External variables

Anonymous
timer Asked: Dec 30th, 2017
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Question description

***Number one is already done and is attached***

You are only required to answer questions 2&3

  1. Define the following terms in your own words
    • Variable
    • Operationalization
    • Sample
    • Scale
    • Measurement
    • Measurement error
    • Causation
    • Plausible rival explanations
    • Hypothesis
    • Reliability
    • Unit of analysis
    • Four main types of validity (conclusion, internal, external and construct)
  2. Explain how the terms are relevant to a study investigating as you have conceptualized it at this point. If you have not yet conceptualized a study, make one up or use one you read about in a previous course.
  3. Describe any issues, including threats, which you might encounter in putting together a study on the research topic you have selected.

Length: 5-7 pages

Terms Explained Variable: a variable is a distinguishing feature that varies or changes. A variable can be; age, gender, body weight, alcohol consumption, attitude and many, many other attributes. Variables are often classified as either Independent or Dependent variables. Operationalization: is where the researcher measures something that is not directly quantifiable. For example, "Soldier motivation" cannot be measured directly, but there are things that Soldiers do and display that may conclude their level of motivation. This includes sounding off during runs, volunteering to take on extra duty and details, or volunteering for duty. Scale: is best defined as a broadminded classification i.e., as of size, amount, importance, or rank. Measurement: is the creation of procedures to quantify a person’s characteristics, and example could be intelligence or personality Measurement error: is a mistake some scientists use when trying to understand how the experiment actually worked in the lab Causation: is the demonstration of how one variable effects another variable or other variables. Plausible rival explanations: Engaging in a systematic search for alternative themes, divergent patterns, and rival explanations (Patton, 2001, p. 553). Hypothesis: a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations or the relationship between at least two characteristics, or variables. Hypotheses usually come from theories; when planning an experiment, a researcher finds as much previous research on the topic of study as possible. Unit of analysis: is the major point or factor within research that is being analyzed. It is the “who” and “what” of a study. Four main types of validity (conclusion, internal, external and construct): All tests are designed to measure something. The test must measure what it is intended to measure, thus making it valid (validity). Psychologist judge text based on their reliability and validity, meaning, does the test produce the same or similar results every time. Concluding that valid test are also reliable test but this does not mean a reliable test is valid. Constructs are those complicated psychological concepts such as; motivation, anger, personality and love (just to name a few). The depth of a construct cannot be measured as they are not concrete material. Internal validity is when only variable is influencing the study it is also the one that is being controlled or manipulated by the researcher. Things like history and statistical regression could threaten internal validity. These terms are all valid and significant as they provide the foundation in which research is conducted. Each terms provides a direction and meaning for how something (the term) should be conducted in order to be successful and not break any laws or place a participant in a compromising situation. In the topic, “Why is suicide more common amongst female veteran than those who have not served in the military?” The variable is women and it is the independent variable and the dependent variable is suicide. The intent or desire to commit suicide would be the operationalization as it is not directly quantifiable thus it cannot be measured. In order to conceptualize this topic it must first 1. Describe any issues, including threats, which you might encounter in putting together a study on the research topic you have selected. In socializing with a large amount of personnel who’ve taken an attempt at researching faults or perceivable issues regarding military topics or issues has advised that it was often very difficult to obtain authorization from the Department of Defense thus they have had to change their topic and go back to the starting point. Additionally, the population of military personnel would fear reprisal for answering questions that could potentially shed a light on problems within their organization. This could lead to an untrue response from participants.

Tutor Answer

RexTheProf
School: UC Berkeley

Attached.

Running Head: EXTERNAL VARIABLES

1

External Variables

Institution Affiliation
Instructor’s Name
Student’s Name

Course Code

Date

EXTERNAL VARIABLES

2
External Variables

Question 1
Variable: a variable is a distinguishing feature that varies or changes. A variable can be; age,
gender, body weight, alcohol consumption, attitude and many, many other attributes. Variables
are often classified as either Independent or Dependent variables.
Operationalization: is where the researcher measures something that is not directly
quantifiable. For example, "Soldier motivation" cannot be measured directly, but there are things
that Soldiers do and display that may conclude their level of motivation. This includes sounding
off during runs, volunteering to take on extra duty and details, or volunteering for duty.
Scale: is best defined as a broadminded classification i.e., as of size, amount, importance, or
rank.
Measurement: is the creation of procedures to quantify a person’s characteristics, and example
could be intelligence or personality
Measurement error: is a mistake some scientists use when trying to understand how the
experiment actually worked in the lab
Causation: is the demonstration of how one variable effects another variable or other variables.
Plausible rival explanations: Engaging in a systematic search for alternative themes, divergent
patterns, and rival explanations.
Hypothesis: a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations or the relationship
between at least two characteristics, or variables. Hypotheses usually come from theories; when
planning an experiment, a researcher finds as previous research on the topic of study as possible.
Unit of analysis: is the major point or factor within research that is being analyzed. It is the
“who” and “what” of a study.

EXTERNAL VARIABLES

3

Four main types of validity (conclusion, internal, external and construct):
All tests are designe...

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Anonymous
Goes above and beyond expectations !

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