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hi i need you to make the project 0 % plagiarism i attached the assignment and the plagiarised paragraphs is shown in the pdf file

saeed 10120 by said al jahdhami Submission date: 10-Dec-2017 04:40PM (UT C+0400) Submission ID: 893424162 File name: 1807_said_al_jahdhami_saeed_10120_5886_594349349.docx (729.39K) Word count: 11548 Character count: 70764 saeed 10120 ORIGINALITY REPORT 67 % SIMILARIT Y INDEX 66% 9% 59% INT ERNET SOURCES PUBLICAT IONS ST UDENT PAPERS MATCH ALL SOURCES (ONLY SELECTED SOURCE PRINTED) 66% ir.knust.edu.gh Int ernet Source Exclude quotes Of f Exclude bibliography Of f Exclude matches Of f
The Effect of Communication Channel on the Project performance in Construction Industry: A Case of Construction Companies in Oman Name: NOVEMBER 2017 1 Table of Contents LIST OF FIGURES..................................................................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER 1 ............................................................................................................................................................. 6 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................................6 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT .......................................................................................................................................8 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES .......................................................................................................................................9 1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH .........................................................................................................................9 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY .............................................................................................................................10 1.5.1 Summary ................................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 2 ........................................................................................................................................................... 11 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 11 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................................11 DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION .......................................................................................................................11 COMMUNICATION FEATURES .............................................................................................................................12 THE NATURE OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION ....................................................................................12 FIGURE 1: THE FORMALITIES DIMENSIONS OF COMMUNICATION ....................................................................... 14 2.5 COMMUNICATION CHANNELS ............................................................................................................................15 FIGURE 2: THE THREE COMMUNICATION CHANNEL OF THE PROJECT MANAGER ................................................ 16 COMMUNICATIONS MODELS ..........................................................................................................................................16 2.5.1 The summary of the various models and summarized interpretations .................................................18 FIGURE 3: LASSWELL FORMULA ........................................................................................................................... 20 FIGURE 4: LASSWELL FORMULA FOR COMMUNICATION ..................................................................................... 21 FIGURE 5: DAVID BERLO SMCR MODEL ................................................................................................................ 21 3 FIGURE 6: SHANNON- WEAVER MODEL ....................................................................................................... 22 CHAPTER 3 ........................................................................................................................................................... 29 3.0 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK ................................................................................................................................ 29 3.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................29 3.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY ..............................................................................................................................................29 3.3 COMMUNICATION MODELS WITHIN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY ............................................................ 29 3.4 COMMUNICATION IN THE DESIGN/DESIGN PHASE ..........................................................................................................30 3.5 STAKEHOLDER IN THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR ..............................................................................................................32 FIGURE 7: COMMUNICATION CHANNELS IN A PROJECT ....................................................................................... 35 FIGURE 8: THE PROJECT REPORT SYSTEM ............................................................................................................ 37 FIGURE 9: FLOW OF INFORMATION ..................................................................................................................... 38 3.6 OMAN’S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY ............................................................................................................................39 3.6.1 The configuration of the construction industry ..........................................................................................40 3.7 OMAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY PERFORMANCE ........................................................................................................44 2 CHAPTER 4 ........................................................................................................................................................... 46 4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................ 46 4.1 RESEARCH STRATEGY ...............................................................................................................................................47 4.2 RESEARCH DESIGN AND ITS JUSTIFICATION ...................................................................................................................47 4.3 DATA COLLECTION ..................................................................................................................................................50 4.3.1 ANALYSIS METHOD ..............................................................................................................................................51 REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................................... 52 4 APPENDIX ONE ............................................................................................................................................ 60 3 list of figures FIGURE 1: THE FORMALITIES DIMENSIONS OF COMMUNICATION .......................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. FIGURE 2: THE THREE COMMUNICATION CHANNEL OF THE PROJECT MANAGER ............... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. FIGURE 3: LASSWELL FORMULA ............................................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. FIGURE 4: LASSWELL FORMULA FOR COMMUNICATION ......................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. FIGURE 5: DAVID BERLO SMCR MODEL .................................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. FIGURE 6: SHANNON- WEAVER MODEL ................................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. FIGURE 7: COMMUNICATION CHANNELS IN A PROJECT .......................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. FIGURE 8: THE PROJECT REPORT SYSTEM .............................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. FIGURE 9: FLOW OF INFORMATION ......................................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. 4 List of tables Table 1: Issue log…………………………………………………………………………..24 Table 2: steps to be followed when procuring a public construction project in Oman…….44 5 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The construction industry is very crucial as it affects human life directly. For this reason the resulting structure from a construction project should be given utmost attention to ensure that that it architectural as well as structural integrity are not compromised. The construction industry in Oman is vast. In all this construction projects several individuals with different capabilities work hand in hand to realize the end goal. For this reason, communication is essential to ensure that various activities within a project are accomplished in an effective manner. 1.1 Research background All stages of construction depend on professionals who transfer relevant information to develop a project that meets customer needs. The evolution of a construction design can only be realized by sharing information in the form of drawings, specifications and construction methods which must be communicated by one expert to the other. Therefore, it is essential to use communication channels and an appropriate means of communication to solve construction and design problems. To fully appreciate communication in the Oman Construction industry, the following research questions were asked: How did project professionals communicate building projects in Oman? How do project professionals evaluate communication in Oman projects? In addition, the research will be organized to determine whether project communication has a significant effect on project delivery in Oman. The research has examined 97 professionals working with consultants, project clientele, and contractors with sufficient qualifications. Research has determined that within the Oman construction industry there is a strong appreciation for the importance of project communication and its importance within the industry. In fact, different 6 Levels and communication channels have been established in the construction sector, in particular, communication between customers and consultants or consultants and contractors. Despite this, there have been many obstacles to effective communication in construction projects in Oman. These include; poor relay of information, poor leadership, unclear communication goals, unclear communication channels, and inefficient notification system, communication between the project partners, stereotypes, and language difficulties are all ineffective factors affecting the industry. Finally, the investigation established that poor communication caused project delays, excessive project cost, and abandonment of projects. It has also been shown that project communication strongly affects the performance of construction industry professionals in the Sultanate of Oman. Efficiency in construction depends on the quality of the relationship between the client, industry professionals, contractors, and subcontractors. In other words, construction problems are likely to be caused by a communication problem (Emmerson, 1962, cited in Emmitt & Gorse 2003). All stages of construction depend on professionals who transfer essential and relevant information to develop a construction project that meets customer requirements (Higgin and Jessop 1965 cited in Emmitt & Gorse 2003). The evolution of a construction design can only be realized by sharing information in the form of drawings, specifications and construction methods which must be communicated by one expert to the other. In other words, the information must be transferred and understood so that the various aspects of the project can be assembled to run the project. In Oman, building professionals regularly participating in the industry are architects, geometers (QS), geodetic engineers (GEs), structural engineers (St.E), electrical engineers (EEs) and service engineers (SEs). All these professionals are governed by a professional institution, namely the Oman Architects Center (OIA), the Oman Institute of Surveyors for the QS and the 7 GE and Oman Society of Engineers for Engineers. For the purpose of this research, communication is defined as the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another; it is an issuer that transmits an idea, information or feelings to a receiver (US Army, 1983). In recent years, the Oman government and the international organizations' reports (for example, Oman Reports) have continued to criticize the poor performance in the construction sector and many projects have not been approved. Therefore the expectations of customers have not been meeting fully. As a result, most of the research work in the field has focused mainly on the influence of factors such as; Procurement, health, and safety, credit access, performance improvement, etc. In addition to this, there has been little or no work on the most delicate factors such as construction communication and how they affect the construction sector in Oman. 1.2 Problem Statement One of the most serious obstacles a company faces is to solve the information flow up, down and sideways, which is often called great communication. The use of appropriate means of communication to solve construction and design problems is essential for construction managers. To fully understand the issue of communication in Oman's construction industry, the following research questions have been formulated: • How are project professionals aware of Oman's construction projects? • How does a project professional evaluate communication channels and its impact on project delivery in Oman? According to BRE (2011), most of the problems in the construction sector are the result of poor communication. For example, a maliciously detailed drawing, which is accompanied by incorrect instructions or the technical information, is unavailable. However, what is not known is how project professionals collect and disseminate timely information when working on a project in 8 Oman. This is a major problem in Oman construction communication channels literature that this research seeks to fill. 1.3 Research Objectives The aim of the research is to critically evaluate the project communication in the construction sector in Oman; however, the specific objectives of this research work are as follows: 1. Determine how project professionals work in communicating Oman's project values 2. Determine the various communication channels used by project professionals in Oman 3. Determine what the causes of communication barriers are in a project in Oman 4. Determine how communication of the construction project affects the delivery of the project to Oman 1.4 Justification of the Research The construction industry in Oman is an extremely important sector to be ignored, considering its significant contribution to Oman's GDP. Therefore, it is a justifiable effort to investigate and add knowledge in all aspects of the industry. Already a considerable amount of work done elsewhere reveals that many of the problems of construction projects have developed into interfaces between key specialists. While some specialists can visualize the aspects of the building with a high degree of precision, possibly with little information, other aspects of the construction will have little relevance unless the information is transmitted in a way that allows them to develop an understanding of the model, so communication is extremely important in project administration. For example, the delay in acknowledging that the information is missing, incorrect, or conflicting will cause a delay in resource modification, and/or alteration of improperly constructed components. It is essential that communication is effective and that information is properly understood and elaborated. However, very little is known about 9 communication planning, distribution of information and presentation of performance reports in Oman. The results of this research will, therefore, make these communication challenges available for the future implementation of the project. 1.5 Significance of the Study The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of communication channels on employee performance in the construction sector in the Sultanate of Oman. 1.5.1 Summary It is quite evident that communication in a construction project is essential in ensuring that the project is accomplished with little to no hiccups. This is so since if communication between those involved in a project is poor, then performance will be negatively affected. With the construction industry being one of the most important sectors in Oman, there is need to ensure that project performance in the Industry is of high standards. To achieve this various communication channels that improve performance as well as the barrier to communication in a project will be looked at. This is of essence since, communication is one of the determinants of the level performance in a project. 10 CHAPTER 2 2 2.1 Literature Review Introduction The right to communicate is a fundamental human right, which indicates the fundamental need of every human being to express what they think about any matter. It is essential for this morality of inter-subjectivity whose main characteristic is the relationship and also establishes freedom, equality, and solidarity above all else. Since all democratic relations presuppose reciprocal interactions, there can be no dialogue-free relationship. To get into relationships, establish communities, survive, people have to communicate. True communication is, therefore, a fundamental human need for food, clothing, and shelter (Fisher and Harms, 1983). Therefore, individual members of a group of professionals need to communicate with each other to meet their productive and social functions within organizations. 2.2 Definition of communication Cherry (1978) defined communication as the process of interaction between individuals where meaning is created and shared. Dainty, et al. (2006) acknowledged that the term "communication is in itself a multiple and complex term, which can mean different things in different contexts and situations." This is certainly the case in the construction sector, where each project requires communication. Between wide ranges of participants, there seems little doubt that communication plays a vital role in the effectiveness of organizations. Although managers from different sectors carry out various tasks and activities, it has been recognized that they devote most of their communication time Drucker (1985) emphasizes the importance of communication to managers and stresses that communicative skills are essential for success In project administration, Sievert (1986) emphasizes the importance of communication and states that a 11 high percentage of work-related problems can be attributed to bad communication. Please keep in mind that engineers and technical staff spend from 50% to 75% of the time to communicate verbally. 2.3 Communication features Some of the features of the communication according to Mehra (2009) are as follows; • Communication is a process: it is continuous, continuous and dynamic • Communication requires a sender and receiver • Communication has information (message / content) • Communication requires means (symbols, signs, behavior, speech, writing or signals) • Similarly, communication is transactional and irreversible • Communication requires a shared understanding: all parties understand the same 2.4 The nature of formal and informal communication Theorists have long recognized that organizations use communication methods that vary in formality and implement these different methods for tasks that vary in uncertainty. However, the link between the incompetence of the techniques and the uncertainty of the activity results in better organizational results. Both activities are small and organizational; the task focuses on consistent production with the activity examined in detail. Communication implies people's efforts to achieve collective and expressive goals (Blau and Scott, 1962) As described by Van de Ven, Delbecq and Koenig (1976), "communication means integrating or joining different parts of an organization to carry out a series of collective tasks." explicit co-ordination is necessary, partly because individuals within an organization have only partially superimposed goals. Therefore, a goal of communication is to ensure that different 12 people get together to share the same goals. But even if these goals were met, and its goals were identical, input-output dependencies between individuals require their sequential efforts and interact efficiently. Informal communication is a vaguely defined concept and is often treated as a residual category in organizational theory. In this perspective, informal communication is what remains when rules and hierarchies are eliminated, ways to coordinate activities. More positively, informal communication is spontaneous, interactive, and rich. Coordination by feedback (March and Simon, 1958), through organizational communication networks (Tushman and Nadler, 1978), or clan mechanisms (Ouchi, 1980) are alternatives to describe co-ordination through informal forms of communication. The essence of these informal communication systems is their lack of the previous specification. The information is not prepackaged and then sent to a recipient and stock quotes are not calculated in advance and then executed unchanged intact. Conversely, information is often exchanged interactively through meetings and conversations, and action courses are solved in the context of the circumstances in which actions must adapt. Figure 1 shows several variables that characterize informal formal communication. In the heart of informal communication, there is an ad-lib nature. Interviews are conducted at this time, with participants and issues involved. None of these items (timetables, participants, and days) are planned in advance. In addition, during the course, communication changes to take into account current interests and participants' understanding. In this sense, informal communication is truly interactive and all communication participants can respond to what they perceive as the current state of things, including communication to that point and their perception of the reactions of the other participants to it. Formal channels can be less effective compared to informal 13 communication channels based on the outcomes of the feedback mechanism. This is so because the participants will modify whatever they have to say as an effort to address the misunderstanding and objections of other speakers (Kraut, Lewis and Swezey, 1982). Formal Informal • Advance Scheduling unscheduled • prearranged Participants accidental participants • Participants in role Participants out of role • predetermined Agenda unplanned Agenda • One-way Interactive • Impoverished content Rich Content • official language and speech register unofficial language Figure 1: The formalities dimensions of communication (Source: Kraut et al., 1990) The features are structural and functional and make communication more communicative or less formal. Among them, the structural features, the nature of the relationship between them and their social participant influences await as a formality. For example, conversations between a people with extreme or very unequal status are the most formal conversations compared to between close friends or peers. In the same way, the folk discussion does not make them more formal coils of conversation between the same people without a role. Frequency communication also affects its shape. Communication partners have the ability to communicate with each other daily, the gaze does not have to be in the event. Communication movement is given formal style informal (brown and Fraser, 1979). 14 Finally, the communication channel itself can define the formality of a communication event. Their nature, for example, telephone conversations make and are interactive faces and richer and e-mail systems and hence more informal. Sharing communication in a cool mode more, I will inform you back by computer information systems and human generation memos are more formal how much the actual meeting and bulletin boards are which they are more formal in phone calls or corridor chat. in terms of functional features, formal and informal communication systems look different business opportunities. Formal communication tends to be used to coordinate relatively routine transactions within groups and organizations. For example, in a large company, you could go through a capture process simply by following the steps specified in your business purchase guide. Material specifications, purchase request forms, bidding measures, supplier selection criteria, and the approval process phases will be specified in advance. In the end, the regulation could describe in such a complete manner the conditions in which certain actions and precise ways of performing that the just-in-time computerized supply system could make orders with suppliers without human intervention. However, these formal communication mechanisms often fail to face new or unplanned events. Novelty, unexpectedness, and uncertainty are common in organizations and are often components of what seem routine measures (for example, Suchman and Wynn, 1984). In such circumstances, informal communication seems necessary to coordinate and clear the uncertainty (Daft and Lengel, 1986) 2.5 Communication Channels During a project, communication can take place in multiple directions depending on who is communicating. There is a high level of communication with the administration of your 15 organization and customer organization. Side communication is carried out with customers and within project teams. The machine must be started for greater communication, both downwards (higher to subordinate), horizontal communication (between colleagues) or communication upwards (from coordinates to higher ones). Mehra (2009) said that communication will involve more and more people. The figure 2 shows various communication channels in a project Figure 2: The three communication channel of the project manager (Adopted from Keyton, 2011) Communications Models The communication models summarized in the table and the figures below focus on the project environments. Many models dating from the late 1940s are known as transmission models 16 because they target communication as a means of problematic transfer of information based on a change of four fundamental elements: Sender (or Source) → Message → Channel (or Medium) → Receiver One of the most popular models was created when Warren Weaver, an eminent mathematician, applied the concept of Claude Shannon's loss of information transmission through telephone cables for interpersonal communication. Shannon was a researcher at Bell Telephone Laboratories, trying to get the maximum capacity of the telephone line with minimal distortion. Though he never understood that his mathematical signal transmission theory was used for something other than phones, Weaver's adaptations were very influential in information theory. Norbert Wiener, a famous mathematician and founder of cybernetics, added the feedback loop to the Shannon-Weaver model. The various models are summarized in the following table (Adopted by Mehra, 2009) 17 2.5.1 The summary of the various models and summarized interpretations Model Comment Lasswell formula Useful but very simple. (1948) Suppose the communicator wants to influence the receiver and therefore sees communication as a persuasive process. Suppose messages always have effects. It exacerbates the effects of mass communication. Skip comments, On the other hand, it was conceived in an era of political propaganda It remains a useful introductory model Braddock (1958) modified it to include the circumstances, purpose, and effect Shannon and Weaver Highly influential and sometimes described as the "most important" model (1949) (Johnson and Clare) Communication is presented as a one-way linear process Osgood and Schramm have developed it into a more circular model. Shannon and Weaver made a distinction between the source and the transmitter, and the receiver and the destination, that is, there are two functions for final transmission and two for the final reception. Criticized 18 by suggesting a precise start and end to the communication process, which in fact is often infinite Gerbner (1956) A special feature of this model is that it can take different shapes depending on the situation it describes. There is a verbal and visual formula (like Lasswell): someone perceives an event and reacts in a situation through some means to make the material available in some form and context that transmits content with some consequences The flexible nature of the model makes it useful. It also allows emphasizing perception. It could explain, for example, the perception problems of a court witness and, in the media, a model that helps us explore the connection between reality and the stories reported in the news. Westley and MacLean Another influential model the authors wanted to create a model that (1957) demonstrated the complexity of mass communication, hence the emphasis on having to interpret a mass of X (events that are reported in the media). Simplifies relationships between participants by not showing power relations between them It makes the media process more integrated than it 19 really can be. It does not show how different media may have different interests in the state (for example, the difference between a state broadcaster and a private one) (Adopted from Mehra, 2009) The project administration communication model designed by Shannon-Weaver Model (Adopted from Mehra, 2009) Figure 3: Lasswell formula Figure 3 shows another popular broadcasting model later presented by sociologist Harold Lasswell, added the idea of impact or effect. Transmission models have also influenced the first human communication studies, but many theorists now consider them erroneous. These models and their derivatives concentrate more on the study of message creation as a process rather than on what a message means and how it makes sense. The Lasswell formula for communication (adopted by Mehra, 2009) 20 Figure 4: Lasswell formula for communication David Berlo, presented the previous model in 1960 where he further emphasized on encoding and decoding, he defined five verbal communication abilities: Speaking and writing (encoding skills), listening and reading (decoding skills), and thought or reasoning (both encoding and decoding). Figure 5: David Berlo SMCR Model (Adopted from Mehra, 2009) 21 Figure 6: Shannon- Weaver model The Results per week or month i. Describe the most important results. • Describe other important results, a vignette for each. If a problem of the week or the previous month has been resolved, list it as a result Ii. Plans for next week or month • Describe the most important items to be achieved next month. Again, put it in relation to the Gantt diagram of the project. • Describe other important elements to achieve, a vignette for each. iii. Problems: Make a brief list of important issues that have arisen or continue to be important iv. Project Changes (Date and Description): Lists approved or requested changes in the project. Includes change date and a brief description. 22 Meeting minutes: A document used to convey the purpose of the meeting, important elements, crucial decisions and action elements. Proposal Request (RFP) - a document used to request proposals from potential suppliers. Quotation request: a document used to request quotes or offers from potential suppliers. Status Change Request: A written or written editing order may be interpreted or interpreted by someone with a real or apparent authority. Forecasts: Used to predict the future state of the project and progress based on previous information and trends; in particular project control and cost. Communication plan: stakeholder administration The project manager must understand and build a working relationship with the various stakeholders. They must specifically address how communication can meet the needs and expectations of stakeholders. Help with stakeholder administration and provide the project Sponsor with guidelines to measure goals, times and costs; A expectations administration matrix will be created to clarify expectations. Another tool to help manage stakeholders and solve project problems is a record of problems. The project administrator will keep track of problems in the file. The problem log will be electronic and a hard copy will be saved as a backup method. The record will include: Issue Number, Problem Description, Impact on Project, Report Date, reported by (CHI), assigned to (Who handles the problem), high, medium, low priority (H, M, L) expiration date, status (open, closed) and additional comments. A table showing an issue log (Adopted from Mehra, 2009) Table 1: Issue log 23 Stakeholders should be informed of changes and progress on a weekly basis. Every month a formal meeting will be held to analyze the progress, plans, scope, objectives, budgetary issues, etc. Interested parties can access the project manager or project sponsor by e-mail and telephone. There will be occasional email chat available to discuss the issues. The e-mail label applies. If immediate attention is required, the project manager or project sponsor must be immediately informed. Communication Methods There are several ways and methods for communicating information in the construction industry. Although the overwhelming majority of the information is exchanged verbally and delegated, most of the data is exchanged in written form, both in paper and electronic form. Although information is exchanged verbally, for example through meetings and project instructions, this information is well documented and retained for future reference. The purpose of the work and details of the construction are communicated through drawings, contract documents, additions and specifications (Maslej, 2006). Contracts are commonly issued when an entity moves to another: for example, when an owner takes over a consultant or designer, it forms a contractual relationship through a signed contract. The same is true when a consultant, on behalf of the 24 owner, assumes a general contractor to carry out the work planned by the consultant. The contractor may want to outsource part of his work to the subcontractors, in which case a contractual relationship is again established. Unfortunately, poor communication is a common event in construction when work is transmitted from one entity to another (Masley, 2006). To facilitate the classification, forms and methods of communication in the construction sector are described below (Mehra, 2009); 1) Formal writing: takes the form of project plan, project letter, specifications, reports, metrics 2) Formal word: presentations and speeches are included in this category 3) Informal Writing: examples of informal written communication methods include memos, emails, notes, and so on. 4) Informal report: meetings, stakeholders, and conversations are classified according to the informal verbal method. 5) Nonverbal messages: transmitted through our facial expressions and our postures and gestures, and account for about 55% of what others perceive and understand. 6) Para-verb messages: include the tone, tone, and rhythm of our voice and account for about 38% of what others perceive and understand. Effective communication is a two-way process that involves active listening and reflects the responsibility of the speaker and the listener. Also, use comments to confirm the understanding that frees you from stress. Interpersonal communication under construction There are numerous studies that have paid attention to the lack of effective communication in the construction sector (Emerson 1962, Banwell 1964, Latham, 1994, Egan 1998, 2002). Communication is of particular importance within the industry due to its project-based structure. 25 Since the building is such a fragmented, dynamic and flourishing sector, effective communication becomes essential "(Dainty et al., 2006) A review of administration literature reveals that communication studies have focused mainly on the nature of interpersonal communication. However, there seem to be few empirical studies on the topic in projects-based industries such as construction. Interpersonal communication in construction projects takes three forms: oral, written (or graphic) and non-verbal communication. Oral communication refers to the transmission of messages through the use of common symbols which includes face to face, phone, meetings, and presentations. In a project environment, it is the appropriate medium for "timely exchange of information, quick feedback, immediate message synthesis and timely closure" Carlsson et al. (2001). Written communication includes emails, faxes, notes, letters, reports, plans (strategic and tactical), legal documents and other forms of information to be transmitted, preparation of bid proposals, progress reports, training manuals, etc. It is an important part of the construction project administration. Jergeas and Hartman (1994) suggested maintaining good documents and communications to avoid claims and disputes in construction projects. Gorse et al. (1999) studied the behavior of interpersonal communication between designers and contractors during the project construction phase. Their findings reveal that informal approaches, such as face to face, are perceived as the most effective means of communication within the industry. Their results are also supported by which led research on communication within the Swedish construction industry where he argued that "obstacles to effective communication will likely be cut off by more integrated delivery systems" Carlsson et.al. (2001). in their study, Shohen and Frydman (2003) identified effective communication models at construction manager level in projects provided by the construction 26 administration acquisition protocol in Israel. They have found that verbal communication continues to be extremely important to ensure compliance with project goals. In addition, Culp and Smith (2001) argue that the type of personality plays an important role in determining the success of interpersonal communication. Based on the Myers-Briggs index, they studied the impact of personality on interpersonal communication. Although there has been considerable research in the field of interpersonal communication, little has been done on the communication styles in the environments of the construction industry. For this reason, this study focuses on evaluation: differences in the similarities and styles of communication between construction professionals. If the communication style refers to "it is verbally to interact and means to be taken to the letter, interpreted, whether the filter or whether it understands" (Norton1978, p.99). People have a predominant communication style, but you can change the communication styles in terms of a specific situation. Many researchers argued that the situation is an important factor in communicative behavior (Miller, Cody, and McLaoughlin, 1994, Oetzel, 1999). Argyle, Furnham and Graham (1981) describe a situation of As "The sum of the characteristics of the behavioral system during a social encounter" (eg Miller et al. (1994) explain that communicative behavior is influenced by the characteristics of the Situation and that people (Hansford and Hattie, 1987, Hughes, 1996, Hughes and Baldwin, 2002). Hall (1974) Explains the variations in the relationships between people in group and group situations styles with the notion of high and low context communication - High communication context (HC) implies the use and interpretation of non-explicit messages, such as message content minimizes verbally and is sensitive to others while in context (LC ) Communication implies being direct, accurate and open (Gudykunst et al 1996) Gudykunts and Ting-Toomey (1988) argue that LC and HC 27 communications are predominates in individualistic and collectivist cultures, if you expect members of individualist cultures to "communicate in a consistent way with their feelings" (Hall, 1976, p.79) and tend to prefer direct styles or if you expect members of collectivist cultures (Asian countries) to communicate in a way that "mimics and conceals speakers" true intentions "(Gudykunts -Toomey and Ting, 1988, p.100) and tend to use the indirect styles as. 28 CHAPTER 3 3.0 Research framework 3.1 Research Questions This study aims to address the following research questions: 1. How much value do construction project professionals assign to communication? 2. What are the different communication channels used by project professionals in a project? 3. What are the causes of communication barriers in Oman construction projects? 3.2 Scope of the Study Communication within the construction industry in Oman is wide and could involve a lot of work, especially if there are no concentrations in the study. The construction industry in Oman is made up of all contractors (entrepreneurs, consultants, and customers) involved in building roads and buildings. The study focused on the construction industry. Once again, there has been a greater concentration in large construction companies, because they should have effectively used all the possible communication facilities that this research would probably address. 3.3 Communication models within the construction industry Good communication is one of the prerequisites for the regular and profitable operation of any organization. This is particularly true in the construction sector since communication in the sector according to Shutt (1992) is often hampered for the following reasons: a) Lack of timely cooperation and consultation between the different stages of construction, ie customer design phases, planning phases, planning, and other legislative approvals, assembly phase. b) The increasing percentage of subcontracted jobs (if appointed) on which the principal contractor does not have direct control. 29 c) The problem that the assembly site is away from the functions of the specialized central office often leads to the phone's issue instructions instead of giving more concise written instructions. 3.4 Communication in the design/design phase At this stage, communication is done between the customer and the consultants and is a continuous process from the beginning to the end of the project. The customer requirements statement including information such as the size of the building, the nature of the building, the available funds, the construction function, and the timing of the project will be available to consultants. As stated earlier by Shutt (1992), the lack of timely consultation and cooperation hindered the communication and, subsequently, the timely delivery of the projects. The architect prepares a general description of customer needs after conducting feasibility studies with other consultants and communicates it to the rest of the team members for collective action. As soon as customer approval is obtained, the architect and the engineer begin to prepare the work drawings, the program, and the specifications, and at the same time require the opinion of the Rigger who sees the cost involved in the project to see if the Project design is still within the approved budget. Communication during approval by the Planning Authority The role of the construction industry in society is to meet the needs of consumers in terms of construction projects, whether they be houses, workplaces, entertainment or transport routes (Shutt, 1992). To this end, the approval of planning authorities can be considered at two levels. Structural plans 30 They regard the general area in relation to their environment and establish policies in areas of employment, transport, recreation, housing, industry, the population, and education. These plans are not detailed but tend to be proposed for various considerations (Shutt, 1992). Local plans These are ready to examine in detail the local area under construction and to avoid problems that might arise due to complications due to conflicts in planning applications. It would not be unwise, for example, to proceed with a planning application for a road extension to a customer's factory, if in the future there is a local plan that proposes an extension of the motorway scheme, which will affect the factory All development plans are available for inspection at the planning offices of local authorities to avoid problems with some clauses in building regulations (Shutt, 1992). Communication between the design team and the construction team In almost all jobs there are some difficulties, usually practical problems in building a detailed drawing. In many cases, these problems could have been overcome if there had been consultations between the architect and the builder at an earlier stage. Shutt (1992) argued that builders are usually unaware of the many problems until work has progressed considerably due to the usual detailed drawing measures long after the start of the project. This point only raises communication problems, which the manufacturer may have to ask for a component designed for this purpose, and the project may be delayed during its manufacture. On the other hand, many builders cause many delays. There are many situations where it is evident to the builder or agency that he will have to ask for the architect's opinion or ask for details on some points, but is not mentioned until such a delay occurs. Communication within the contractor's organization 31 Within a construction company, the type of communication system and the speed with which it works are largely a function of the size of the organization (Shutt, 1992). The smaller the company, the faster the information will be disseminated. With large companies, it is necessary to develop a communication network to ensure that the information required for decision-making reaches the point where they can be sought. This can sometimes lead to overloading "on" trays with most of the irrelevant information for the particular department. Communication between the parties on the site The yard is the place where the design team's efforts to visualize the customer's needs will be put into practice and the customer's dream will become reality. In general, the site meetings are the regular meetings held on the site to discuss project progress to date, the difficulties and delays that derive from the project in question. According to Shutt (1992), communication between the parties can be greatly improved with the help of site meetings. All interested parties such as the architect, contract director, general manager, construction worker, major subcontractors, etc. may be present. Other communication methods on the site include weekly reports, which are a complete record that summarizes daily events on the site for the week and recorded by the employee of the works. 3.5 Stakeholder in the construction sector It is said that communication as Maslej (2006) is effective in the workgroup in the construction sector only when the ideas transmitted reach their desired action or reaction, since the operations involve the client computer's effort, the inspector quantity, the architect, technical consultant, specialist and contractor organization with the main goal of doing things through humans. Maslej (2006) noted that in order to better understand the concept of communication in the construction 32 industry, it is important to recognize the role, responsibility, and authority of various participants in a typical construction project and how information is exchanged. Roles of participants in construction projects The roles of the participants in the construction projects set by Sompura and Viramgami (2005) are described below: Project Manager Tasks include conceptual planning of the project, general project administration, invoices and material conciliation. Minimize waste of building material, contact with customer/consultants, coordinate with architects and consultants. motivating staff and managing the site as team leader, scheduling the daily activities of the project, timely completion of the project within a given time period and quality remains, participating in the main on-site communication meetings with customers, reviewing 'advancing the site and solving outstanding issues for several running projects. In addition, he is involved in leadership, delegation, communication, interaction, and presentation skills. He also has experience in managing multifunctional administration roles as a mandatory gift for him Structural Engineer Serve as the principal representative of the site for all matters relating to the quality assurance of construction of structural works. Check the structural work to verify compliance with the terms of the contract documents and the procedure manual. Communicate with the local authorities and the ministries responsible for the project. Review the proposals for the structural modification order of the contractor. Examine contractors' requirements for structural work and prepare recommendations for approval or refusal of requests. Attend contractors with regard to the value 33 of claims for damages or changes in programs. Review of structural plans for projects designed by others. Perform all other tasks that the resident engineer may require. Architect Duties include providing the contractor with drawings and information and certification for compliance and code security. Appointment of Sub-Contractors and Suppliers, Suspension of Works Issue of variation orders that alter the scope, nature or amount of work, carrying out feasibility studies together with other consultants Quantity Counter Examine the implications of the cost of the project and ensure that the project is still within the approved budget. Review the list of values and help you decide the best for the purpose of the project. Another role is that he is involved in managing and Analyzing Risks Tips on Avoiding and Settling Disputes. The evaluation of construction work for intermediate payments, evaluation of changes, evaluation or completion of claims for loss, expense and final accounts in addition to negotiating with stakeholders, building cost control through careful measurement of work required a thorough knowledge of labor costs and labor costs, labor, materials and facilities needed to understand the implications of project planning. An initial phase to ensure good value is obtained from the money that will be spent. Finally, he is involved in advising clients about ways to get the project. Construction Engineer (resident) He directs the business of a construction project, provides technical advice to all parties involved in the project, inspecting the site to ensure that the building that will be built can be hosted by that area. 34 He also provides information to stakeholders and the general public to keep them informed and in case of problems before, during and after construction. Structure of communication in the construction sector Communication channels in a project (adopted by Ruuska, 1994) Figure 7: Communication channels in a project (adopted by Ruuska, 1994) 35 The three circles in figure 7 above which was adopted by Ruuska, (1994) illustrate a project, a customer and a final user. At the crossroads, we can see the organizational parts through which the official collaboration between these three groups generally takes place. The arrows show how a project deals with the information written to the line and end-user organizations. Together, these elements can be considered as the official communication channels of the project. A Report/signaling system The project report system in the following figure was adopted by Sell, (1980) has basically two tasks: it serves the process of internal administration of the project and an external information channel. A signaling system can also be seen as a feedback control system that tries to keep the work process in balance by reacting to deviations. The project report system (adopted by Sell, 1980) 36 Figure 8: The project report system (adopted by Sell, 1980) When creating a reporting system, the project manager must carefully consider who the messages will be addressed to. The guideline is that the more the organization feels the reader, the more information should be compressed. According to information exchange in the organization adopted by Pelin (1990), the amount of information and frequency required decreases when we go to the organization. The problem of functional administration is rarely lack of information, but overload causes loss of information. The functional administration is usually only concerned with the planning (milestone) program, the accumulated costs and the overall quality of the final product. Details are not compulsory In the worst cases, they can hide more important problems and, therefore, reduce the inability of the relationship (Love 1989). 37 Figure 9: flow of information External communication External communication in projects means communication between the project and its pertinent environment, usually the customer and the end user organization. Managing functional organization is important for a project in order to reach and maintain organizational commitment. It is not so exceptional for functional organizations to have resistive forces that are not compatible with the project. Often, resistance and negative attitudes are the results of a lack of information. People simply do not know why the project was founded and where it is pointing. 38 To create a positive profile alone, the project should keep stakeholders aware of their goals and operations. Insufficient communication creates a void of news that will be full of voices (Choudhury, 1988). Internal communication Internal communication has two main priorities in a project: the steering committee and the project team. The Steering Committee is the main forum for decision-making in a project. Your job is to check and support the project manager. The interpersonal information exchange between the project and the customer organization and also the end-user organization takes place on the steering committee. Although most of the official decisions are taken by the Steering Committee, co-operation between the Project Manager and the Steering Committee should not be limited to meetings. By keeping contacts with the key committee members of the meetings, a project manager can also ensure that the steering committee is up-to-date on the performance of the project and that the decision-making process proceeds smoothly whenever necessary. Within the project team, effective communication is based on the key factor of project leadership: walking and talking administration. The most formal ways to communicate are the project team's regular meetings, reminders, and follow-up reports. Although a follow-up report can also serve as an external communication goal for a project, it is even more important as an internal communication channel. 3.6 Oman’s construction industry Generally, the construction industry of any country could be seen as having two main features sets that make it unique with respect to all the others. The first is the peculiarity of the construction industry that distinguishes it from other sectors. The second is the peculiarities of the construction sector of each country as defined by its socioeconomic level, technological 39 level, culture, institutional and legal frameworks. The first one was dealt with in the previous sections. This section, therefore, focused on the second aspect. Discusses industry configuration, project execution situations, and how efforts are required to improve performance through systematic measurement and administration. 3.6.1 The configuration of the construction industry The main stakeholders in the construction sector in Oman are clients, professional consultants, and contractors. Clientele In Oman, four major customers are distinguished: the government (which is the main customer), real estate developers, investors, and occupancy owners. In the past, the Oman government identified construction as a priority sector for foreign and private investment as part of its vision of promoting the private sector as a growth engine. According to the World Bank (2003) provided by Anvuur and Kumaraswamy (2006), the approximate annual value of public procurement of goods works, and consulting services amounts to $ 600 million. This accounts for about 10% of GDP in the country. This amount is part of most of the expenses of all government agencies, namely ministries, assemblies, departments, institutions and other agencies. The stipulation of contracts must strictly follow the rules and regulations of the Public Procurement Act as established in the law on the acquisition of the Oman Sultanate. The main acquisition agreement is the traditional race. The government as a client is represented by the Ministry of Roads and Transport and the Ministry of Water Resources, Works, and Housing. Real estate developers are also the other group of customers who make big investments in construction. They usually take loans and execute speculative constructions for sale. Their performance is generally affected by lending situations in the country. An interview with the 40 head of Oman’s property developers revealed that they expect additional government support to support them in their quest to help solve the housing problem in the country. In particular, they expected the government to include its association with its current affordable housing program. Investors are usually financial companies who decide to invest excess capital in building construction (Khan, 2008). The occupants of the owner are people who decide to build their homes to live. It was a tradition of Oman buying heads of land and hire qualified and unskilled workers to build houses for them. This tradition was rooted mainly because subsequent governments did not meet the population’s housing expectations. Some of these also occupy additional rooms in their homes to earn an income. Therefore, some of these occupying owners can progress to the level of private investors. Owners of property, therefore, constitute the largest number of customers in Oman, Oman each can be occupied by occupants. In general, they do not hire professional consultants. Professional consultants Professional consultants who regularly engage the government and other clients are architects, quantum geometers (QS), geodetic engineering (GE), structural engineers (St.E), electrical engineering (EE) and technicians (SE). Geodetic engineers often participate in road construction. All these professionals are governed by their own professional order, the Oman Architects Institute, the Oman Geometry Institute (ISG) for QS and GE ) the Oman Engineers Institute for the rest. Contractors Contractors in Oman are grouped into eight categories according to the type of work they are doing 41 (vi) General civil works (K) (vii) Electrical work (E) (viii) Hydraulic work (G) (i) Roads, airports and associated facilities (A) (ii) ). In each category, they are grouped into 4, 3, 2 and 1 financial classes in ascending order (Vulink, 2004). In addition, Dansoh (2005) emphasizes a combined AB category for road contractor. According to Dansoh (2005), Class 4 contractors can bid for up to $ 75,000 contracts; class 3 up to $ 200,000; class 2 up to $ 500,000. Classes 1 have contracts of all amounts whenever they are available. The research focused on projects implemented by category D and K contractors, together with categories E and G, which are generally contracted as subcontractors for this major contractor for general construction works. The E and G categories are the main contractors when the job is specialized in nature. The industry is dominated by a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises, namely Classes 3 and 4, particularly in categories D, Groups E, and G. This is mainly due to the fact that these companies can register with as little equipment as possible. For the most part, they are unique owners and are characterized by high rates of abandonment. This is because they are highly influenced by the nature of the boom and the slums of the sector in Oman. They are less organized and lack the resources to hire and maintain highly skilled work; their performance is usually lower than expected and often have been accused of producing “shabby” works. This is because there are often more jobs in its financial class than those who are above their limits, and because they form the largest group, their performance has a huge impact on the performance of the industry. Because of this, the Ministry’s classification has been criticized for being too generic and outdated with registration criteria, the list of contractors and monetary thresholds are not updated regularly (Eyiah and Cook 2003, World Bank, 1996). 42 The two upper classes are more organized and, therefore, are more stable, taking both larger and smaller jobs. However, these companies do not always employ highly skilled workers. Foreign contractors based in Oman can do it and, therefore, behave better. Vulink (2004) notes that due to the poor performance of Oman’s local contractors, most of the nation’s major projects are usually outsourced to foreign contractors who tend to deliver to customers satisfactorily. Assibey-Mensah (2008) attributes this to the “non-commercial culture” with which indigenous societies operate in Oman. Construction Procurement Following the acquisition law, Oman’s construction projects (government projects) are essentially arranged as a tripartite agreement between the client, the professional consultants, and the contractor. Customers, after making the decision to build, contact the principal consultant, usually the architect and other consultants. They provide professional advice to the government during the information phase. So they provide design, designate the qualified contractor, oversee execution, and pay advice, and finally complete the project. The following table describes the usual process of acquiring projects in Oman using the traditional system (adopted by the World Bank, 2003). Please note that the party concerned does not have an active role. Procuring a Public Construction Project in Oman Table 2: steps to be followed when procuring a public construction project in Oman 43 This meant that after the initial phase, the customer’s function is often limited to waiting for the final product. Consultants, led by their team leader (usually the architect, the geometry or the civil engineer, depending on the project or project manager, where appropriate) traditionally become not only project managers. Is also the only judge who evaluates and provides the verdict on the state of performance and customer satisfaction of the project. 3.7 Oman Construction Industry Performance The revision of the works of Crown Agents (1998), Westring (1997) and Anvuur and Kumaraswamy (2006), the performance of the construction industry in Oman is scarce and involves several problems ranging from contract administration through long payment measures and complex, delayed payments for project execution. It should be noted that the delay in paying customers to service providers (contractors and professionals) also affects payment of salaries and staff salaries. This is because sometimes these delays occur in several months and, therefore, these employers have difficulty in continuing to pay for their staff. The unskilled labor of contractors is the most disadvantageous aspect of the industry, which is considered one of the largest employers despite its commitment to work. Because of the representation of construction 44 workers in the active population of the country, this situation is reflected in Oman's common economic life. The opposite is also true. This could be compared to a period of freezing government projects. To some extent, in Oman, there are practical reasons to subscribe to the argument that the construction industry is a regulator of the Ashworth economy (2004). 45 CHAPTER 4 4.0 Research Methodology This chapter explains the measures in this study. It implies the availability and selection of appropriate research design; strategy and method that helped to address the key questions posed. The quantitative research strategy was adopted in this research because quantitative research follows a deductive approach in relation to theory and takes care of measuring design and sampling. The selection of professionals (interviewed) was limited to firms and/or project advisory agencies as well as contractors who represent construction contractors and road contractors respectively. The choice of this class of construction contractors was made on the basis that they were well-established companies that devote themselves to the services of these professionals. Consulting companies have included public institutions such as ministries, departments, and agencies responsible for infrastructure projects. The decision to focus on the Greater Oman region was based on the list obtained by the Association of Roads and Contractors, demonstrating that more than 65% of contractors were present in Oman. In addition, the limited time available for study and financial constraints did not allow the researcher to travel to other regions. Questionnaires were sent to 125 people, including clients, consultants, and contractors. Respondents were analyzed to determine the profile of respondents, the position of respondents and evaluate; if the respondents were familiar with the term project communication or construction communication. 46 4.1 Research strategy The quantitative strategy was adopted in this research because quantitative research follows a deductive approach in relation to theory and takes care of measuring design and sampling (Naoum, 2002). The strategy employs statistical techniques to identify accidental facts and relationships. Quantitative research is also an objective nature and is based on verifying a hypothesis or a theory of variables (Naoum 2002). Frechtling and Sharp (1997), cited by Naoum (2002), characterized the common data collection techniques used in quantitative research such as existing questionnaires, tests, and databases. Often, solid and reliable data is collected in quantitative research, and therefore the emphasis is on quantification. Samples collected are often large and representative. This means that the results of quantitative research can be generalized to a wider population within acceptable error limits. The question this research was looking for was how professionals communicate in a construction project. 4.2 Research design and its justification Researchers gather evidence when they ask someone's opinion. Then new attempts are made to determine the prevalent opinion within a particular group. A survey study was considered appropriate for this survey for three reasons: • Survey led to gathering data from a group, generalizing the outcome of the study to predict the attitude of the population of interest; • The survey questionnaire can be structured to provide information about the population of interest in a systematic and impartial manner; is • Allows statistical analysis of data and generalization to a wider population, making them suitable for building administration research. 47 Example of design process The objective of the sample is to obtain information about the population by observing only a small part that is the size of the sample. The purpose of this research was to understand how project professionals communicate on construction projects in Oman. As a result, the researcher has focused on professionals working with various project organizations in Oman, i.e. Contractors, consultants, etc. Population Definition The selection of professionals (interviewees) was limited to project consulting firms and/or agencies, as well as to contractors representing construction contractors and road contractors respectively. The choice of this class of construction contractors was made on the basis that they were well-established companies that devote themselves to the services of these professionals. The consulting companies included public institutions such as ministries, departments, and agencies responsible for the infrastructure project. The decision to focus on the Greater Oman region was based on the list obtained by the Association of Roads and Contractors, demonstrating that more than 65% of contractors were present in Oman. In addition, the limited time available for study and financial constraints did not allow the researcher to travel to other regions. Sampling techniques used Non-probabilistic sampling technique was used in this study. In probabilistic sampling, the decision to determine whether a particular element is included in the sample or not to be included is solely governed by the circumstances of a given case. The technique allows each individual to be randomly selected by chance. 48 Intentional sampling was used to identify key respondents who were professionals in these project organizations, Contractors, agencies, and consultants. This was due to the fact that the researcher required some categories of interviewees who had participated in many construction projects and therefore had greater experience in building construction communication to respond to questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the number of clients for the study due to the different types of professionals working with project clients such as ministries, departments, agencies, municipalities, district assemblies and financial institutions. This sampling technique was initially used to contact some potential respondents who were asked to provide names of people or organizations with the desired features so that the size of the sample would be reduced at a lower cost. As a result, professionals working with contractors and consultants have given the names of the customers they are dealing with. The list obtained from them was solved and the names of thirty (30) professionals working with the clients of the project were obtained and selected for research. Size of sample obtained According to Israel (1992), there are several approaches used to determine the size of the sample. These include the use of a census for small populations, the imitation of a sample size of similar studies, the use of published tables, and finally the application of formulas to calculate a sample size. For this study, the first and the second were applied. The total number of entrepreneurs with an adequate qualification working in the Oman area is 65 and in accordance with their associations (construction and contractors); each employing a minimum of three project professionals. Therefore, the population of professionals 49 working with these construction companies in Oman is one hundred and forty-five (195). The sample size was determined using the formula (Kish, 1965). Where n = sample size, N = total population = 195 s = maximum standard deviation in population elements p = percentage of population elements belonging to the defined category, ie p = 0.5 (confidence level) 95%) v = error standard of sampling distribution, ie v = 0,05 Therefore, solve for = 0.5 (0.5) = 0.25 = 0.052 = 0.0025, = 100 n = 100 / (1 + 100/195) = 66 The sample size formula as the one used above provides the minimum number of responses to be obtained. From previous work, researchers such as Cochran (1963) and Israel (1992) commonly add 10% to sample size to offset people whose researcher cannot contact. Therefore, about 7, representing 10% of 66, would be added to the size of the sample. Therefore, a total of seventy (73) questionnaires will be personally sent to professionals working in contractors offices in Oman. This is because the population of building professionals working in consulting companies and government agencies was difficult to obtain. The sample size (n) for professionals working with clients and consultants in Oman for this study was 30 each. This was considered purely in terms of the convenient sampling method. The total sample size used for this survey was one hundred and eighty (133). 4.3 Data collection Based on the objectives and the research questions, the questionnaire was developed to get a large number of project professionals. Therefore, the questionnaire was prepared and selfadministered to the different interviewees. The questionnaire was composed of closed questions. 50 For the purposes of the study, the questions were grouped into three categories. The first set of questions about the respondent's profile. This was intended to know the background and the experience of the respondents. 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(1993), The Administration of a Design Process: The Case of Architectural and Urban Projects, Bartlett Research, Paper No. 1. U.S. Army. (1983). Military Leadership (FM 22-100). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Walker, A. (2002), Project Administration in Construction, Blackwell Science. World Bank (2003) Oman 2003 Country Procurement Assessment Report, Washington, DC: Oman Country Department, The World Bank. 59 3 Appendix One Research topic: An Assessment of Project Communication Administration on Construction Projects in Oman Introduction As in any other business discipline, the importance of communication can not be overestimated in project administration. Statistics show that seventy-four percent of the projects are unsuccessful. One of the many factors contributing to the failure of these projects is poor or insufficient communication. For this reason, it is necessary to evaluate the current project administration communication in the construction sector in Oman. Therefore, this research is carried out to find out which major stakeholders are involved in any construction project (eg customer, consultant, and contractor), how opinion communication is conducted and whether this has an effect on the delivery of projects in Oman. This study is realized as part of a postgraduate study. I believe that interested parties will provide practical and convincing answers to the following questions for a good report. Thanks in advance for your contribution to this research study 60

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