When you are ready, respond to the topics below.
Please review the Discussion Board grading rubric in the course Syllabus. Discussion responses should be on topic, original, and contribute to the quality of the discussion by making frequent informed references to lesson materials and Seminars. Initial discussion responses should be around 100 words. Responses to your classmates or instructor should be around 50 words.
Make two or more responses to classmates that are thoughtful and advance the discussion. If there are multiple topics, please be sure to respond to each one. The Post are listed below.
Initial Post : Explain the significance of any two historical achievements in proving the role of microorganisms in human health and disease and maintaining health of the environment. Be sure to describe the current classification of microorganisms.
DISCUSSION POST #1
Hello Dr. Miller and class,
Edward Jenner an English surgeon, discovered in 1796, a young milkmaid who had been exposed to cowpox, which is relatively harmless, were protected from smallpox. This made Jenner theorize that by intentionally giving individuals cowpox, this would protect them from smallpox and prevent transmission from one person to another, (King, 2017). Jenner ran an experiment by taking a cowpox lesion from a milkmaid’s hand and scratching it on a young boy’s arm. He later developed a slight fever but recovered. A few weeks later he infected the boy with smallpox pus and, although he developed a small reaction at the area he was infected, the boy had no signs of smallpox, (Pommerville, 2014). Jenner continued his experiments on other individuals and other physicians verified his findings of “vaccinations”. This was the beginning of what the world came to know as vaccines – making this one of the most historical achievements in maintaining a healthy environment.
Dr. Robert Koch born on December 11, 1843, was a German physician and bacteriologist. He was involved with many discoveries that would become historical achievements, such as pathogens responsible for anthrax, tuberculosis, and cholera, (Pommerville, 2014). Koch did experiments on mice from diseased blood of cattle and sheep, noting similar symptoms in the mice, he isolated rod-shaped bacterial cells and observed these cells for hours to watch as they multiplied, formed tangled threads, and reverted into spores, (Pommerville, 2014). Koch took these spores and injected them into healthy mice and when the signs of anthrax appeared, he autopsied the mice, found the same bacterial cells in their blood. This was the first proof that a specific germ was the cause of anthrax and would also go on to prove there are specific germs to cause specific bacteria. Koch applied the same procedure in his study for tuberculosis and became known as Koch’s postulates, which later awarded him a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905, (Pommerville, 2014).
King, L. S., (2017). Edward Jenner. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Edward-Jenner
Pommerville, J. C., (2014). Fundamentals of Microbiology 10th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
DISCUSSION POST # 2
In 2005, I received a vaccination for smallpox, involving a two-pronged needle dipped in an infectious agent was poked into my shoulder. This procedure was similar to the one described in the text being performed by Edward Jenner, the British doctor who invented vaccination to combat smallpox. His achievement in reducing the prevalence of a disease that killed many people worldwide cannot be understated. Indeed, it was the first disease to have a consistent, worldwide eradication program undertaken, eventually eliminating smallpox entirely in 1980.
Another major achievement in the field of microbiology that is listed in the text was the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming. His discovery of an antibiotic that could be mass-produced was a literal world-changer, in that it gave the Allies an advantage in treating casualties that the forces of the Axis did not have. The Allied armies could treat disease and stave off infection of combat wounds more effectively than the Axis powers, which increased the available power on the battlefield. This development at the least reduced the overall number of deaths in the war, and at best shortened the war by extending the Allies' ability to fight.
Pommerville, J. (2014). Fundamentals of Microbiology. Tenth Edition. Jones and Bartlett.