Running Head: EXTERNAL VARIABLES
Variable: a variable is a distinguishing feature that varies or changes. A variable can be; age,
gender, body weight, alcohol consumption, attitude and many, many other attributes. Variables
are often classified as either Independent or Dependent variables.
Operationalization: is where the researcher measures something that is not directly
quantifiable. For example, "Soldier motivation" cannot be measured directly, but there are things
that Soldiers do and display that may conclude their level of motivation. This includes sounding
off during runs, volunteering to take on extra duty and details, or volunteering for duty.
Scale: is best defined as a broadminded classification i.e., as of size, amount, importance, or
Measurement: is the creation of procedures to quantify a person’s characteristics, and example
could be intelligence or personality
Measurement error: is a mistake some scientists use when trying to understand how the
experiment actually worked in the lab
Causation: is the demonstration of how one variable effects another variable or other variables.
Plausible rival explanations: Engaging in a systematic search for alternative themes, divergent
patterns, and rival explanations.
Hypothesis: a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations or the relationship
between at least two characteristics, or variables. Hypotheses usually come from theories; when
planning an experiment, a researcher finds as previous research on the topic of study as possible.
Unit of analysis: is the major point or factor within research that is being analyzed. It is the
“who” and “what” of a study.
Four main types of validity (conclusion, internal, external and construct):
All tests are designe...