Essay Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change

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Question description

- Choose a health topic and create an intervention to address that issue. In your outline essay you should identify the health issue, the target audience, describe the intervention, and any expected outcomes. The foundation of the intervention must be based on one of the following theories Health Belief Model, Ecological Model, or Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change.

- Also I will provide an example of that and the example is about HIV (don't copy or take the same example)

Health Science: Human and Social Dimension Dr. M. L. Holt Lecture Three Morgan State University Let’s Review Ecological Model The microsystem's setting is the direct environment we have in our lives. The mesosytem involves the relationships between the microsystems in one's life The exosystem is the setting in which there is a link between the context where in the person does not have any active role, and the context where in is actively participating. The macrosystem setting is the actual culture of an individual. Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework cont. Ecological Model Social Exclusion Social Exclusion A dynamic, multidimensional process driven by unequal power relationships Exclusion process operates along four main dimensions Economic 2. Political 3. Social 4. Cultural 1.  At different levels including individual, household, group, community, country and global regional levels. Psychological Health Psychology The study of the thinking or mental (cognitive) process that influence human behavior Involves the ability to deal effectively with psychological challenges in life The qualities of ones psychological health often affects the other components of health such as social, spiritual, and physical health Physiology The study of body functions and psychology Self Esteem A key component of personality that influences an individuals thoughts, actions, and feelings High Self Esteem A high degree of independence Are satisfied with themselves Accept challenges and work well with others Low Self Esteem Have difficulty making decisions Resist changing their behavior Resent any form of criticism, even if it is constructive Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale Question 1. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself 2. * At times, I think I am not good at all 3. I feel like I have a number of good qualities 4. I am able to do thinks as well as most other people 5. * I feel I do not have much to be proud of 6. * I certainly feel useless at times 7. I feel that I’m a person of worth, at least on a equal plane with others 8. * I wish I could have more respect for myself 9. * All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure 10. I take a positive attitude toward myself Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale Scoring [Questions with * (2,5,6,8,9)] SA = 0 A=1 D=2 SD = 3 Scoring SA = 3 A=2 D=1 SD = 0 Score – 15-25 is the normal range. Lower than 14 in the low self esteem range Physiological Illness Psychosis a severe type of mental illness characterized by disorganized thoughts and unreal perceptions that result in strange behavior, isolation, delusions, and hallucinations Delusions inaccurate or unreasonable beliefs that often result in decision making errors Hallucinations false sensory perceptions that have not apparent external cause, but they are real to the psychotic individual Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Condition characterized by uncontrollable chronic worrying and nervousness Phobia A intense or irrational fear of an object or a situation Panic Disorder Features panic attacks, unpredictable episodes of extreme anxiety, and loss of emotional control Anxiety Disorders cont. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) occur after you have gone through an extreme emotional trauma that involved the threat of injury or death Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) an anxiety disorder in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations (obsessions), or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions) Impulse Control Disorders Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Characterized by short attention span and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that results in serious social impairment Problem Gambling Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder Persistent and profound sadness, hopelessness, helplessness, and feelings of worthlessness; lack of energy; loss of interest in activities Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression) Unusual shifts in mood, energy, and physical activity levels, and ability to carry out daily task Seasonal Affective Disorder Persons become depressed around mid-fall and late fall and their depression ends in late winter and early spring Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Severe psychological disturbance in which an individual refuses to eat enough food to maintain a healthy weight Bulimia Nervosa Characterized by a craving for food that is difficult to satisfy Binge Eating Disorder a pattern of eating excessive amounts of food in response to distress such as anxiety or depression Other Disorders Schizophrenia People who experience extreme disorganized thought processes, including hallucinations and delusions Suicide The deliberate ending of one’s own life Questions???
CHAPTER 3 The Health Belief Model Historical Perspectives • Early 1952: U.S. Public Health Service hired G. Hochbaum to study the reasons for low participation in TB screening programs • Geoffrey Hochbaum, along with Stephen Kegels and Irwin Rosenstock, proposed the basic health belief model (HBM) in the late 1950s • Expanded in the 1980s by Becker • Based on general principles of value expectancy—desire to avoid sickness (value), belief in availability of preventive tools (expectancy) Constructs of the HBM Constructs of the HBM • Perceived susceptibility: Belief of a person regarding the possibility of acquiring a disease or harmful state as a result of a particular behavior • Define population at risk (apply descriptive epidemiology) • Personalize risk (discussion, role play, simulation, case study) • Consistent with actual risk (apply analytical epidemiology) Constructs of the HBM (cont’d) • Perceived severity: Belief of a person regarding the extent of harm that can result from the acquired disease or harmful state as a result of a particular behavior – Specify consequences of the risk and the condition (lecture, discussion, self-reflection, case study, case narration, video presentation) © Constructs of the HBM (cont’d) • Perceived benefits: Belief of a person regarding the usefulness of the methods suggested for reducing risk or seriousness of the disease or harmful state resulting from a particular behavior – Define action to take (clear steps, specific demonstration, re-demonstration) – Clarify the positive effects to be expected (discussion, lecture, self-reading, video presentation, computer-aided presentation) Constructs of the HBM (cont’d) • Perceived barriers: Belief of a person regarding actual and imagined costs of performing the new behavior • Reassurance (one-on-one counseling, case study, discussion, active listening) • Correction of misinformation (lecture, video presentation, role play) • Incentives (tangible and intangible aids, verbal encouragement, case accounts) • Assistance (providing services, transportation) Constructs of the HBM (cont’d) • Cues to action: Precipitating force that makes the person feel the need to take action – Provide how-to information (lecture, demonstration, re-demonstration, role play) – Employ reminder system (buddy system, log, diary, Post-it notes) Constructs of the HBM (cont’d) • Self-efficacy: Belief or confidence to perform a behavior – Provide training in small steps (demonstration, re-demonstration) – Progressive goal setting (self-reflection, diary) – Verbal reinforcement (one-on-one counseling) – Reduce anxiety (stress management techniques)
Health Science: Human and Social Dimension Dr. M. L. Holt Lecture Five Morgan State University S Health Belief Model S Contains several primary constructs that predict why people will take action to prevent for, screen for, or to control illness conditions; these include S Susceptibility S Seriousness S Benefits and barriers to behaviors S Cues to action S Self efficacy Health Belief Model cont.
CHAPTER 6 Theories of Stress and Coping Stress • Stress is the response of – Body – Mind – Behaviors • As a result of – Encountering environmental events (stressors) – Interpreting these events – Making judgments about controlling or influencing these events Let’s Review Transactional Model • Primary appraisal • Am I OK or am I in trouble? • Judgment based on past; knowledge about oneself, about event; influence on others • Secondary appraisal • How much control do I have over the threat? Transactional Model (cont’d) • Coping • Application of means identified • Reappraisal • Determining whether the original stressor has been negated Types of Coping • Problem-focused coping – Based on one’s capability to think and alter the environmental event or situation • Emotion-focused coping – Based on focusing inward on altering the way one thinks or feels about a situation or an event Problem-Focused Coping • Examples of this strategy at the thought process level include: – Utilization of problem-solving skills – Interpersonal conflict resolution – Advice seeking – Time management – Goal setting – Gathering information about what is causing one stress Problem-Focused Coping (cont’d) • Examples of this strategy at the behavioral or action level include activities such as: – Joining a smoking cessation program – Compliance with a prescribed medical treatment – Adherence to a diabetic diet plan – Scheduling and prioritizing tasks for managing time Emotion-Focused Coping • Examples of this strategy at the thought process level include: – Denying the existence of the stressful situation – Freely expressing emotions – Avoiding the stressful situation – Making social comparisons – Minimization or looking at the bright side of things Emotion-Focused Coping (cont’d) • Examples of this strategy at the behavioral or action level include: – Seeking social support – Use of exercise – Relaxation – Meditation – Support groups ©

Tutor Answer

Nicholas I
School: University of Maryland

Hi, kindly find attached

Surname 1

Student’s name
Professor’s name
Course title
Essay Outline
Topic: Best Interventions for Cancer

A brief description of the health condition.

(a) Can lead to death if the disease not diagnosed and treated in early stages early

It’s not transmissible or communicable


Can be caused by unhealthy lifestyles and exposure to considerable doses of both ionizing

and non-ionizing doses. Can also be caused by exposure to nuclear emissions or heavy metals
like lead and Mercury.
(d) Cancer can be prevented and avoided through leading a healthy lifestyle, for example,
restraining from the use of carcinogenic substances, and preventing or reducing exposure to
ionizing radiations and nuclear emissions.

Theory was chosen: Health Belief Model which consists of the following constructs;
Perceived susceptibility. Entails a person’s belief concerning a specific health condition as

well as the chance of acquiring the disease due to a particular behavior

Surname 2
(b) Perceived severity. Concerns the notion of a person about the degree of harm that may
result from infection and as a result of specific behavior.

Perceived benefits. These are individual beliefs about the how useful and or efficient the

methods of reducing the severity of a health condition are.
(d) Perceived barriers. Consists of the various beliefs of a person regarding the real and
proposed costs of adopting a new behavior.

Cues to actions. It is the urge in person that makes them want to take action.


Self-efficacy. This is the con...

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