Article Critique evaluate the effect of physical literacy on children

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For this Assignment, you will critically evaluate a scholarly article related to factorial ANOVA (ARTICLE IS ATTACHED)

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The Assignment

Write a 2- to 3-page critique of the research that includes responses to the following prompts:

  • Why did the authors select factorial ANOVA in the research?
  • Do you think this test was the most appropriate choice? Why or why not?
  • Did the authors display the results in a figure or table?
  • Does the results table stand alone? In other words, are you able to interpret the study from it? Why or why not?

The Physical Educator Vol. 73 • pp. 745–756 • 2016 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Effect of Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness on the Physical Activity and Fitness Knowledge of At-Risk Inner-City Children Timothy A. Brusseau, Ryan D. Burns, James C. Hannon Abstract SHAPE America has highlighted the importance of developing physically literate children as part of quality physical education programming. Unfortunately, most children know little about physical activity and health-related fitness. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity and fitness content knowledge of at-risk inner-city children and determine if students who accumulate more physical activity, do more PACER laps, and/or have a lower BMI have higher levels of knowledge. Participants included 569 inner-city children (300 girls, 269 boys) from the Southwest USA who completed the PE Metrics knowledge test, wore a pedometer for 1 school week, completed the PACER test, and had their height and weight measured. Two-way and three-way factorial ANOVA tests were used to examine potential differences between genders, between grades, and among tertiles of physical activity and health-related fitness performance on the PE Metrics knowledge test. On average, students scored 38% on the PE Metrics knowledge test. Boys and girls scored similarly, sixth Timothy A. Brusseau is assistant professor, Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Recreation, University of Utah. Ryan D. Burns is postdoctoral research associate, Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Recreation, University of Utah. James C. Hannon is professor, Department of Coaching and Teaching Studies, West Virginia University. Please send author correspondence to 745 graders scored lower than fourth and fifth graders, and children who were in the low and high BMI tertiles scored higher than children in the medium tertile (p < 0.05). As school day step counts and PACER laps increased, knowledge scores trended higher. At-risk youth need additional opportunities to learn content knowledge related to physical activity and fitness. Increased physical activity and aerobic fitness were related to small increases in knowledge scores. Future interventions should focus on child behavior and knowledge. One of the objectives of physical education programs is to develop physically literate children who possess the knowledge and skills to participate in activity for a lifetime (Society of Health and Physical Educators, 2013). Knowledge about physical activity (PA) and physical fitness has been highlighted as important for individuals to be active for a lifetime (Zhu, Safarit, & Cohen, 1999). Studies have suggested that children do not have the requisite knowledge needed to adopt healthy behaviors (Desmond, Price, Smith, Smith, & Stewart, 1990; Hopple & Graham, 1995; Keating, Chen, Guan, Harrison, & Dauenhauer, 2009; Liang et al., 1993; Prewitt et al., 2015). More specifically, Kulinna (2004) examined this in an elementary school with the use of health-related knowledge portfolio tasks. The author discovered that the students lacked strong content knowledge; for example, more than 50% of the third to sixth grade students were unable to list four aerobic activities. Brusseau, Kulinna, and Cothran (2011) further examined students’ knowledge using similar portfolio tasks with two American Indian communities. Students completed health-related fitness and PA behavior portfolio tasks, and the results indicated that students across all grade levels held many misconceptions and misunderstandings of these concepts. Furthermore, researchers found that only 7% of third grade students were able to describe why PA is important. More recently, Hodges, Hodges Kulinna, and Lee (2014) found that the average score for over 700 suburban fifth graders was under 50% on the PE Metrics (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE], 2010) PA and fitness test. The evidence on students’ lack of knowledge is disappointing given that these findings have been evident for 2 decades (Hopple & Graham, 1995). Spiegel and Foulk (2006) suggested that knowledge of PA behaviors can be the foundation that encourages people to engage in 746 Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness more PA throughout their lifetimes. This was found to contain some validity, as other researchers have found that individuals engaging in more activity during leisure time had greater knowledge (Dale, Corbin, & Cuddihy, 1998; DiLorenzo, Stucky-Ropp, Vander Wal, & Gotham, 1998). DiLorenzo et al. (1998) discovered that exercise knowledge is one of a few key determinants to students’ PA participation. Furthermore, conceptual-based physical education (CPE), a model that teaches health knowledge in the classroom partnered with PA opportunities, has also been found to influence PA patterns positively during leisure time (Dale et al., 1998). More specifically, they reported that after a yearlong CPE program, secondary students significantly increased their PA levels when compared to students with both traditional PE and control students. Therefore, to date the literature has begun to suggest that if students gain additional knowledge, they often engage in more PA. Despite this, little effort has been made to explore the relationship, if any, between knowledge and body composition or aerobic fitness. Therefore, the purpose of this manuscript was to determine if PA patterns (steps counts), aerobic fitness (PACER), or BMI had an effect on the fitness and PA content knowledge of ethnically diverse elementary school children from low-income and inner-city families. It was hypothesized that children who accumulated more steps, had higher PACER scores, and lower BMI would score better on the PE Metrics fitness and PA knowledge test. A secondary purpose was to explore differences on PE Metrics performance by grade and gender. Method Participants Participants were 569 (300 girls, 269 boys) fourth to sixth grade students from three inner-city Title 1 schools. Ninety-four percent of participating youth came from low-income (83% free and 11% reduced lunch) families, and the sample was 86% ethnic minority —63% Hispanic, 14% Caucasian, 7% Pacific Islander, 6% Black, 5% Asian, 3% American Indian, and 2% multiracial. Instruments Physical activity and physical fitness knowledge test. SHAPE America endorses the PE Metrics (NASPE, 2010) test, which was Brusseau, Burns, Hannon 747 used to examine PA and physical fitness knowledge in this study. The instrument has been suggested as a valid and reliable assessment tool (Dyson & Williams, 2012; Zhu et al., 2011) and has been used in research (Hodges et al., 2014) with this age group. More specifically, the research team used the Standards 3 and 4 fifth grade test that contained 28 multiple-choice questions, of which 15 were randomly selected to fit the time frame for testing the children at the beginning of a physical education class. Pedometers. PA was measured using Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometers (Tokyo, Japan). The devices were worn for 5 school days (Monday through Friday) between the hours of 8 a.m. and 3 p.m. Instruments were worn on the hip at the level of the iliac crest above the knees on the right hip. Classroom teachers, physical educators, and members of the research team ensured that the devices were worn the entire school day. The pedometers included a 7-day memory that was used to record steps each day of the school week. Yamax DigiWalker models have been shown to provide an accurate recording of steps within ± 3% of actual steps (Schneider, Crouter, Lukajic, & Bassett, 2003), and have been shown to be a valid measure of free-living PA (Crouter, Schneider, Karbulut, & Bassett, 2003). Health-related fitness. BMI was calculated using standard procedures taking a student’s weight in kilograms divided by the square or his or her height in meters. Height was measured to the nearest 0.01 m using a portable stadiometer (Seca 213; Hanover, MD, USA), and weight was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg using a portable medical scale (BD-590; Tokyo, Japan). Height and weight were collected in the hallway during each student’s physical education class. Aerobic fitness was measured using the 20-m Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER), administered during each student’s physical education class. The PACER was conducted on a marked gymnasium floor with background music provided by a compact disc. Each student was instructed to run from one floor marker to another floor marker across a 20-m distance within an allotted time frame. The allotted time given to reach the specified distance incrementally shortened as the test progressed. If the student twice failed to reach the other floor marker, the test was terminated (Meredith & Welk, 2010). The final score was recorded in laps. 748 Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness Procedures During three consecutive weeks during the winter of 2015, research team members worked with physical education teachers to collect PACER scores and height and weight during class. Half the class completed the PACER with one research team member, and the other half played a game with the physical education teacher, with students being called out to have their height and weight measured. Approximately halfway through class, the groups switched stations (no order effect was found between students who tested first and students who tested second). During a separate class, members of the research team administered the knowledge assessment test following a specific protocol during which each question and answer was read to the students, with an approximately 20–30-s wait time for each question. Analyses BMI, PACER, and pedometer steps were stratified into tertiles of approximately equal number. The preliminary descriptive analysis included running a 2 × 3 factorial ANOVA test to examine the differences between genders and among grade levels on PA, health-related fitness, and the PE Metrics knowledge test scores. The alpha level was adjusted using the Bonferroni method to account for analysis on multiple dependent variables. The primary analysis consisted of a 3 × 3 × 3 factorial ANOVA test to examine differences among tertiles of BMI, PACER, and pedometer steps on the PE Metrics knowledge scores. A Tukey post hoc test was employed for any statistically significant main effects from the three-way ANOVA. All analyses had an initial alpha level of p ≤ 0.05 and were carried out using STATA (14.0) statistical software package (College Station, TX, USA). Results On average, students scored 38% on the PE Metrics knowledge test. Table 1 highlights the means and standard deviations on the PE Metrics knowledge test (raw score out of 15) by gender, grade level, and tertile groupings for PA and health-related fitness. A statistically significant main effect was found for grade level on knowledge test scores, F(2, 180) = 3.89, p = 0.02. Tukey post hoc tests revealed that children in Grades 4 and 5 scored higher on the knowledge test Brusseau, Burns, Hannon 749 compared to children in Grade 6. A statistically significant main effect was also found for BMI on PA knowledge, F(2, 180) = 3.64, p = 0.03. Post hoc tests revealed that children in the high BMI tertile and children in the low BMI tertile scored higher on the PA knowledge test compared to children in the medium BMI tertile. No other main effects were found, but there were trends that children with higher PACER scores and who accumulated higher step counts scored higher on the PE Metrics knowledge test. Table 1 Knowledge Scores by Gender, Grade, Physical Activity, Aerobic Fitness, and BMI Category Gender Male Female Combined Grade 4 5 6* School Step Counts High Medium Low PACER Laps High Medium Low BMI High Medium* Low Knowledge score SD 95% CI 5.69 5.83 5.77 3.34 2.84 3.06 5.29, 6.09 5.51, 6.15 5.52, 6.02 6.02 6.07 4.34 2.99 2.99 3.10 5.59, 6.45 5.64, 6.50 3.90, 4.78 5.75 5.57 5.22 2.68 2.98 2.73 5.37, 6.12 5.15, 5.99 4.83, 5.60 5.82 5.75 5.41 3.11 3.36 2.7 5.38, 6.46 5.27, 6.22 5.03, 5.79 6.31 4.93 6.13 3.07 2.93 3.09 5.87, 6.75 4.72, 5.14 5.91, 6.35 *Significantly different when compared to other groups. 750 Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness Discussion Similar to children in previous research (Brusseau, Kulinna, & Cothran, 2011; Kulinna, 2004), the children in this study lacked overall content knowledge. In fact, the average score was 38.5%. These scores are lower than those in the previous study in which PE Metrics was used (Hodges et al., 2014) and indicate lower knowledge when compared across other studies (Hopple & Graham, 1995; Kulinna, 2004). These scores are concerning, especially considering the lack of PA in low-income inner-city youth (Trost et al., 2013). Although we know that PA decreases with age and grade, we anticipated that as students advanced in grade, they would have performed better on the knowledge test simply by accumulating more knowledge over time. We found that fourth and fifth graders performed similarly on the test and sixth graders scored significantly lower compared to the earlier grades, which we believe might be related to the sixth graders feeling they were “too cool” to take the test and not taking it as seriously as the younger students did. There were no significant differences by gender, which is similar to results in previous research (Brusseau, Kulinna, & Cothran, 2011). This is important because the literature (Harmon, Brusseau, Collier, & Lenz, 2013) makes it clear that inner-city ethnic minority boys at this age are more active than girls. Furthermore, boys outperformed girls on the PACER, which correlates to previous studies of aerobic fitness in at-risk youth (Brusseau, Finkelstein, Kulinna, & Pangrazi, 2014). It appears as if knowledge does not help to alleviate the natural gender difference in PA or aerobic fitness, as boys were more active and fit in the current sample (5,194 steps and 40.3 PACER laps for boys; 4,498 steps and 34.4 PACER laps for girls; Δ = 696 steps, Δ = 5.9 laps). Our findings suggest that knowledge is not dependent on either grade or gender. It is important to note that these three schools did not offer any type of health education and that this content (health-related fitness and PA) was not directly covered in academic subjects, although science classes did cover material related to the health of the human body. Furthermore, physical education was a traditional model that only met 1 day/week. Because of the time constraints, the physical education paraprofessionals focused exclusively on trying to get children active during class. Another potential issue is that classes were taught by paraprofessionals. Research has started to inBrusseau, Burns, Hannon 751 dicate that classes taught by nonspecialists result in less PA (Hannon, Destani, McGladrey, Williams, & Hill, 2013) and in more time managing children (Hall, Larson, Heinemann, & Brusseau, 2015). It appears to be important for schools (especially inner-city schools) to find a way to incorporate content knowledge related to PA and fitness. Of importance to our findings were the small (but not significant) trends that the more active the child, the better he or she performed on the knowledge test. We anticipated these findings; however, we would have expected a much larger change score. Out of 15 questions, the difference between the low active group and the high active group was only a half question. These findings contradict the previous explorations, suggesting increased knowledge is related to significantly increased PA (i.e., DiLorenzo et al., 1998). Similar to the step count trends with knowledge, knowledge slightly increased with increases in PACER laps. This change again was small, < .5 question. To our knowledge, this is the first study to look at differences in fitness content knowledge in comparison to actual aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness is an important component for the health (Janssen & LeBlanc, 2010) and the cognition (Chaddock-Heyman, Hillman, Cohen, & Kramer, 2014) of children, and we suggest that improved knowledge of this concept can only help with changing the needed behavior. Body composition did not relate to increases in knowledge, which differs from the role that body composition has in the literature in which both PA (Brusseau, Kulinna, Tudor-Locke, et al., 2011) and physical fitness (Stratton et al., 2007) improve when children’s BMI decreases. This might be associated with the overall increases in BMI (Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2012) in youth and the concept that youth can be fat and fit (Hainer, Toplak, & Stich, 2009). Future research needs to replicate our work with children from different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds to help make the findings more generalizable. Similarly, it is clear that content knowledge needs to be targeted in research and practical programming in schools to address the concerning findings of our work. 752 Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness Conclusion In conclusion, at-risk inner-city children in this sample lacked PA and fitness knowledge. Although the lack of knowledge is not new, the low scores compared to those in previous research is especially alarming considering that these children often lack the access and opportunity to become physically active, which have been consistently shown as barriers to activity (Sallis, Prochaska, & Taylor, 2000). Increased opportunities for PA and improved knowledge should be considered when planning future interventions. References Brusseau, T. A., Finkelstein, T., Kulinna, P. H., & Pangrazi, C. (2014). Health-related fitness of American Indian youth. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 85, 257–261. 1080/02701367.2014.893050 Brusseau, T. A., Kulinna, P. H., & Cothran, D. J. (2011). Physical activity content knowledge of Native American children. The Physical Educator, 68, 66–77. Brusseau, T. A., Kulinna, P. H., Tudor-Locke, C., Ferry, M., van der Mars, H., & Darst, P. W. (2011). Pedometer-determined segmented physical activity patterns of fourth- and fifth-grade children. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8(2), 279. Chaddock‐Heyman, L., Hillman, C. H., Cohen, N. J., & Kramer, A. F. (2014). III. The importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for cognitive control and memory in children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 79(4), 25–50. https:// Crouter, S. E., Schneider, P. L., Karabulut, M., & Bassett, D. R. (2003). Measuring steps, distance, and energy cost. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35, 1455–1460. MSS.0000078932.61440.A2 Dale, D., Corbin, C. B., & Cuddihy, T. F. (1998) Can conceptual physical education promote physically active lifestyles? Pediatric Exercise Science, 10, 97–109. Desmond, S. M., Price, J. H., Smith, R. S., Smith, D., & Stewart, P. W. (1990). Urban Black and White adolescents’ physical fitness status and perceptions of exercise. Journal of School Health, 60, 313–314. Brusseau, Burns, Hannon 753 Dilorenzo, T. M., Stucky-Ropp, R. C., Vander Wal, J. S., & Gotham, H. J. (1998). Determinants of exercise among children: A longitudinal analysis. Preventive Medicine, 27, 470–477. https://doi. org/10.1006/pmed.1998.0307 Dyson, B. P., & Williams, L. H. (2012). The role of PE Metrics in physical education teacher education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, & Dance, 83(5), 29–32. 0.1080/07303084.2012.10598777 Hainer, V., Toplak, H., & Stich, V. (2009). Fat or fit: What is more important? Diabetes Care, 32(Suppl. 2), S392–S397. https://doi. org/10.2337/dc09-S346 Hall, A., Larson, J. N., Heinemann, A., & Brusseau, T. A. (2015). Frequency and type of reinstruction strategies used by paraprofessionals and licensed teachers in elementary physical education settings. The Physical Educator, 72, 433–444. Hannon, J. C., Destani, F., McGladrey, B., Williams, S., & Hill, G. (2013). Physical activity levels, lesson contexts, and teacher behaviors in elementary physical education classes taught by paraeducators. International Journal of Elementary Education, 2, 23–26. Harmon, J., Brusseau, T. A., Collier, D., & Lenz, E. (2013). Habitual physical activity patterns of inner-city children. Human Movement, 14, 305–309. Hodges, M., Hodges Kulinna, P., & Lee, C. (2014). Teaching healthy behaviour knowledge in primary school physical education. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 6(1), 33–39. bhk-2014-0006 Hopple C., & Graham, G. (1995). What children think, feel, and know about physical fitness testing. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 14, 408–417. Janssen, I., & LeBlanc, A. G. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7. Keating, X. D., Chen, L., Guan, J., Harrison, L., & Dauenhauer, B. (2009). Urban minority 9th grade pupils’ health-related fitness knowledge. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80, 747– 755. 754 Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness Kulinna, P. H. (2004). Physical activity and fitness knowledge: How much 1–6 grade pupils know? International Journal of Physical Education, 41, 111–121. Liang, M. T., Dombrowski, H. T., Allen, T. W., Chang, C. O., Andriulli, J., Bastianelli, M., & Norris, S. D. (1993). Do medical pupils’ knowledge and attitudes about health and exercise affect their physical fitness? Journal of American Osteopathic Association, 93, 1020–1024. Meredith, M. D., & Welk, G. J. (2010). Fitnessgram/Actvitygram test administration manual (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (2010). PE Metrics: Assessing national standards 1–6 in elementary school. Reston, VA: Author. Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2012). Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999–2010. JAMA, 307, 483–490. Prewitt, S. L., Hannon, J. C., Colquitt, G., Brusseau, T. A., Newton, M., & Shaw, J. (2015). Effect of personalized system of instruction on health-related fitness knowledge and class time physical activity. The Physical Educator, 72, 23–39. Sallis, J. F., Prochaska, J. J., & Taylor, W. C. (2000). A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32, 963–975. https:// Schneider, P. L., Crouter, S. E., Lukajic, O., & Bassett, D. R. (2003). Accuracy and reliability of 10 pedometers for measuring steps over a 400-m walk. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35, 1779–1784. C4 Society of Health and Physical Educators. (2013). National standards for K–12 physical education. Reston, VA: Author. Spiegel, S. A., & Foulk, D. (2006) Reducing overweight through a multidisciplinary school-based intervention. Obesity, 14, 88–96. Brusseau, Burns, Hannon 755 Stratton, G., Canoy, D., Boddy, L. M., Taylor, S. R., Hackett, A. F., & Buchan, I. E. (2007). Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index of 9–11-year-old English children: A serial cross-sectional study from 1998 to 2004. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 1172–1178. Trost, S. G., McCoy, T. A., Vander Veur, S. S., Mallya, G., Duffy, M. L., & Foster, G. D. (2013). Physical activity patterns of inner-city elementary schoolchildren. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45, 470–474. MSS.0b013e318275e40b Zhu, W., Rink, J., Placek, J. H., Graber, K. C., Fox, C., Fisette, J. L., . . . Raynes, D. (2011). PE Metrics: Background, testing theory, and methods. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 15(2), 87–99. 7X.2011.568363 Zhu, W., Safarit, M., & Cohen, A. (1999). The national health-related physical fitness knowledge test: FitSmart test user manual (High school ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 756 Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness Copyright of Physical Educator is the property of Sagamore Publishing and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
1 Article Critique Assignment: Week # Student Name Here XXXX University 2 Article Critique Assignment: Week # Write the APA formatted reference of this article here. Make sure it is completely APA formatted. Please note that the information in the announcement will not be APA. You need to learn how to put references in APA format. (Make sure you are using the article assigned for the week!!) Introduction Write a one paragraph summary of the article including why the research was done, what they found, and implications for social change (no more than 1 page). Critique of Article/Research Study In paragraph form, write a 2-3 page critique of the article you were assigned to read for the assignment. In this section you should consider the items asked in the directions for the assignment but do not copy and paste the questions into your paper and answer them one after another. A critique is not a summary (retelling) of the article and what the authors did. A critique is a combination of a short summary of what you are critiquing and then a critique of it (Was what they did appropriate? Why or why not? What would you have potentially done differently? Why? Did they follow best research practices? How do you know?). Here are some of the things you should consider when critiquing a research article (do not just copy and paste these questions into the critique—this is just to give you an idea of what types of things to address—you don’t have to address everything but should have 2-3 pages of critique in this section—double spaced): Critique of Literature Review 3 • • • • • • • Was the problem clearly articulated and was ample evidence provided to support the problem being addressed? Was the theoretical or conceptual framework present, was its relationship to the present study described, and was it appropriate to the problem being addressed? Was the literature cited appropriate to the topic? Was the literature primarily from current sources (within 5 years of the article publication date)? Did the author choose citations judiciously, or were did it appear that quantity of citations was emphasized over quality? Does the literature review present a clear and non-biased approach to the topic? Were the research questions and / or hypotheses clearly stated? Do they logically derive from the literature review? Critique of Methods/Research Design • • • • • • • • • • • Were the participants adequately described in terms of population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and sampling strategy? Is the sample representative of the population? Is there support that the sample size ensures adequate statistical power? Was there a statement indicating that IRB approval was obtained? Were procedures for protecting participant rights included? Were the procedures for executing the design carefully described in a way that you or other scientists could replicate the study? Is the role and activity of the researcher in the data collection setting/sites described? Were reliability and validity measures of questionnaires, scales, or other measurement instruments presented? Do measures exhibit adequate reliability and validity? Were instruments used in populations for which they may not have been normed? Was there effort made to ensure reliability and validity in the study sample? Was the design appropriate to test the hypothesis(es) or address the research questions? Was random assignment used? If not, what are the potential flaws to internal and external validity? Critique of Results Section • Are the important characteristics of the sample described? • Are participation rates (and attrition rates in longitudinal studies) described? For longitudinal studies, was differential attrition determined? • Were key descriptive statistics provided for all variables? • Do the results address the hypotheses under question? 4 • • Are tables and figures used effectively? Were tables not used when they would have been very helpful to the reader? Are effect sizes and p-values reported for all inferential findings? Were they appropriate? Critique of Discussion Section • Are the results discussed in the context of the research presented in the literature review section? • Are methodological limitations adequately addressed? Think in terms of sample representativeness, generalizability of results, and potential threats to internal and external validity. • Are implications for further research described? • Are implications for practitioners described? • Is the contribution/significance to the field in relation to the continuum of inquiry clear? You do not need to cite the article you are critiquing but you do need to cite any materials that you use in critiquing the article from other sources. If you do cite other resources you will need to add an APA formatted reference list on the last page of the paper. Make sure that you are not giving non-human things human characteristics in your paper. This means things like “this study concluded”. A study cannot conclude something but you can say things like “these authors concluded”. In addition, when you talk about research that has been done in the past or published materials you need to talk about them in the past tense. Conclusion In your conclusion write a paragraph about what your overall thoughts about the article were and if you found the article to be useful as well as why or why not. Also include if you think this article would be helpful to another researcher and why/why not. 5 References Include any references you used in your paper other than the article you critiqued in APA format.

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Nicholas I
School: UIUC

Hi, kindly find attached



Physical Activity
Student’s Name



The research was done to evaluate the effect of physical literacy on children's health and
fitness lifestyle. Moreover, the research was aimed at finding out how children's fitness had a
positive impact on the children's brilliantness. It covered a scope o0f inner-city children, a total
of five hundred and sixty-nine children between the fourth grade and the fifth grade. The total
number of boys was two hundred and sixty-nine while the girls were three hundred. The data
analysis was done through several PACER tests which were later analyzed by using two of the
factorial ANOVA tests or three to three. The research carried out in South West America was
diversified regarding g...

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