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You will be required to write a 1500-2000 word research report on this data including an abstract, introduction and literature review (brief), a methods and procedure section, a results section, a discussion section, and a reference list. No statistical analysis will be required (this will be provided to you). However, some general descriptive data may need to be calculated (e.g. demographic data, and basic means and standard deviations for some variables). For the literature review (5 references will be provided, but 5 more must be found and referred to in your report). The report must be written in APA format and Submitted via Turnitin, therefore no more more then there should be no more than 10% on a plagiarism scan.

Please find all relevant information attached,in the below documents. report data contains the data analysis for the report and spss results and tables and the reasons refer to the important readings.

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European Journal of Personality Eur. J. Pers. 22: 109–130 (2008) Published online 7 November 2007 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/per.665 Adolescents’ Music Preferences and Personality Characteristics MARC J. M. H. DELSING1*, TOM F. M. TER BOGT2, RUTGER C. M. E. ENGELS3 and WIM H. J. MEEUS1 1 Research Centre Adolescent Development, Utrecht University, The Netherlands Department of General Social Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands 3 Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands 2 Abstract The present paper examined the structure of Dutch adolescents’ music preferences, the stability of music preferences and the relations between Big-Five personality characteristics and (changes in) music preferences. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of music-preference data from 2334 adolescents aged 12–19 revealed four clearly interpretable music-preference dimensions: Rock, Elite, Urban and Pop/Dance. One thousand and forty-four randomly selected adolescents from the original sample filled out questionnaires on music preferences and personality at three follow-up measurements. In addition to being relatively stable over 1, 2 and 3-year intervals, music preferences were found to be consistently related to personality characteristics, generally confirming prior research in the United States. Personality characteristics were also found to predict changes in music preferences over a 3-year interval. Copyright # 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key words: music preferences; Big-Five personality characteristics; latent growth curve modelling; Dutch adolesecents INTRODUCTION Over the last decades, researchers have shown interest in people’s musical preferences as an individual difference variable that relates to personality traits (Cattell & Anderson, 1953; Dollinger, 1993; Little & Zuckerman, 1986; McCown, Keiser, Mulhearn, & Williamson, 1997; Robinson, Weaver, & Zillmann, 1996). Some support has been found for the notion that people prefer listening to music that reflects specific personality characteristics (Rentfrow & Gosling, 2003; Schwartz & Fouts, 2003). However, the picture emerging from this research is incomplete since most studies have collected data at only one time-point. As a result, little is known about the stability of music preferences over *Correspondence to: Marc J. M. H. Delsing, Research Centre Adolescent Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80140, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands. E-mail: m.j.m.h.delsing@fss.uu.nl Copyright # 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Received 21 September 2006 Revised 29 August 2007 Accepted 10 September 2007 110 M. J. M. H. Delsing et al. time as well as about the way personality characteristics influence over-time changes in music preferences. Additionally, most studies on the personality correlates of music preferences have used samples of American university students. It is unclear to what extent results from these studies generalise to other age groups (e.g. adolescents) living in other cultures or countries. The aim of the present paper was to address these empirical gaps by longitudinally examining personality characteristics and music preferences in a sample of Dutch adolescents. The present study is intended to contribute to our understanding of the associations between personality and behaviour that occurs in everyday life, an area regarded to be overly neglected by personality psychologists (see e.g. Funder, 2001; Rentfrow & Gosling, 2003; Rozin, 2001). Music plays an important role in the social and personal lives of people young and old. Estimates of annual sales in the United States, for example, put the popular music market at $10 billion for 1993 and at over $12 billion for 1994 (Schwartz & Fouts, 2003). More recent reports still show physical sales figures of over $12 billion for 2005, whereas, at the same time, digital downloading of music has increased vastly over the last couple of years (Recording Industry Association of America, 2006). Of all age groups, adolescents can be considered to be the most fanatic music adepts (Christenson & Peterson, 1988; Schwartz & Fouts, 2003). North, Hargreaves, and O’Neill (2000) reported British adolescents to listen to music for an average of 2.45 hours per day. Earlier estimates indicate that, from 7th to 12th grade, American adolescents average 10500 hours of elected exposure to popular music (Zillman & Gan, 1997). The times spent listening to music approximate those spent in the classroom from kindergarten through high school. Although there is comparatively little data from other countries, studies with Irish (Fitzgerald, Joseph, Hayes, & O’Regan, 1995), Swedish (Bjurström & Wennhall, 1991) and Dutch (Ter Bogt, 2000) adolescents confirm that music is of central importance in the lives of most young people. Personality and music preferences Although adolescents generally share a fascination for music, adolescents differ in their preferences for musical styles. Social factors such as ethnicity, social class (e.g. Frith, 1981; Gans, 1974), youth cultures, as well as individual factors (e.g. personality, physiological arousal, social identity) have been proposed to account for the heterogeneity of adolescents’ music preferences (Rentfrow & Gosling, 2003; Zillman & Gan, 1997). One line of research has focused on the role of personality traits in the determination of adolescents’ musical taste (e.g. Dollinger, 1993; Little & Zuckerman, 1986; McCown et al., 1997; Pearson & Dollinger, 2002; Robinson et al., 1996). One of the most comprehensive studies to date in this respect is Rentfrow and Gosling’s (2003) investigation, in which the authors first determined the major dimensions of music preferences by means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and subsequently examined the associations of these dimensions with the well-established Big-Five personality factors. Four music-preference dimensions that were highly consistent across samples and time emerged from their analyses: The Reflective and Complex dimension, which was defined by the genres blues, jazz, classical and folk music; The Intense and Rebellious dimension, which was defined by Rock, alternative and heavy metal music; The Upbeat and Conventional dimension, which was defined by country, sound track, religious and pop music; The Energetic and Rhythmic dimension, which was defined by rap/hip-hop, soul/funk and electronica/dance music. Copyright # 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Eur. J. Pers. 22: 109–130 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/per Music preferences and personality characteristics 111 Rentfrow and Gosling (2003) found both the Reflective and Complex and the Intense and Rebellious dimensions to be positively related to Openness to Experience. The Upbeat and Conventional dimension was found to be positively related to Extraversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, and negatively to Openness to Experience. The Energetic and Rhythmic dimension was positively related to Extraversion and Agreeableness. No substantial correlations were found between the music-preference dimensions and Emotional Stability. Theories linking personality to music preferences The uses and gratification approach (Rosengren, Wenner, & Palmgreen, 1985) may serve as a general theoretical framework for explaining associations between personality factors and music preferences. This approach has focused on the motives for individuals’ music consumption and stresses individual choice and how ‘people intentionally participate and select media messages from communication alternatives. . . what people do with the media, instead of what the media do to people’ (Rubin, 1994, p 421). From this line of research, it appears that people prefer particular kinds of music because they have particular personality characteristics that the music satisfies (Arnett, 1995; Arnett, Larson, & Offer, 1995; Gantz, Gartenberg, Pearson, & Schiller, 1978; Larson, 1995). For example extraverts, who generally enjoy socialising and like spending time with others, tend to enjoy music that facilitates social interactions with peers (e.g. party music). Similarly, individuals high on Openness to Experience, who have a desire for ‘variety, intellectual stimulation and aesthetic experiences’ (Costa & McCrae, 1988, p 261), may prefer relatively ‘difficult’ or obscure types of music. The music people choose may also serve to gratify physiologically based needs. According to the model of optimal stimulation (Eysenck, 1990; Zuckerman, 1979), people tend to choose the type of music that moves them toward their optimal arousal level. For example extraverts are considered to be on the low level of the cortical arousal scale and tend to choose the types of music which have the property to raise that level. Introverts, however, who are normally highly aroused, tend to avoid overstimulation by choosing less stimulating music (Daoussis & McKelvie, 1986). Replication and extension of Rentfrow and Gosling The present study builds on Rentfrow and Gosling’s (2003) groundbreaking work and extends it in several ways. First, Rentfrow and Gosling used a sample of undergraduate college students. It is unclear to what extent their findings can be generalised to younger adolescents. Theoretically, adolescence can be considered a particularly relevant period for the study of music preferences. As already indicated, adolescence is the period when the amount of time devoted to listening to music is at its peak (Larson, Kubey, & Colletti, 1989; Zillman & Gan, 1997). Furthermore, one might expect more change in music preferences during adolescence than, for example, in older adults due to the changes in relationships with peers, who have been shown to be very influential in shaping adolescents’ music preferences (Zillman & Gan, 1997). Lastly, adolescence is generally viewed as a formative phase for the development of music preferences, and it has been argued that music preferences crystallise during adolescence (Holbrook & Schindler, 1989). Therefore, it would be very important to examine (changes in) music preferences and their personality correlates during this critical period. Copyright # 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Eur. J. Pers. 22: 109–130 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/per 112 M. J. M. H. Delsing et al. Second, as in most studies on music preferences, Rentfrow and Gosling (2003) used an American sample. It is unclear to what extent the structure of music preferences identified in their research, as well as their pattern of associations between personality and music preferences, generalises to other cultures or countries. Recently, inconsistent findings have been reported for Spanish and English samples regarding the association between Sensation seeking and Openness to Experience on the one hand and music preferences on the other hand (Rawlings, Vidal, & Furnham, 2000), suggesting that findings from this type of research cannot automatically be generalised across people from different regions. The present study tested the generalisability of Rentfrow and Gosling’s findings to a sample of adolescents growing up in the Netherlands. Third, as argued by Rentfrow and Gosling’s (2003), a theory on music preferences should inform us on how music preferences develop and what factors influence their development. It should also give insight into the trajectory of music preferences and provide answers to questions such as how, when and why music preferences change. To date, however, most of what is known about changes in music preferences comes from comparisons between individuals of different ages. Age-group differences cannot automatically be interpreted as intra-individual (i.e. aging or within individual) effects such that as people grow older they increasingly prefer a certain type of music. To enable such interpretations, longitudinal studies of changes in music preferences are needed. Although Rentfrow and Gosling did compute test-retest reliabilities for their factors on the basis of two measurements with a 3-week interval, their data do not provide information on the stability and trajectory of music preferences over much longer periods of time (e.g. 1, 2 and 3 years). Their data also do not reveal to what extent personality characteristics predict over-time changes in music preferences. Such information would provide a more specific account of the role of personality characteristics regarding the development of music preferences. Therefore, in the present study, music-preference data were collected at four annual measurements. In sum, the present study sought to examine the relations between Big-Five personality characteristics and (changes in) music preferences in a sample of Dutch adolescents. But before doing so, we used a similar factor-analytic approach as the one used by Rentfrow and Gosling (2003) to determine the major dimensions of adolescents’ music preferences in the Netherlands. We specified the following research questions. Research questions 1. 2. 3. 4. What are the basic dimensions of adolescents’ music preferences? How stable are adolescents’ music preferences over time? How do adolescents’ music preferences relate to existing dimensions of personality? To what extent do personality characteristics predict over-time changes in adolescents’ music preferences? Given the limited empirical literature on these topics in the Netherlands, we had no a priori theories or expectations about the number of music-preference dimensions or the nature of the underlying structure. Consequently, we could not formulate any hypotheses regarding the associations between the music-preference dimensions that would emerge from our analyses and the Big-Five personality factors. Copyright # 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Eur. J. Pers. 22: 109–130 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/per Music preferences and personality characteristics 113 METHOD Participants The sample consisted of 2334 adolescent children in grades 7–12 who were between 12 and 19 years of age (M ¼ 14.37, SD ¼ 2.33). Of those who indicated, 1097 were boys, 1234 were girls, 1755 (75.2%) were Dutch, 55 (2.4%) were Surinamese/Antillean, 209 (9%) were Moroccan, 92 (3.9%) were Turkish and 86 (3.7%) had other ethnic backgrounds. A subsample of 1243 adolescents was randomly selected from the original sample to participate in three follow-up assessments which took place 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively, after the initial assessment. At each of the four measurement waves, data on adolescents’ music preferences and personality were collected. Eventually, 1044 adolescents (515 boys, 529 girls) participated at all four measurements. The mean age of these adolescents was 13.82 (SD ¼ 2.10) at T1. Procedure Data of this study come from 12 schools participating in the first wave of the CONAMORE 2001–2006 longitudinal study (CONflict And Management Of RElationships; Meeus et al., 2002). Parents and students received a letter in which the aims of the study were described and information was given about the option of not participating. Less than 1% of the students decided not to participate. Participants completed a series of questionnaires in their classrooms, aided by research assistants who gave verbal instructions about the questionnaires. Written instructions were also included. Students who were absent on the days of testing were not assessed. Measures Adolescents’ music preferences were assessed by means of the Musical Preference Questionnaire (MPQ: Sikkema, 1999). The MPQ consists of a list of 11 established categories of music. The items of the scale were partly generated on the basis of interviews with a large number of CD retailers in the Netherlands, as well as on a pilot-study conducted at several secondary schools. At these schools, a large number of students were interviewed and asked to name all the music genres they could think of. Genres that were consistently reported by the CD retailers and adolescents were included in the questionnaire. The eventual questionnaire consists of items representing the major contemporary music styles that have some degree of familiarity to Dutch adolescents (see Table 1). The items of the MPQ closely resemble the items of the Short Test Of Music Preferences questionnaire (STOMP) used by Rentfrow and Gosling (2003). In comparison with the STOMP, however, the MPQ does not contain the genres ‘folk’, ‘country’ and ‘blues’, because they were deemed to be too unfamiliar to Dutch adolescents. Also the MPQ does not contain the genre ‘sound tracks’ because of its heterogeneity. Subjects were asked to indicate on five-point Likert scales (1 ¼ very bad, 5 ¼ very good) the extent to which they liked each of the music genres listed. Adolescents’ personality was assessed by means of Big-Five factors. A Dutch adaptation (Gerris, Houtmans, Kwaaitaal-Roosen, Schipper, Vermulst, & Janssens, 1998) of 30 adjective Big-Five factors markers selected from Goldberg (1992) was used to have Copyright # 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Eur. J. Pers. 22: 109–130 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/per 114 Table 1. M. J. M. H. Delsing et al. Factor loadings of the 11 music genres on four varimax-rotated principal components Music-preference dimension Genre Rock Elite Urban Pop/Dance Heavy metal/hardrock Punk/hardcore/grunge Gothic Rock Jazz Classical music Gospel Hip-hop/rap Soul/R&B Trance/techno Top 40/charts .88 .87 .72 .70 .14 .09 .29 .15 .16 .19 .07 .01 .08 .22 .22 .75 .74 .67 .00 .20 .17 .17 .05 .02 .03 .04 .24 .33 .22 .86 .71 .10 .18 .04 .01 .10 .05 .01 .10 .05 .09 .35 .78 .77 Note: N ¼ 1183. The highest factor loadings for each dimension are listed in boldface type. adolescents judge their personalities. The participants rated the 30 adjectives on 7-point Likert scales ranging from 1 (very untrue for me) through 4 (sometimes untrue, sometimes true for me) to 7 (very true for me). All the Big-Five factors were rated: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience. The internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alpha) for the different dimensions of Big-Five factors ranged from .77 for Opennness to Experience to .87 for Agreeableness. RESULTS The structure of adolescents’ music preferences: Exploratory and CFA To identify the major dimensions of adolescents’ music preferences, a two-step procedure was applied. For this purpose, our original sample was randomly divided into two independent subsamples of about equal size. First, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the data of Subsample 1 (N ¼ 1183). For reasons of comparability, the same factor analytic procedure (i.e. principal components factor analysis with Varimax rotation) was used as the one employed by Rentfrow and Gosling (2003).1 Second, the generalisability and robustness of the factor solution obtained in Subsample 1 was evaluated by means of CFA on the data of Subsample 2 (N ¼ 1151). The structural equation modelling (SEM) program LISREL 8 (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1996) was used to perform the CFA. EFA Initially, the EFA of the Subsample 1 data was done separately for boys and girls and for younger (i.e. 12- to 15-year olds) and older (i.e. 16- to 19-year olds) adolescents. Because the overall pattern of loadings was highly similar for boys and girls and for younger and older adolescents, an EFA was performed for Subsample 1 as a whole. 1 To investigate the robustness of our EFA solution, alternative factor analytic procedures (Principle Axis and Maximum Likelihood) and rotations (Direct Oblimin) were used. The pattern of loadings was highly similar across procedures and rotation methods, whereas all procedures suggested the same number of factors (i.e. four) to be extracted. Copyright # 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Eur. J. Pers. 22: 109–130 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/per Musi ...
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School: UT Austin

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Running head: GENDER, MUSIC PREFERENCE AND PERSONALITY TRAITS

Gender and Music Preference and Personality Traits
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1

GENDER, MUSIC PREFERENCE AND PERSONALITY TRAITS
Abstract
The current study examined the music preferences and personality traits among 60
Australian and other participants. Both Exploratory and confirmatory were conducted on a
sample of 60 participants aged between 18-65 years randomly selected. The participants filled
questionnaires distributed to them by team of qualified research assistants. Measures include:
most preferred music genre, individual age (recorded in years, residential place, individual of
employment and income. Data analysis was done by use of statistical package while data
presentation was done in form of graphs and tables. Having conducted statistical tests such as ttest and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), results indicated significant correlation of individual
music preferences and personality traits; conforming previous research that had been conducted
by outstanding scholars. The study was limited to a small sample, time and lack of diversity.
From current findings, future studies should use a huge sample randomly selected from
participants of different ethnic backgrounds to enhance sample representativeness
Key words: music preferences, personality traits, Big Five Factors/model and Australian adults.

2

GENDER, MUSIC PREFERENCE AND PERSONALITY TRAITS

3

Gender and Music Preference and Personality Traits
Introduction
Research conducted by many scholars has shown that people’s leisure preferences are
determined by their personality traits. For example, individual music preferences are influenced
by personality traits. Soft lovers are known to be people with string bind of passionate
attachments and who believe that indeed being love is a blessing that should be celebrated (De
Raad et al 2002). On the other hand, those who love listening to reggae music are associated with
belief of emancipation of human kind from the bondage/some sort of slavery (Tomas, 2011).
Despite these notions, there is a huge gap to justify these sentiments. Data collection has
been done at one time-point thus music preferences as influenced by individual personality traits
remains a riddle that ought to be answered. Some of these studies have been conducted in
institutions of higher learning thus cannot be said to be credible and representative. For example,
it has been hard to carry out empirical research to know music tastes and preferences of rumba
lovers in other countries and regions of the world. This is based on the fact that majority of
empirical research works have been done in America thus cannot be a representative sample of
entire world population.
The pres...

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