The comparison and the contrast of Hamlet and Oedipus

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The comparison and the contrast of Hamlet and Oedipus


"I would do the Compare and contrast perception and reality for Hamlet and Oedipus. I will Explain the idea that a character’s perception either similaritiesor differences, Introduce the two characters, and the Thesis statement." This is what i would to do

First the outline:

In short, A" papers stick to the general layout/format of MLA, with smooth in-text citations and a works cited page. Answer the question (respond to the prompt) ; state your reasons for your answer, and then support your reasons with research (give addresses for your ideas) .

  1. Before you write:
    1. Research (read)
    2. Reason (analyze)
    3. Respond (put it all together)
    4. Read Prompt (Find the question)
  2. Steps in writing the essay
    1. Review Prompt (represent as your introduction)
    2. Respond (thesis statement--answer the question) last sentence in the introductory paragraph
    3. Reasons (topic sentences--support the answer to the question)-first sentences in the body paragraphs
    4. Research (supporting details--support the topic sentences)-following sentences in the body paragraphs
    5. Review (conclusion--summarize what you said)


    Minimum Requirements
    1. Utilize one of the outlines (Toulmin or Rogerian) provided in this course.
    2. Does NOT contain the entire text of the essay (this is only a blueprint/plan for the essay)
    3. Size 12pt, Times New Roman font
    4. MLA format (heading, header, in-text citations, and Works Cited page
    5. In-text/parenthetical citations should be in the paragraph plans
    6. The paper must use resources acknowledged appropriately with in-text citations within the body paragraphs:
    7. No more than two (2) works from the textbook discussed primarily
    8. Primary source (in discussion) must appear in the works cited page
    9. Each body paragraph MUST contain key but short quotations from the selections.
    10. At least five (5) articles from the library database or textbook (which were in your Annotated Bibliography)
    11. As may be appropriate, the paper must acknowledge opposing viewpoints.
    12. Includes a very brief description of what will be in each paragraph for the entire essay.
    13. .doc or .docx file (microsoft word document

    SECOND THE ESSAY :
    1. Writing
      1. Compose your essay
        1. Use MLA Format
        2. Meet the required minimum Word Count or Page Count (One word or one page less will equal an automatic grade of zero (0)
        3. Use the required number of sources from your Annotated Bibliography (If you use other sources, which you did not identify in your bibliography, you will have to add them/complete annotation for those as well)
    The purpose of this assignment is for you to utilize the knowledge you have gained about Literature and your critical thinking skills to compose an original essay that focuses on an aspect of Literature. For your final exam, you are to compose an essay which covers some topic in either in Poetry, Fiction, or Drama.Minimum requirements:
    1. Word Count
      1. For "C" credit, the essay must be, at least, a full five pages long, with the last paragraph ending at the bottom of page five (5), or the top of page six (6), and the Works Cited page appearing on the sixth (6) or seventh (7) page. X
      2. For "A" credit, the paper must be, a full seven (7) pages long, with the last paragraph ending at the bottom of page seven (7), or the top of page eight (8), and the Works Cited page appearing on the eighth (8) or ninth (9) page.
    2. Mode/genre of writing (expository, argument, or narrative)
      1. The essay is an argumentative research paper
    3. Format (MLA)
      1. The paper must include an introductory paragraph, body paragraphs sufficient to support the claim, and a concluding paragraph.
      2. Works cited page reflecting the protocols of MLA
      3. In text citations
      4. Size 12 Times New Roman font (Includes header!)
      5. Double Spaced
      6. All margins=1 inch
    4. Sources
      1. The paper must use resources acknowledged appropriately with in-text citations within the body paragraphs:
        1. No more than three (3) works discussed primarily.
        2. The paper is about one or more work(s) of poetry, fiction or drama.
        3. Each body paragraph MUST contain key but short quotations from the selections.
        4. At least five articles from the library database or anthology.
        5. As may be appropriate, the paper must acknowledge opposing viewpoints.

        Note:An automatic Grade of zero (0) will apply to essays, which do not meet any of these minimum requirements.



      These attach are example for the outline and the essay.The essay must be related to the annotated essay.

Samara 1 Samara, Qais Professor Darius Ajai Frasure, MFA, MA ENGL 1302-62400 29th of December 2017 Annotated Bibliography The comparison and the contrast of Hamlet and Oedipus: An Annotated Bibliography Jones, E 1976. Hamlet and Oedipus, Norton, United States. This source is the study of William Shakespeare's Hamlet that clearly indicated the important ideas about the title character's mystifying practices are subjected to examination along psychoanalytic lines. This source is reliable as it was obtained a proper investigation and uses valid research information from various researchers in academic and universities, and also, it is the current sources that I have applied in this study. This source is not biased, but rather it is very useful and reliable source that would lead us to study the information of both Hamlet and Oedipus consequences. The author of this source is Ernest Jones. He is the qualified author, as he had the qualifications in personal like being passionate in writings, earned a degree, obtained the full understanding of what he had written for. The main arguments of this source are that the marriage to Hamlet's mother gives the uncle the unconscious popularity of the father—unfavorable impulses in the direction of whom initiate superb anxiety and meet with repression. This source would help me in my study as it was contained the topic that is very related to what I am looking for. This source has the topic about Oedipus and Hamlet that specific its differences and similarities. Lee, Glen R 2014. "A Comparison of Hamlet and Oedipus the King", NovelGuide, Vol. 25, No. 2. pp. 1 -43. Samara 2 This source is the study of the tragic hero of hamlet unearths himself harassed with the undertaking of avenging his father's demise from the start of the play, and isn't himself the supply of the pollutants of regicide, whilst Oedipus is, of course, the unwitting fashioner of his personal doom, that is unveiled to him via reputation and repentance. The Sophocles has Oedipus foretelling his very own tragedy when speaking to the human beings of Thebes. It was written by Lee, Glen. This author is qualified, as he obtained proper used of various writing techniques and research that is in accordance with the requirement in writing. The main arguments of this source is that the city suffers because of the pollution of Oedipus, and irony is proven while Oedipus recommend that by way of avenging Laius he's going to shield himself, or that by getting children upon Jocasta, the useless king's spouse, he might be taking the area of the son of Laius, which, unknowingly, is himself. The irony reaches its peak while Oedipus calls at the prophet Tiresias to help uncover the homicide of Laius and seek a treatment to the plague; the metaphor of vision is ironic in that the blind Tiresias can see what the seemingly first-rate Oedipus has not noted, particularly the king's crimes of incest and homicide. This source will help me in my study as it mentioned above, this source obtained the topic in which will help identify the certain comparison of both Hamlet and Oedipus. Danson, Lawrence K 1986. “Tragic Alphabet.” Modern Critical Interpretations: William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Ed. by Harold Bloom. New York, Chelsea House. pp. 65-86. In this source, it was indicated here that Danson claims verbal warfare reflects problems within the realm of movement. from the start, guards had a hard time speaking with the ghost and hence need Horatio. He says language, like old rituals, old perspectives of honor, have ended up corrupt and rotten in Denmark. The author of this article is Danson Lawrence in which he is the very qualified author, who became a great or one of the authors who successfully Samara 3 earn a lot of positive impact and feedback about his several writings, due to his passion and determined in writing. Claudius’ oxymoron's try and clear up irreconcilable variations. hamlet’s puns are like linguistic confrontations that precede physical ones. “Time is the discredit or of allpurpose and action” (seventy-four). He claims trade/time can dull cause. The “to be or now not to be” speech famous everlasting dilemma, does satisfy dialectic. maximum essential trouble is uncertainty/doubt. He analyzes play-inside-a-play and its power (but performs are static and doubt inhabits our international of flux). He also says player’s summary has the extra effect than Hamlets' ardor. Bowers, Fredson P 1989. Hamlet as Minister and Scourge and Other Studies in Shakespeare and Milton. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia. This ebook greater than any other helped me to apprehend hamlet. The bowers explain the difference between a minister—an agent of god—and an epidemic—a person so evil he's already condemned to hell, and indicates that Hamlet wants to be a public minister, bringing proof in opposition to Claudius to an open court, however fears he has been selected with the aid of the ghost to “revenge [his] foul and most unnatural homicide” due to the fact he's already so sinful that he is beyond redemption. It was written by Bowers, Fredson. In which in his writing he argues for the closet scene as the climax of the play (instead of the mousetrap scene) and mainly the killing of Polonius, on account that that act on my own brings Laertes lower back from France, and it is simplest Laertes’ plot of the poison at the tip of the foil that sincerely kills hamlet at the cease of the play. He discusses how hamlet has modified by means of the stop of the play.. Samara 4 Bloom, Harold 1986. “Introduction.” Modern Critical Interpretations: William Shakespeare's Hamlet. Ed. By Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House. This source is all about in bloom that offers Hamlet as the hero; Horatio, the source of the play, and introduces the alternative works in this anthology. he discusses the modified hamlet on the cease of the play, claims he makes use of “clever passivity” in anticipating Claudius to behave. The author of this source is very qualified who is Bloom Harold that exceeds on his academic studies. He additionally talks approximately hamlet’s disinterestedness, which he calls a fantastic function. He additionally claims Shakespeare himself is remarkable due to the fact he is so unique; we can trace affects but now not his genius again to precursors. Horatio is our surrogate within the play. Felperin, Howard 1989. “O’redoing Termagant.” Modern Hamlet. Pp. 99-116. Felperin analyzes Hamlet's advice to the gamers, which seems to reflect Shakespeare's views. He discusses the purpose of gambling in hamlet especially and Shakespeare in trendy. To maintain a reflect up to nature refers each to displaying scorn her personal image (as in the medieval way of life) and “the very age. A practical view (homiletic vs. mimetic modes). The symbolic/conventional/allegorical. The closet scene could seem extra practical however hamlet speaks like a preacher, not a son. for this reason, Hamlet becomes a morality play. The ghost is a character but additionally symbolic of older culture telling hamlet (or renaissance drama) what to do. Felperin shows how archaic the revenge shape itself is. He contradicts Eliot's view that Hamlet is a mistaken play by suggesting it is Hamlet the man or woman who tries to impose the older fashions (revenge, morality) upon his own existence however fails. He argues Samara 5 Shakespeare is not just part of an evolutionary change in dramatic form (from archaic to trendy) however consciously, creatively exploring archaism. Shakespeare does no the longer invalidate older forms but subsumes them into his form. The changed hamlet in the quit rejects the role he becomes trying to play; the revenge hero isn't always the hero/villain. Felperin says Shakespeare resolves the paradox of conference (allegory/morality) and mimesis. Goddard, Harold 1970. “Hamlet: His Own Falstaff.” Modern Hamlet. 11-28. also found in Modern Shakesperean Criticism: Essays on Style, Dramaturgy, and the Major Plays. Ed. By Alvin B. Kernan. San Francisco: Harcourt, Brace & World. Goddard explains a few real-life connections between Shakespeare's life and the story of Hamlet. Hamlet is the excellent of Shakespeare's characters, which include the androgynous heroines, because he's the maximum the interesting, most complicated. Goddard demanding situations the common belief that hamlet is proper to want to kill Claudius and accordingly the centrality of the question of procrastination as the topic specializes in the ambiguity of the character of the Hamlet and why this makes him high-quality. He compares hamlet to Fortinbras and Laertes, who're less interesting (possibly because much less ambiguous). A better manner to interpret the play is to expect he should no longer kill Claudius. However, we're purported to assume him to kill on a primary studying/viewing of the play. The name of Goddard's article comes, from similarities to Hal and refers back to the reality that hamlet can play both Falstaff's and Hal’s roles. He claims Shakespeare's delegating the ghost to the cellarage as evil suggests the ghost’s admonition to revenge is misguiding hamlet and he discusses the symbolism of the duel scene. He says that hamlet responding by killing Samara 6 Polonius is intuition, now not preference and he says that readability comes now not from the actions of the play, however from its mirrored image upon motion afterward. Lanham, Richard A 1998. “Superposed Plays.” Modern Hamlet. Pp. 87-98. Hamlet is performed in one, the Laertes-as-revenge-tragedy-hero story and the severe play related to the hamlet. Shakespeare uses conventional speak for the revenge plot. Duplicity is evident as Laertes speaks of honor within the ultimate scene whilst maintaining the poisoned sword. He claims hamlet is Shakespeare “writing a play approximately the sort of play he is writing” (88). The language makes us privy to conventions. even feedback about child actors is ready the general subject of the Hamlet, rightful succession. Hamlet could no longer have a trouble “playing” his revenge (performing it out); it's miles the actual killing that troubles him. Shakespeare is announcing we find the truth, truth, within the play. He additionally refers to every other critic w. a. Bebbington, who says hamlet reads the “to be or now not to be” speech from an ebook. Latham claims hamlet is continually appearing, gives the argument that Hamlet refrains from killing Claudius in the prayer scene because no person is looking. Fortinbras gets the offstage creation that Shakespeare likes to use for major characters, however, remains a cardboard character during. army honor is a role like Laertes’ revenge duty; both roles are appealing to audiences, however, Hamlet recognizes he could be gambling a position and questions it as a cause for movement. Latham indicates Polonius is more crucial to the play than many critics assume. Levin, Harry 1989. "An Explication of the Player's Speech." Modern Critical Hamlet. Pp.29-44 Levin analyzes the Pyrrhus speech of the player and its connection to hamlet’s tale. Levin talks approximately Shakespeare's variations in fashion inside hamlet, asking if he is satirizing some other playwright. He additionally asks what is the reason for the play. The style Samara 7 is more like epic bombast than drama, extra stylized than naturalistic. Inside the player’s speech, the issue count comes from the Aeneid, the identical story as in Marlowe's Dido, queen of Carthage. Shakespeare turns the focus from Priam to Hecuba and makes the connection between the conflict of the roses and the Trojan conflict. A whole lot fabric is greater formal, makes use of less complicated language and extra Anglo Saxon words, at present worrying vs. beyond. The soliloquy which follows this scene is a reflect contrary to the speech each in content and shape. There may be an evaluation between the artificiality of the speech which makes the relaxation of the play Hamlet look greater real. Levin additionally makes us aware of the play-out of doors-the-play: is there a Claudius in our target audience? Shakespeare played the ghost in Hamlet and traditionally that actor also performs the primary participant, so Shakespeare may be the primary to supply these line. Nevo, Ruth. "Acts III and IV: Problems of Text and Staging." William Shakespeare's Hamlet. Edited by Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1986. 45-64. Nevo claims know-how staging is critical to deciphering the play. In acts iii and iv hamlet goes from being an excellent man or woman for the kingdom to a risk that Claudius can dismiss. Nevo connects the “to be or no longer to be” speech to the previous scene. The main topic of the speech revenge or suicide? in 1st 4to “to be or no longer to be” precedes front of the gamers. She argues in opposition to Dover's interpretation of the nunnery scene that Hamlet may have overheard plot, thinks doubts approximately individual are greater powerful. Following the mousetrap scene, hamlet misjudges and his actions do not have the effect he needs. She discusses the arbitrary act division between iii and iv utilized by maximum editors. She also argues that Fortinbras’ warfare and Laertes’s potential riot parallel hamlet’s Samara 8 preference for both public justice and personal retribution. She claims the play results in “faith within the value of an existence’s integrity” (64). Rose, Mark. “Reforming the Role.” Modern Hamlet. Pp.117-128. Rose claims each classical and renaissance drama is concerned with destiny, how our actions have an effect on our ends. He says Shakespeare become equal to Sophocles in his capacity to transform Elizabethan drama. He makes use of the language of the play, like hamlet being tethered, to show how “his will isn't always his very own.” He can’t go away Denmark and is bound by way of his promise to the ghost. The picture of the old hamlet (in armor) combating antique Fortinbras, ratified by means of regulation and heraldry, is a perfect hamlet cannot obtain along with his confrontation (normally verbal) or maybe the duel at the end. Hamlet appears for freedom, does not need to be like a recorder to be performed upon (however will show he can play upon Polonius), doesn’t want others to select the position he plays in his personal existence. Rose says Hamlet isn't always non-violent, not appalled by means of killing, but doesn’t need to be traditional in going about his revenge. Polonius’ own family are all foils to the Hamlet. Polonius’ advice is greater carefully followed via hamlet than Laertes. In the long run hamlet, in the end, permits himself to be played upon with the aid of better strength; he can be a collaborator only in his very own adjustments. But at the stop hamlet takes the vulgar/traditional role of revenge. Ryan, Kiernan 2016. Hamlet and revenge, Power, politics and religion, Tragedies, United States. Pp. 1 - 459. It was discussed that for centuries critics have tied themselves in knots looking to resolve the baffling problem hamlet seems to pose. Commanded by means of his father’s ghost in act 1 to ‘revenge his foul and most unnatural murder’ via his brother Claudius, who has Samara 9 robbed him of his wife and throne in addition to his life, Hamlet swears that ‘with wings as swift / as meditation, or the thoughts of affection,’ he's going to ‘sweep to [his] revenge’ (1.five.25, 29–31). He then spends almost the complete play spectacularly failing to maintain his oath, notwithstanding the ghost's reappearance in act three to remind him: ‘take into account! this visitation / is however to what they nearly blunted motive’. Indeed after his departure for England, hamlet’s responsibility to avenge his father seems all however forgotten, and on his go back, he indicates no sign of planning to take his uncle’s existence. when he does at remaining kill Claudius within the dying moments of act five, he does so unexpectedly, without forethought, poisoning the king in revenge for conniving to poison him and for by accident poisoning Gertrude. Neil, Pickering 2014. Depressive illness delayed Hamlet’s revenge. United States, Bioethics Centre, University of Otago. Vol. 8. No. 2. Pp This source indicates that if Hamlet had now not behind schedule his revenge there would have been no play. many motives for the delay had been supplied inside the last 4 centuries. None is convincing. The interpretation which best suits the evidence pleasant is that Hamlet was stricken by an acute depressive illness, with a few obsession features. He couldn't make a company solve to behave. In Shakespeare's time, there was no idea of acute depressive contamination, despite the fact that depression changed into widely recognized. Despair, but, could be visible as a personality defect. within the tragic version, the hero brings himself and others to ruin due to a personality disorder. Thus, at the time, the plan conformed to the tragic model. With nowadays information, it does no longer. This evaluation provides to but does now not update, other insights into the play. Samara 10 Dolloff, Lauren 2006. The Oedipus Complex, Jbailly courses, United States, The University of Alabama. It was indicated in this source that the big name wars" is a story of top vs. evil, the valuable warfare is on the Oedipus complex. The superstar wars shed new mild on the Freud's concept, for it confirmed the tragic result of sexual abuse and the results of being brought up without a mom. In big name wars, the penis is represented by means of the mild-saber that Luke Skywalker and Darth Vader used. However, Leia did no longer have a saber. This is because Luke's mother becomes not the gift, he grew to become his dreams in the direction of his sister. He had a deviant shape of the Oedipus complicated. Luke feared that his father could punish him for loving his sister. Darth Vader castrated his son by way of cutting his saber from his hand. Vader had a sexual love for his son. The "dark side" that Vader attempted to drag Luke into changed into a metaphor for the sexual abuse Vader inflicted on Luke. The Oedipus Complex in Literature." Everything 2. 19 Jan 2004. The Everything Development Company. 11 Nov 2006 . Freud believed that the Oedipus complicated is a middle detail of the human psyche. Shakespeare's hamlet confirmed the yearning for the mother and ambivalence closer to the father. To absolutely understand hamlet it is essential to examine the ambiguity of the daddy-parent. hamlet saw his father as a ghost, which Gertrude could not see. Hamlet's vengeance was directed toward his new father. hamlet's situation became an example of unresolved father-issues and maternal fixation. Eugene O'Neill's lengthy day's journey into night showed the effect of an unresolved Oedipus battle. Edmund became struggling together with his father and romantically fixated on his mother. Marry additionally had a fixation together with her father. Samara 11
[TYPE FIRST AND NAME HERE] Professor Darius Ajai Frasure, MFA, MA [TYPE COURSE NAME NUMBER AND SECTION HERE] [TYPE DAY MONTH AND YEAR HERE] [NAME OF ASSIGNMENT: TITLE OF PAPER] I.Introduction (of the problem or topic) (Do this last): a. [Material to get the reader's attention (a "hook")] i. b. Summary points or background info: c. . Introduce the problem or topic: . (You should have a plan for at least four sentences by now) d. RESPONSE/THESIS STATEMENT(Answer to the question) This is where you introduce your claim or thesis, perhaps with accompanying qualifiers that limit the scope of the argument: i. IV. Body Paragraph 1 TRANSITION AND ONE CONCESSION/COUNTERPOINT (One point made by somebody who disagrees with your thesis statement) Offer Grounds/Data (reasons or evidence) to support the counter-argument: . d. ILLUSTRATE THEIR POINT (Explore an idea that warrants/shows how the data logically is connected to the argument Illustration/Example/Proof/Evidence) . i.IN-TEXT CITATION e. 1. EXPLAIN THEIR ILLUSTRATION (Offer factual backing to show that logic used in the warrant is good in terms of realism as well as theory. What does the point and proof mean? Why does it matter? Why is it important? How does it counter to your thesis?) . f. TRANSITION AND REBUTTAL HERE(Provide a Rebuttal: Offer Grounds/Data (reasons or evidence) to support the rebuttal. (Deductive or inductive) A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of your position.): . g. ILLUSTRATE YOUR REBUTTAL(Explore an idea that warrants/shows how the data logically is connected to the rebuttal Illustration/Example/Proof/Evidence): . i.IN-TEXT CITATION: h. 1. EXPLAIN YOUR REBUTTAL(explain the research/citation)(Offer factual backing to show that logic used in the warrant is good in terms of realism as well as theory. What does the point and proof mean? Why does it matter? Why is it important? How does it relate to your thesis?): . V.Body Paragraph 2 TRANSITION AND ONE CONCESSION/COUNTERPOINT (One point made by somebody who disagrees with your thesis statement) Offer Grounds/Data (reasons or evidence) to support the counter-argument: . a. ILLUSTRATE THEIR POINT (Explore an idea that warrants/shows how the data logically is connected to the argument Illustration/Example/Proof/Evidence) . i.IN-TEXT CITATION b. 1. EXPLAIN THEIR ILLUSTRATION (Offer factual backing to show that logic used in the warrant is good in terms of realism as well as theory. What does the point and proof mean? Why does it matter? Why is it important? How does it counter to your thesis?) c. . TRANSITION AND REBUTTAL HERE(Provide a Rebuttal: Offer Grounds/Data (reasons or evidence) to support the rebuttal. (Deductive or inductive) A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of your position.): . d. ILLUSTRATE YOUR REBUTTAL(Explore an idea that warrants/shows how the data logically is connected to the rebuttal Illustration/Example/Proof/Evidence): . i.IN-TEXT CITATION: e. 1. EXPLAIN YOUR REBUTTAL(explain the research/citation)(Offer factual backing to show that logic used in the warrant is good in terms of realism as well as theory. What does the point and proof mean? Why does it matter? Why is it important? How does it relate to your thesis?): . I.Body Paragraph 3 TRANSITION AND ONE CONCESSION/COUNTERPOINT (One point made by somebody who disagrees with your thesis statement) Offer Grounds/Data (reasons or evidence) to support the counter-argument: . a. ILLUSTRATE THEIR POINT (Explore an idea that warrants/shows how the data logically is connected to the argument Illustration/Example/Proof/Evidence) . i.IN-TEXT CITATION: b. 1. EXPLAIN THEIR ILLUSTRATION (Offer factual backing to show that logic used in the warrant is good in terms of realism as well as theory. What does the point and proof mean? Why does it matter? Why is it important? How does it counter to your thesis?): . c. TRANSITION AND REBUTTAL HERE(Provide a Rebuttal: Offer Grounds/Data (reasons or evidence) to support the rebuttal. (Deductive or inductive) A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of your position.): . d. ILLUSTRATE YOUR REBUTTAL(Explore an idea that warrants/shows how the data logically is connected to the rebuttal Illustration/Example/Proof/Evidence): . i.IN-TEXT CITATION: e. 1. EXPLAIN YOUR REBUTTAL(explain the research/citation)(Offer factual backing to show that logic used in the warrant is good in terms of realism as well as theory. What does the point and proof mean? Why does it matter? Why is it important? How does it relate to your thesis?): . (more paragraphs may be added if needed--Just copy and paste the template) V. TRANSITION AND CONCLUSION (DO NOT just restate your thesis!!! [Summarize your paper. What have you shown? Go global! How does the thesis move beyond the paper? How does this argument relate to incidents occurring today? Inspire change? What should the reader do now that you have persuaded them to take your side on this issue?: a. TIP: If you do not have enough words to meet the minimum word count, ADD more proof and/ provide a fuller explanations. Do NOT forget your Works Cited page (Scroll down) Apologies, I am releasing you to do this yourself. Works Cited
Classic Model for an Argument No one structure fits all written arguments. However, most college courses require arguments that consist of the following elements. Below is a basic outline for an argumentative or persuasive essay. This is only one possible outline or organization. Always refer to your handbook for specifics. I. Introductory Paragraph o Your introductory paragraph sets the stage or the context for the position you are arguing for. o This introduction should end with a thesis statement that provides your claim (what you are arguing for) and the reasons for your position on an issue. A. Your thesis: o states what your position on an issue is o usually appears at the end of the introduction in a short essay o should be clearly stated and often contains emphatic language (should, ought, must) B. Sample Argumentative Thesis o The production, sale, and possession of assault weapons for private citizens should be banned in the U.S. II. Body of your Argument A. Background Information o This section of your paper gives the reader the basic information he or she needs to understand your position. This could be part of the introduction, but may work as its own section. B. Reasons or Evidence to Support your Claim o All evidence you present in this section should support your position. This is the heart of your essay. Generally, you begin with a general statement that you back up with specific details or examples. Depending on how long your argument is, you will need to devote one to two well-developed paragraphs to each reason/claim or type of evidence. o Types of evidence include: • first-hand examples and experiential knowledge on your topic (specific examples help your readers connect to your topic in a way they cannot with abstract ideas) • Opinions from recognized authorities • The tipsheet on the three logical appeals covers the types of evidence you can use in argumentation. 1. Claim: Keeping assault weapons out of private citizens’ hands can lower the increasing occurrences of barbaric public slayings • Evidence: o Jul 93 Law firm murders o Columbine School Shootings o University of Virginia incident o How did these individuals gain access to weapons? 2. Claim: The ban on assault weapons is backed heavily by public opinion, major organizations, and even law enforcement. • Evidence: o 12% favor ban (Much 92 Timetable News) o Organizational endorsements o Nat'l Sherriff's Assoc./lntn'l Assoc. of Police Chiefs 3. Claim: The monetary and human costs incurred by crimes committed with assault weapons are too great to ignore. • Evidence: o 10,561 murders in 1990 by handguns o Study of 131 injured patients’ medical expenses paid by public funds III. Addressing the Opposite Side o Any well-written argument must anticipate and address positions in opposition to the one being argued. o Pointing out what your opposition is likely to say in response to your argument shows that you have thought critically about your topic. Addressing the opposite side actually makes your argument stronger! o Generally, this takes the form of a paragraph that can be placed either after the introduction or before the conclusion. A. 1st Opposing View: Strict gun control laws won't affect crime rate • Refutation: Low murder rate in Britain, Australia (etc., where strict controls are in force. B. 2nd Opposing View: Outlaws would still own guns • Refutation: Any effort to move trend in opposite direction would benefit future generations IV. Conclusion o The conclusion should bring the essay to a logical end. It should explain what the importance of your issue is in a larger context. Your conclusion should also reiterate why your topic is worth caring about. o Some arguments propose solutions or make prediction on the future of the topic. o Show your reader what would happen if your argument is or is not believed or acted upon as you believe it should be. Adapted from: th Simon & Schuster Handbook for Writers. Ed. Lynn Quitman Troyka, 6 ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002. th The Writer’s Workplace. Ed. Sandra Scarry and John Scarry. 6 ed. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008.

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