The role of microorganisms in human health and disease

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Question description

When you are ready, respond to the topics below.

Please review the Discussion Board grading rubric in the course Syllabus. Discussion responses should be on topic, original, and contribute to the quality of the discussion by making frequent informed references to lesson materials and Seminars. Initial discussion responses should be around 100 words. Responses to your classmates or instructor should be around 50 words.

Make two or more responses to classmates that are thoughtful and advance the discussion. If there are multiple topics, please be sure to respond to each one. The Post are listed below.

Achievements

Initial Post : Explain the significance of any two historical achievements in proving the role of microorganisms in human health and disease and maintaining health of the environment. Be sure to describe the current classification of microorganisms.


DISCUSSION POST #1

Hello Dr. Miller and class,

Edward Jenner an English surgeon, discovered in 1796, a young milkmaid who had been exposed to cowpox, which is relatively harmless, were protected from smallpox. This made Jenner theorize that by intentionally giving individuals cowpox, this would protect them from smallpox and prevent transmission from one person to another, (King, 2017). Jenner ran an experiment by taking a cowpox lesion from a milkmaid’s hand and scratching it on a young boy’s arm. He later developed a slight fever but recovered. A few weeks later he infected the boy with smallpox pus and, although he developed a small reaction at the area he was infected, the boy had no signs of smallpox, (Pommerville, 2014). Jenner continued his experiments on other individuals and other physicians verified his findings of “vaccinations”. This was the beginning of what the world came to know as vaccines – making this one of the most historical achievements in maintaining a healthy environment.

Dr. Robert Koch born on December 11, 1843, was a German physician and bacteriologist. He was involved with many discoveries that would become historical achievements, such as pathogens responsible for anthrax, tuberculosis, and cholera, (Pommerville, 2014). Koch did experiments on mice from diseased blood of cattle and sheep, noting similar symptoms in the mice, he isolated rod-shaped bacterial cells and observed these cells for hours to watch as they multiplied, formed tangled threads, and reverted into spores, (Pommerville, 2014). Koch took these spores and injected them into healthy mice and when the signs of anthrax appeared, he autopsied the mice, found the same bacterial cells in their blood. This was the first proof that a specific germ was the cause of anthrax and would also go on to prove there are specific germs to cause specific bacteria. Koch applied the same procedure in his study for tuberculosis and became known as Koch’s postulates, which later awarded him a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905, (Pommerville, 2014).

~Tori

References

King, L. S., (2017). Edward Jenner. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Edward-Jenner

Pommerville, J. C., (2014). Fundamentals of Microbiology 10th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.



DISCUSSION POST # 2

In 2005, I received a vaccination for smallpox, involving a two-pronged needle dipped in an infectious agent was poked into my shoulder. This procedure was similar to the one described in the text being performed by Edward Jenner, the British doctor who invented vaccination to combat smallpox. His achievement in reducing the prevalence of a disease that killed many people worldwide cannot be understated. Indeed, it was the first disease to have a consistent, worldwide eradication program undertaken, eventually eliminating smallpox entirely in 1980.

Another major achievement in the field of microbiology that is listed in the text was the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming. His discovery of an antibiotic that could be mass-produced was a literal world-changer, in that it gave the Allies an advantage in treating casualties that the forces of the Axis did not have. The Allied armies could treat disease and stave off infection of combat wounds more effectively than the Axis powers, which increased the available power on the battlefield. This development at the least reduced the overall number of deaths in the war, and at best shortened the war by extending the Allies' ability to fight.

Pommerville, J. (2014). Fundamentals of Microbiology. Tenth Edition. Jones and Bartlett.

Version 1305A Discussion Board Grading Rubric Students are expected to: ● Participate with the required number of relevant postings of required length ● Post initial response by Saturday; all additional comments posted by Tuesday • Support ideas with information from course materials and/or outside sources when appropriate, using APA format for in-text citation and references. Instructors: Enter correct total available points in H2 and scores into yellow cells in column F. Total available points = Initial post timeliness Introductory Emergent Practiced Proficient/Mastered 0-1 2 3 4 No initial post (0). Provides initial post after Sunday (1). No additional comments Additional comments (0). Posts comments and engagement unrelated to the Discussion topic (1). Provides initial post by Sunday N/A Provides an initial post by Saturday. Posts 2 or more comments in response to others that Posts one comment Posts 2 comments provide thoughtful insight to related to the discussion related to the discussion the topic and frequently topic. topic. attempts to motivate the group discussion. Score Weight Final Score 15% 0.00 30% 0.00 Initial Response Content Quality Submission does not relate to the topic and/or incomplete responses to most topics. Answers some question/topics with some clearly stated opinions. Answers all questions with opinions and ideas that are stated clearly. Answers all questions with opinions/ideas creatively and clearly. Supports post using outside sources when appropriate. 40% 0.00 Spelling/ Grammar/ Formatting/ Mechanics Significant errors in spelling and/or grammar. Major flaws in writing mechanics and formatting. Poor spelling and grammar are apparent. Does not use APA intext style formatting when needed. Uses Standard American English with rare errors and misspellings. Minor errors in APA in-text style formatting when needed. Includes list of references when citations are used. Consistently uses Standard American English with rare misspellings. Appropriate mechanics and APA in-text style formatting when needed. Includes a properly formatted list of references when citations are used. 10% 0.00 Submission does not meet length requirements. Only one post meets length requirements and/or initial post does not meet length requirements Initial post and one reply All submissions meet posted post meet length length requirements. requirements 5% 0.00 100% 0.00 Length* (applies to Discussion Boards with posted length requirements) Feedback: Final Score 0 Percentage #DIV/0! Discussion Board Grading Rubric Mary, you did a a great job! Version 1305A

Tutor Answer

henryprofessor
School: UCLA

Attached.

Running head: DISCUSSION AND RESPONSES TO POST

The Role of Microorganisms in Human Health and Disease
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DISCUSSION AND RESPONSES TO POST

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The Role of Microorganisms in Human Health and Disease
Initial Post
In 1872, a German Botanist extended the previous of biologist Schroeter by developing
the method for detecting the growth of fungal colonies from the single spores on gelatin surfaces.
This achiev...

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