Blockchain-based Access Control in the Internet of Things Paper

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You are requested to write review, survey or state-of-art article within the domain of topic (Access Control in IoT).

Your article must give an overview of existing literature in a field, often identifying specific problems or issues and analyzing information from available published work on the topic with a balanced perspective.


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You      need to prepare a paper of a length of at least six pages

At      least, 10 of your references must be from journal articles published in      well publishers’ databases; IEEE, Springer, Elsevier, Wiley and Taylor & Francis.

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Blockchain-based Access Control in the Internet of Things
First-name Surname1*, Second-name Surname2, and Third-name Surname3
Affiliation 1, Email address, University, City, Country
Affiliation 1, Email address, University, City, Country
Affiliation 1, Email address, University, City, Country

*Corresponding Author
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a technical term for connecting various devices, each capable of attaching to and detaching from
the internet, to apply software and automated processes to create a more intelligent way of life. Each Internet-connected device
can join and disconnect from the network. IoT is a revolutionary concept that will revolutionize how we travel, use
transportation, and monitor industrial activities. It will also change how we manage our lives at home and work. IoT grid can
support almost any material entity, including people who utilize mobile smartphones and other wearable technologies. In recent
years, a greater emphasis has been placed on IoT. It has been evolving at a breakneck pace because of the enormous growth in
intelligent gadgets. This spike in internet-enabled smart gadgets is believed to be attributed to the vast increase in the number of
devices connected to the internet. This is accomplished by efficiently linking the physical world with the internet while utilizing
existing infrastructure. This allows intelligent gadgets to converse and share data more efficiently. On the other hand, IoT has
such a complex and extensive network structure that the devices connected are subject to new security issues and attacks. Access
control in IoT systems should not be created directly using traditional access control solutions. This is due to complex access
management and a lack of confidence induced by centralization in conventional access control approaches. Traditional access
control methods are centralized, but IoT systems are decentralized. This procedure is conducted before the information is
processed to safeguard its privacy. This article comprehensively examines access control strategies for Internet of Things
Keywords: Internet of Things, Access Control, Blockchain, Broadcast Encryption, Prefix Encryption

1. Introduction

is also used on your different mobile devices as a mobile app.
One may also get an update on the status of your access system.
Suppose an access system detects any behavior that might
endanger people. In that case, an alert will sound, and a
message with all pertinent information will be sent to either the
mobile app or the central management software controller. This
will occur regardless of whether the behavior occurs within or
outside your access system. Tens of thousands of different
product categories use the IoT, as does practically every
component of the IoT security system frequently applied in
modern buildings. Several access control devices use the
technology as the foundation for the Internet of Things concept.
These include card readers, intelligent locks, keypads, and
other functionally identical gadgets [4].

The IoT access control system, also known as
intelligent door locking systems, heavily relies on the Internet
of Things to function as its central nervous system. These
technologies are also known as intelligent door-locking
systems. Each lock, lock access controller, card reader, and
other related devices are assigned their unique Internet Protocol
(IP) address inside the confines of this specific system. This
location is accessible over the internet. This address will then
be used so that all devices connect more simply. When all of
this intelligent gear is situated in a single building, it is often
connected to the centralized management software or mobile
application through wireless networks. Depending on the
architecture, these programs can be set up to operate a variety
of locks and controllers either automatically or manually—the
configuration chosen impacts which options are accessible to
users within an organization. Mobile applications can receive
security alerts and notifications in real-time when configured.
One method is implementing a system that provides push
notifications [5].

Each mobile device granted authorization to utilize
the intelligent locking system must first use the IP address
assigned to it within the network. This gives the gadget access
to the central controller and guarantees it runs correctly. The
central server, which in this context has a unique IP address,
can be used to build an IoT link between the various
components of an ecosystem for IoT access regulation. IoT is
a network of interconnected gadgets that may share data and
information with other devices over the internet. In a parallel
universe, IoT collects data, leading to specified events.
According to CISCO predictions, there will be 50 billion
connected Internet of Things devices by the end of 2020.
Human population growth has happened along with the fast
development of new technologies connected to the IoT. It

The software used for central management control
also functions as the controller for the entire system. Because
of the framework provided by this software, each piece of
equipment and machine is given its customized configuration
in line with the system's operational needs, criteria, sensitivity,
and authority. An app is a duplicate control of this system that


appears that the IoT will generate a massive amount of data.
IoT enabled the continuous interlinking of physical and virtual
items, significantly increasing processing, data storage, and
data sharing [9].

been made to construct a distributed control monitor for IoT
that addresses the mentioned challenges using edge concepts
such as ad hoc web cloud and computing. Many scholarly
journals have mentioned these initiatives. Despite this, there is
still a security issue because no credible businesses actively
strive to provide arbitrary services. A group of autos, for
example, can assist other modes of transportation operating
inside a traffic network by acting as a security presence on the
road. This can aid in the prevention of accidents and keep
everyone safe. A blockchain is a public ledger decentralized
throughout the network and distributed peer-to-peer (P2P). It is
feasible to store transactions, events, and intelligent contracts
simultaneously. Any user can create the programmable code in
the smart contract and then publish it as a transaction on the
Blockchain. Blockchain has given it a unique number that may
be used to identify it. When a blockchain user or an intelligent
contract commences its execution, the warranty is carried out,
and smart contracts, among other things, can link. The initial
use of Blockchain technology was the peer-to-peer exchange
of digital money[14].

Wearable technology is a critical foundation for
delivering services in critical sectors such as retail shops,
public infrastructure, autos, bridges, hospitals, communities,
schools, and even within human bodies. All of these are
examples of essential locations. One of the most severe issues
is controlling the services and data collected by internetconnected gadgets. This is significant because internetconnected devices may store sensitive data or have the ability
to save people's lives. The implementation of IoT technology
is fraught with several challenges. Uniformity, interoperability,
data management, processing, user authentication,
identification, secrecy, completeness, affordability, protection,
and privacy are just a few of the open difficulties that occur
while implementing various IoT installations [11].
One of the most well-known methods for protecting
one's data's privacy and security is to take the required
safeguards to ensure that only users who have been
appropriately vetted and certified are authorized to view the
data [10]. The authentication operations are carried out to
guarantee that the person attempting to access the data
generated by these devices is, in fact, the server's authorized
user. These gadgets generate massive amounts of data. Data is
being kept to secure it from being accessed by hackers. The
authorized user must only have limited access to the restricted
data. Access control is a collection of policies and rules
governing whether a nominated user may be accessible by
other users, services, procedures, or other authorized
mechanisms to access an information system's resources.
Official means" refers to these users, services, processes, and
other authorized means. This prepared set of instructions and
restrictions is an access control policy. This authority will
decide whether or not the request for access to the connected
order will be granted. Several concepts, such as the access
control policy, layout, and mechanism, were critical in creating
the foundations for developing an access control system that
expanded on that foundation. The access arrangements carried
out by access control mechanisms are constructed on the basis
supplied by the rules that govern access control [7]. The
individual making the request is referred to as the subject, and
the system component that responds to the subject's petition is
referred to as the object. The connection to an object decides
whether you may access the information contained in
documents, locations, directories, programs, or network nodes
linked with that entity. The network is a device associated with
items, such as mechanical components, intelligent machines,
and routers. Any organization's proprietor establishes access
restrictions and provides the appropriate authorizations.
Clumped and complicated facilities in IoT access control
systems cannot suit the diverse range of IoT devices or the
flexible circumstance in which nodes can connect to and detach
from the network. As a result, these systems are subject to
various constraints to compensate for their shortcomings [6].

2. Background

Challenges Presented by Access Control in the Internet of
The following is a summary of the critical problems
that arise when installing already-existing access control
systems in an environment that has IoT:
Reusing current solutions
However, these solutions cannot be immediately
transferred to an architecture for the Internet of Things because
they are complicated and do not match the requirements of the
IoT. Access control techniques have been the focus of
significant research in the published literature and have been
successfully implemented. Building, launching, and getting
people to accept a system constructed from the ground up take
some time.
Centralized and decentralized access control mechanisms

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