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1. Name and discuss 2 things licit and illicit drugs have in common.
Licit drugs are those that are legal and include alcohol, tobacco, marijuana (in some states).
Illicit drugs are the illegal ones and that are used in the illegal manner (cocaine, heroine and others).
There are many differences between licit and illicit drugs in their content, use, and effects.
Meanwhile, there are the common things. One of them is the effect of addiction. Both licit and illicit
drugs cause addiction, however, in various degrees and levels. There are no harmless drugs. Even
the most "innocent" of them - tobacco - causes a series of irreversible changes in the brain and
disrupts the normal interaction of neurons. Smoking does not provoke such negative attitudes in the
society such as heroin or other illicit drugs. At the same time, the mechanisms of becoming
dependent of the effects of the substances on the brain are largely universal. The other common
thing in all drugs is their psychoactive action. They have an effect on the nervous system. All
chemical compounds of plant or synthetic origin directly affect the mental state of a person and are
referred to as psychoactive. This can be explained by the similar principle of action of all drugs:
they either compete with neurotransmitters (agonists) or block them (antagonists).
2. How did the crack epidemic impact society and why is it considered such a powerful drug?
Although coca leaves began to be used as intoxicants three thousand years ago, but the
crack, crystallized form of cocaine, and which was created during the cocaine boom of the 70s and
in the mid-80s, has become widely spread. In the early 80's, crack started to be smoked in Los
Angeles, San Diego, Houston and the Caribbean. The peak use of crack, which is known as crack
epidemic, took place between 1984 and 1990, when the crack has become widely spread through
the cities of America. Crack epidemic has greatly increased the number of cocaine addicts in
America. In 1985, the number of people who constantly used cocaine increased from 4.2 to 5.8
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million. The epidemic caused a sharp increase of crime in the society. The scale of crime was
unprecedented and especially, of violent crime. Crack is a very powerful drug. It causes transient
strong euphoria, followed by a completely opposite reaction - a deep depression, irritability and a
desire to take another dose. People who use it often can not normally eat and sleep. They exhibit
strong heart palpitations, muscle spasms and convulsions. The drug can cause paranoiac behavior,
anger, hostility and anxiety. Crack so strongly affects the chemical processes in the brain, that it
takes more and more of the drug just to feel "normal".
3. Discuss the gateway theory. Identify drugs, which may culminate to illicit substance use.
The gateway theory states that when a person uses the less deleterious drugs (such as tobacco, alcohol,
cannabis) this can bring to the consumption of the harder drugs and even lead to crime. It can be explained by the
example when a person uses licit drugs and then, starts consuming illicit drugs. Drugs, which may culminate to the use
of illicit substances, are tobacco, alcohol, cannabis. For example, tobacco also applies to legal drugs, causing
psychological and physiological dependence. Tobacco has a significant impact on human health, contributing to the
development of chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, diseases of the stomach. Alcohol is the most dangerous legally
controlled drug. Alcohol not only creates mental and physiological dependence, but also significantly alters the mind of
a person, until he has the mad and reckless behavior. Alcohol abuse leads to the disintegration of the psyche and
alcoholic dementia. It can precede the use of cannabis. By this theory, these substances and drugs such as cannabis,
hemp are the narcotics that are considered light, but they erode the internal borders and contribute to the transition to the
use of more powerful and dangerous drugs (such as heroin). This is also proved by the fact that many of the users of
hard drugs (cocaine, heroin) previously consumed marijuana (cannabis).
4. Laissez-faire is a French term. Discuss the government intent and purpose for this law.
Laissez-faire is the principle of non-intervention - economic doctrine, according to which the government
intervention in the economy should be minimal. The main argument of the supporters of this principle is the statement
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that the economy is a self-regulating system, which itself is an effective balance, and the state intervention distorts
signals received by economic agents, and efficient equilibrium is unattainable. The state is assigned the role of "a night
watchman" - the establishment of rules of interaction between economic agents in the market and supervision of their
execution, but not an independent entity of the market. Modern science considers the principle of Laissez-faire an ideal
mental construct that does not occur in the real world, but that is the basis of the microeconomic theory. The system is
based on the several principles. One of them states that an individual is a basic unit of society. The other principle
concludes that an individual has a right for freedom. The other idea of the system represents the principle that the
natural order is self-regulating and harmonious system.
5. Dawn means what? How did this law change procedure at hospitals in the United States?
DAWN is the Drug Abuse Warning Network, which is a health surveillance public system
in America. It monitors the visits, which are related to drugs, to the emergency departments of the
hospitals. The system also monitors the drug-related deaths. It is a nationally representative system,
which works since 1970s. The law has influenced the procedure at the US hospitals. The hospitals,
which take part in the DAWN include the non-federal organizations and (short-stay) general
hospitals featuring a round-the-clock department. The patients are not interviewed at the hospitals,
and the necessary data is collected through the retrospective review of the patient's material:
decedent case files and patient medical records. The system collects the detailed drug data, which
includes abuse of illegal drugs, prescription of illegal medications, non-pharmaceutical inhalants
and dietary supplements. The definition of the DAWN cases is broad, and that is why the system
captures many different types of cases related to drugs. The purpose of this organization is to detect
how many people are drug abused.
6. Psychiatric diagnosis of substance use disorders distinguishes abuse vs. dependence. Please
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Drug abuse and dependence are the terms that are used interchangeably when talking about
not being able to stop using the substance without having to not experience any withdrawal
symptoms. The term abuse is used primarily to refer to the immoderate addiction to a certain
substance. In this case, despite the knowledge of harmful and dangerous consequences, substance
use continues. Thus, abuse is a form of misuse prior dependency. Dependence is a term that is
currently increasingly being used by experts, with the following differences. Psychic dependence is
a condition, in which the action is caused by a chemical substance, is necessary to maintain good
mental and physical health. Physical dependence is a condition that occurs when a chemical
substance is used so often and regularly, that there is a need of the body in it; sudden cessation
causes withdrawal symptoms. Not all drugs lead to physical dependence.
Substance abuse can be also defined as the misuse of drugs, leading to a deterioration of the
condition or disease requiring clinical treatment, as evidenced by one or more of the following
symptoms: the occasional use of a drug, leading to the inability to perform important social
obligations, such as: study, work or running the household; the occasional use of drugs in situations
where it is life threatening; recurrent legal problems related to the substance use.
7. The 1914 Harrison Act was created to tax certain drugs. Today this law does what?
The 1914 Harrison Act is the law that was designed to regulate and tax the production,
transportation and distribution of coca products and opiates. The interpretation meant that doctors
could prescribe drugs to their patient but only in the course of a normal treatment, however, not to
treat the patients of addiction. In this way, use and sale of cocaine was legal for registered
individuals and companies. The act used the term “narcotics”, which was meant to describe opiates
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and cocaine. Nowadays, the term is used to name a wide range of illegal substances. In the present
days, the act was substituted by the Controlled Substances Act (1970). The effect of the Harrison
Act is the warning on package inserts, labels, other places with the use of ingredients list, in the
case of the presence of many barbiturates, opioid, medicinal cocaine, chloral hydrate. Moreover, the
Harrison Act marks the early beginning of the modern drug black market and criminal addict.
8. Summary of controlled substance schedules lists drugs according to potential for abuse.
Discuss reason Schedule 1 drugs are not available for prescription.
The Controlled Substances Act was adopted by the 91st Congress of the USA in 1970. It
represents the legal foundation for the government's fight against drugs. The law consolidates other
laws that regulate the production and distribution of various narcotics, depressants, stimulants,
hallucinogens, chemicals and anabolic steroids that are are used in the illegal manufacture of the
controlled substances. The main purpose of the Controlled Substances Act was to comply with the
demands of the two major international threats. These threats set the system for the classification of
controlled substances within several schedules according to the medical and scientific finding of a
public authority. All the substances, which fall under this law, are placed in the five schedules based
on their medical value, harm, potential addiction or abuse. Before a substance has been placed to a
certain schedule, its potential for addiction or abuse was throughly specified. However, the
classification of the drugs is usually a controversial topic.
The schedule one includes the substances for the following reasons: the substance has a high
risk and a potential for abuse; the substance does not have an accepted use in medical treatment in
the US; the use of the substance lacks an accepted safety under the medical supervision.
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