispersion to reduce their harmful effects. (Sarawi ،2016) One of the methods used in controlling and controlling air pollution is the following: First, follow preventive methods. Second, change the characteristics of pollutants before their emission. Third, follow the technical means and rules. First, follow preventive methods: As these preventive methods can reduce the pollution and damage to the environment, by following some of the following: 1. The application of scientific planning in the establishment of any industry has a known pollutant effect, and the need to take into account the climatic conditions (temperature wind speed and direction, humidity ...) and terrain. And the removal of industrial facilities from the Centre of human settlements. (Sarawi ،2016) 2. Follow an environmental regulatory passage: • Control vehicles that produce polluted water at a large rate exceeding permissible limits. • Request for technical inspection of vehicles when renewing driving licenses. • Work to dismantle traffic jams in congested roads and during peak traffic hours. 7|Page • Reduction in the volume of traffic in civilian compounds. 1. Proper urban planning, taking into consideration the height of the buildings, the breadth of the streets, the proportion of parks, parks and the distribution of public services. And taking into account the outlook for population growth and urbanization. 2. Establish regulations, legislation and standards for maximum concentrations of pollutants allowed into the air. 3. Use covered landfills. 4. Interest in planting trees and green areas for their role in air purification. Some plants have a great ability to absorb some pollutants. Forests, green belts and wooded areas in cities and around industrial areas also play an important role in purifying air from suspended dust and wind. 5. Work to educate citizens about the dangers of pollutants and the importance of preserving the environment and the benefits that will be gained through the control and control of pollution. The amount of pollutants emitted from cars depends on the following factors: 1. Engine shape and size. 2. Fuel quality used, lead ratio and oxygen compounds added To improve engine performance. 3 - The operation of the engine (slow - speed - long travel). 4. Terrain topography. 5 - Engine maintenance and quality to achieve full combustion of fuel at home, this reduces the Emissions of gases, oil vapour and harmful pollutants into the air. 3.2 Controlling emissions related to transportation: Engine exhaust emissions are the direct cause of lung and bladder cancer to reduce dangerous air pollution: reduce traffic congestion, control and control the safety of vehicle engines and the efficiency of fuel combustion throughout the year and not only when the license of the vehicle. One of the most important sources of air pollution at the global level is fuel combustion to produce the necessary energy in transport, communications, industry and other population activities. The main emissions of toxic gases from vehicle exhausts are sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, lead, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, ozone and particulates. These gases produce full or incomplete fuel combustion. (Ali ،2014) According to a 2010 Census study, the transport sector contributes 2,285,395 tonnes of CO 2 equivalent to 34 per cent of total emissions from all sources. The amount of carbon dioxide 8|Page emissions from the transport sector was estimated at 58,055 tons, accounting for 79% of total toxic gas emissions from all sources. The contribution of this sector to nitrogen oxides emissions was estimated at 40% of the emissions of these oxides from all sources. Global energy per capita emissions from the energy sector rose by 70 percent in 2010 compared with 2001, and per capita CO2 emissions for 2010 are about 9.03 tonnes per capita per year, said The Union newspaper , global energy analyst. 60% higher than in 2008. It is estimated at 3.52 tons per capita. The contribution of the transport sector was estimated at 3.87 tons per capita. (Ali ،2014) The sanctions order provides for fines for air pollution caused by vehicle exhausts. The share of transport in urban air pollution is the largest and most problematic, due to the components of pollutants and the proximity of sources of emissions from humans. The Ministry of Environmental Protection is taking various legal and educational measures to reduce air pollution from cars. In addition, local authorities must take measures within the powers transferred to them to improve air quality within their borders .(Ali ،2014) 3.3 Discuss stakeholder engagement and public participation: Self-awareness of the human being and awareness of the dangers of his actions, and take care of what must be done to protect against pollution. Afforestation of various places, especially the population, because of their usefulness in protecting against pollution. Stop recording to build factories and chimneys. Move and remove factories and chimneys to remote and uninhabited areas. Factories that contain wastes from smoke chemicals to solid waste generated by the most polluting species are hazardous to human health. Replace contaminated manufacturing techniques with modern, environmentally friendly technologies. Use petroleum and natural derivatives without polluting substances such as lead and sulfur. Reduce vehicle smoke and continuous maintenance; because automobile exhausts are a major contributor to air pollution. Reducing the dumping and burial of solid waste in the soil, establishing recycling plants that can be recycled, and disposing of the remains by burying them in areas far from the population and surrounding environment. Develop an alternative plan for waste disposal by burning and replacing it in a useful manner such as waste sorting, composting or recycling. Protect environmental and marine reserves and enact strict laws for those who violate this protection. Replacement of pesticides with organic pesticides. Ban dangerous contaminants such as nuclear energy. (Sarawi ،2016) Some suggestions to alleviate the problem of exhaust cars: - Conversion of gasoline used by cars to unleaded gasoline. - Convert a large number of cars and buses to natural gas. - Work stations to adjust the rates of burning inside cars. - Car exhaust exhaust constantly and strict measures with car owners who have exhaust problems. 3.4 Design or strategies benefited both the environment and society: 9|Page The role of the state and citizen in reducing air pollution has a significant impact on environmental health, such as lectures, textbooks, teaching students in schools and others. This has led to awareness of people and their awareness of the importance of protecting the environment from air pollution through the exercise of educational activities for others A municipality in Oman planted trees on the roads and also soon to convert cars from the work of fuel cars to the electrician as well as the transfer of factories away from residential cities. (Ali ، 2014) One of the Chinese drivers, after talking about pollution caused by cars and causing damage to the environment, especially with the lack of green areas that can reduce the percentage of pollution, converted the roof of his car to a mobile park, adding a layer of water leakage to the roof of the car and then use Industrial soils used to cultivate roofs to transform the surface into a cultivated area. The idea has already succeeded and grown green herbs and some flowers on the farm moving. The problem of irrigation in the garden (mobile) daily burden is additional driver, so consider the use of water vapor resulting from the work of the car engine and re-condensation and use it in irrigation (garden) by spraying. The Chinese driver was unable to implement the idea. He went to a maintenance engineer who welcomed his help and was already able to develop a cycle to condense water vapor and use it to irrigate the garden using the purification used in cooling circuits with refrigerators or refrigerators. (Sarawi ،2016) Exhaust gas exhaust system: Exhaust gas measures are used to measure the chemical content of gases Exhaust (measure emissions from combustion inside the vehicle) this device is a tool Error diagnosis value. Mechanism of Action: The sensor probe tube must be installed at the outlet of the exhaust pipe Running the engine and discharging exhaust gases the device shows pollutants and gases that are formed for the exhaust the car. A technician can use these results to determine and judge the state of the engine and systems the other engine. The proportion of gases emitted from vehicle exhausts, Where the vehicle is considered a violation if the percentage of gases is lower (Ali ، 2014) 4. Conclusions: All these and other methods lead to the reduction of air pollution inhaled by humans and other living organisms, thus obtaining a healthy environment free of any kind of contaminants that threaten the continuation of life on Earth. We must all reduce pollutants to the atmosphere and think about new solutions to make the environment sustainable and clean. We have to preserve 10 | P a g e the environment. Everyone is responsible for everything and everyone must cooperate to combat air pollution. Air is an essential element of life on Earth, which is imperative As individuals and groups at the local, regional and international levels, we must preserve them It is clean and healthy, by working to minimize the damage caused by it Through human production through advanced, especially in various industrial field And its forms, which have become a major threat to the various elements of the ecological envelope Cars and other means of transportation pose a clear threat exacerbated day by day through what Transported by chemical and physical contaminants. This increases health risks for humans and other living organisms, which require substantial material costs and considerable effort Countless human beings. (Ali ،2014) 5. References: Abiat, A., 2017. Research on air pollution. Alexandria, http://mawdoo3.com. Ali, K., 2014. Monitoring toxic emissions, Rabat: Star Times Forums. barod, D. S., 2006. Damage to pollution, Beirut: http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/nbaroud/files/2010/02/talwth9.doc. mfarg, a. A., 2014. Sources of air pollution. Amam, http://mawdoo3.com. Saleh, H. M., 2003. Air Pollution. part 12 to 14 ed. Aman: arrowad. Sarawi, A. A. -., 2016. Environmental chemistry. part 173 ed. Damascus: http://almerja.com/reading.php?i=2&ida=1750&id=704&idm=38196. Trotman, G., 1998. Air pollution, London: EPA air pollutants. 11 | P a g e 12 | P a g e

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Department of Civil Engineering
Introduction to Environmental Engineering
(ENVT 0002)

Individual Assignment
(Case study 2)
Air pollution

Submitted by: Said Salim Al Ghusaini.
ID: 14s11428
Session: A
Submitted to: Dr. Mohammed Abushammala
Fall2017

1|Page

Report Structure

2|Page

Page
Abstract

3

Introduction

4-5

Case study

5-6-7-8-9-10-11

Conclusions

12

References

13

1. Abstract:
Reasons for selecting the topic: Air is vital for human beings. Choosing air pollution as the
subject of study is thereby essential. All day, human beings are forced to inhale the polluted air
which is harmful to their health. The pollutants which are emitted into the atmosphere enter the
human body and may lead to the damage of the body and cause illnesses. Once taken in, these
contaminants do not come out easily (Abiat, 2017).
Some of the objectives of the study include identifying the sources of air pollution, the nature of
the pollutants, the implications of the air pollutants on human health. Nevertheless, the research
will find out more about the dangers of air pollution to the environment (Trotman, 1998).
There are several natural gases in the atmosphere which occupy different percentage proportions
of air. These gases exist friendly with the living organisms; they cause no harm. These gases
include, Carbon dioxide (0.03%), Nitrogen (78.07%, which is the largest percentage), Oxygen
(20.95%), Neon by 0.0018%, Hydrogen (0.0005%), Helium (0.0005%), Argon (0.93%), Krypton
(0.0001%), and ozone which consists 0.00002% of the air mass. Increasing or reducing any one
component of air leads to the change in the air composition which in turn leads to unavoidable
pollution (Barod, 2006).
Reduction of air pollution is something which should involve the entire society. Through the
employment of effective strategies to stop and prevent pollution, the atmosphere can be made
clean again. The research concludes that air pollution can be prevented and treated to make the
environment a good place for living organisms. People, animals, and vegetation need air to
survive. Human beings need oxygen for survival and plants need carbon dioxide for
photosynthesis (Barod, 2006).
Considerable measures have been taken over years to help improve the efficiency of oil
consumption in cars as well as reduce the amount of pollution caused by the fuels. Several
strategies have been employed to remove pollutants from the car fuels to reduce air pollution.
When combustion of oil takes place in the engine, gases are emitted to the surrounding.
Currently, most cars consume small amounts of fuel hence minimizing pollution. Nevertheless,
unleaded fuel is in use. Fuels with lead components contribute a lot to air pollution (Barod,
2006).

3|Page

2. Introduction:
All living organisms need fresh air to survive. That includes human beings, animals, and plants.
If they are denied fresh air (that is, provided with air which is full of pollutants), they will die
(Saleh, 2003). Human beings need oxygen for survival, and so are animals. For plants, Carbon
dioxide is crucial for the manufacture of food during photosynthesis.
A healthy human being can live without food for even seven days. But what about air? How long
can he live without air? He cannot last several minutes. Thus, air is vital for life. In a normal
climate, a human being’s lungs need approximately fifteen kilograms (15kgs) of air within a day
(Saleh, 2003).
Air is crucial on earth to sustain flora and fauna. Air pollution is increasing thus causing more
harm to the health of living organisms. When human beings inhale polluted air, there are high
chances of getting diseases. This weakens their immune systems in the body. Industries do
contribute much to pollution. However, pollution can occur naturally at some point (Saleh,
2003). Industrial pollution takes a higher percentage. Motor vehicles, which are products of these
industries have taken a large part in destroying the troposphere components.
Natural processes such as volcanic eruptions are the primary causes of natural pollution. During
volcanic eruptions, dust, lava, among other materials are emitted to the nearby regions. These
materials may cover large land surfaces and water bodies. In the process, they lead to the
destruction of crops, deaths of animals and people, among several others. During such
explosions, several poisonous gases are emitted to the atmosphere (Saleh, 2003). Such gases
include carbon...

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